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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

114

Paper_3_Topic 7

Topic 7

Classified Chemistry IGCSE 114 Paper_3_Topic 7 Topic 7  Production of energy  Endothermic reactions 
Classified Chemistry IGCSE 114 Paper_3_Topic 7 Topic 7  Production of energy  Endothermic reactions 

Production of energy

Endothermic reactions

Exothermic reactions

Bond energy (calculations)

Electricity from chemical reactions

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

1) Nov 2001 Q (4_e, f)

(e) The diagram below represents a simple cell.

Q (4_e, f) (e) The diagram below represents a simple cell. (i) Write an ionic equation

(i) Write an ionic equation for the reaction that occurs at the zinc electrode.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(ii) How could the voltage of the cell be increased?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(f) A different type of cell is drawn below.

[1] (f) A different type of cell is drawn below. (i) The pH of the solution

(i) The pH of the solution increases. Give the name of the ion formed.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(ii) Complete the equation that represents the formation of this ion.

O

2

H O

2



[2]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

2) June 2003 Q (5_f)

(f) The reactions of these metals with oxygen are exothermic.

2 Ba O  BaO

(

s

)

2(

g

)

(

s

)

(i) Give an example of bond forming in this reaction.

(ii) Explain using the idea of bond breaking and forming why this reaction is exothermic.

[3]

3) June 2004 Q (1_a)

1 It was reported from America that a turbine engine, the size of a button,

might replace batteries. The engine would be built from silicon which has suitable properties for this purpose.

(a) (i) Why are batteries a convenient source of energy?

[1]

(ii) The engine will run on a small pack of jet fuel. What other chemical is needed to burn this fuel?

[1]

4) Nov 2004 Q (1_c)

1 (c) Respiration and photosynthesis are two of the processes that determine the percentage of oxygen and of carbon dioxide in the air.

(i) Name another process that changes the percentages of these two gases in air.

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(ii) The equation for photosynthesis is given below.

6 CO

2

6 H O  C H O

2

6

12

6

6O

2

This is an endothermic reaction.

Complete the reaction for respiration.

C H O

6

12

6

6O

2



This is an …………………………………. reaction.

[2]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

117

Paper_3_Topic 7

5) Nov 2004 Q (4_b)

(b) The following diagram shows a simple cell.

2004 Q (4_b) (b) The following diagram shows a simple cell. (i) Predict how the voltage

(i) Predict how the voltage of the cell would change if the tin electrode was replaced with a silver one.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(ii) Which electrode would go into the solution as positive ions? Give a reason for your choice.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(iii) State how you can predict the direction of the electron flow in cells of this type.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

6) Nov 2005 Q (7_c)

7 (c) (i) Complete the following table that describes the bond breaking and forming in the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia.

the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia. [3] 7 – Energy Change Mostafa Barakat

[3]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

(ii) Explain, using the above data, why the forward reaction is exothermic.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………….[2]

7) June 2006 Q (6_a, c, d)

6 (a) Exothermic reactions produce heat energy.

An important fuel is methane, natural gas. The equation for its combustion is as follows.

CH

4

2O

2

 CO 2 H O

2

2

(i) In chemical reactions bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.

Using this reaction give an example of

a bond that is broken, ………………………………………………………………

a bond that is formed. ……………………………………………………………[2]

(ii) Explain, using the idea of bonds forming and breaking, why this reaction is exothermic, that is it produces heat energy.

[2]

(c) Cell reactions are both exothermic and redox. They produce electrical

energy as well as heat energy.

(i) The diagram shows a simple cell.

as well as heat energy. (i) The diagram shows a simple cell. Which substance in this

Which substance in this cell is the reductant and which ion is the oxidant?

Reductant …………………………………………………………………………….

Oxidant …………………………………………………………………………

[2]

(ii) How could the voltage of this cell be increased?

 

[1]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

(iii) What is the important large scale use, relating to iron and steel, of this type of cell reaction?

[1]

(d) Cells can be set up with inert electrodes and the electrolytes as oxidant and reductant.

electrodes and the electrolytes as oxidant and reductant. The potassium manganate(VII) is the oxidant and the

The potassium manganate(VII) is the oxidant and the potassium iodide is the reductant.

(i) Describe the colour change that would be observed in the left hand beaker.

[2]

(ii) Write an ionic equation for the reaction in the right hand beaker.

[2]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

8) Nov 2007 Q (6_a, i, ii, iii, iv)

6) The alcohols form a homologous series. The first four members are methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol.

(a) One characteristic of a homologous series is that the physical properties vary in a predictable way. The table below gives the heats of combustion of the first three alcohols.

gives the heats of combustion of the first three alcohols. (i) The minus sign indicates that

(i) The minus sign indicates that there is less chemical energy in the products than in the reactants. What form of energy is given out by the reaction?

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(ii) Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?

………………………………………………………………………………………[1]

(iii) Complete the equation for the complete combustion of ethanol.

C H OH

2

5

O

2



[2]

(iv) Determine the heat of combustion of butan-1-ol by plotting the heats of combustion of the first three alcohols against the number of carbon atoms per molecule.

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

Number of carbon atoms per molecule

121 Paper_3_Topic 7 Number of carbon atoms per molecule The heat of combustion of butan-1- ol

The heat of combustion of butan-1-ol = …………………

kJ / mol

[3]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

9) June 2009 Q (7_a)

7 Hydrogen reacts with the halogens to form hydrogen halides.

(a) Bond energy is the amount of energy, in kJ, that must be supplied (endothermic) to break one mole of a bond.

must be supplied (endothermic) to break one mole of a bond. Use the above data to

Use the above data to show that the following reaction is exothermic.

Cl Cl 2H Cl
Cl Cl
2H
Cl

H H

[2]

10) Nov 2009 Q (3_c)

(c) Zinc electrodes have been used in cells for many years, one of the first was the Daniel cell in 1831.

many years, one of the first was the Daniel cell in 1831. (i) Give an explanation

(i) Give an explanation for the following in terms of atoms and ions.

observation at zinc electrode the electrode becomes smaller

Explanation ……………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………….[1]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

observation at copper electrode the electrode becomes bigger Explanation ……………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………….[1]

(ii) When a current flows, charged particles move around the circuit. What type of particle moves through the electrolytes?

……………………………………………………………………………………….[1]

Which particle moves through the wires and the voltmeter?

……………………………………………………………………………………….[1]

11) June 2010 [32] Q (5_b)

5 Fuel cells are used in spacecraft to produce electrical energy.

cells are used in spacecraft to produce electrical energy. (b) Hydrogen and oxygen react to form

(b) Hydrogen and oxygen react to form water

2

H

2

O 2 2
O
2
2

2 H O

(i) Give an example of bond breaking in the above reaction.

 

[1]

(ii) Give an example of bond forming in the above reaction.

 

[1]

(iii) Is the change given in (i) exothermic or endothermic?

 

[1]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

124

Paper_3_Topic 7

12) Nov 2010 [31] Q (3_c)

3 The diagram shows a cell. This is a device which produces electrical energy. The reaction in a cell is a redox reaction and involves electron transfer

in a cell is a redox reaction and involves electron transfer (i) Complete the sentence. A

(i) Complete the sentence.

A cell will change

(ii) Draw an arrow on the diagram to show the direction of the electron flow.[1]

(iii) In the left hand beaker, the colour changes from brown to colourless.

Complete the equation for the reaction.

energy into electrical energy. [1]

Br 2 +



[2]

(iv) Is the change in (iii) oxidation or reduction? Give a reason for your choice.

[1]

(v) Complete the following description of the reaction in the right hand beaker.

Fe 2+ changes into

[1]

(vi) When a solution of bromine is replaced by a solution of chlorine, the voltage increases. When a solution of bromine is replaced by a solution of iodine, the voltage decreases.

Suggest an explanation for this difference.

 

[1]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

125

Paper_3_Topic 7

13) June 2011 [32] Q (5)

5 The diagram shows a simple cell.

13) June 2011 [32] Q (5) 5 The diagram shows a simple cell. (a) Write an

(a)

Write an equation for the overall reaction occurring in the cell.

[2]

(b)

Explain why all cell reactions are exothermic and redox.

[3]

(c)

Which electrode, zinc or iron, is the negative electrode? Give a reason for

your choice.

 

[2]

(d)

Suggest two ways of increasing the voltage of this cell.

 

[2]

14) Nov 2011[33] Q (7_c)

(iii) Bond energy is the amount of energy, in kJ, which must be supplied to break one mole of the bond.

in kJ, which must be supplied to break one mole of the bond. Use the data

Use the data in the table to show that the following reaction is exothermic

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

Classified Chemistry IGCSE 126 Paper_3_Topic 7 15) June 2012 [31] Q (8_a) [3] 8 Iron and

15) June 2012 [31] Q (8_a)

[3]

8 Iron and steel rust when exposed to water and oxygen. Rust is hydrated iron(III) oxide.

(a) The following cell can be used to investigate rusting

(a) The following cell can be used to investigate rusting (i) What is a cell? [2]

(i) What is a cell?

[2]

(ii) Which electrode will be oxidised and become smaller? Explain your choice

[3]

(iii) What measurements would you need make to find the rate of rusting of the electrode

[2]

(iv) Suggest an explanation why the addition of salt to the water increases the rate of rusting.

[1]

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

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Paper_3_Topic 7

16) Nov 2012 [32] Q (6_d)

(d) In the apparatus used in (c), the power supply is removed and immediately replaced by a voltmeter

supply is removed and immediately replaced by a voltmeter A reading on the voltmeter shows that

A reading on the voltmeter shows that electrical energy is being produced. Suggest an explanation for how this energy is produced.

17) Nov 2012 [33] Q (7_d)

7 Ammonia is made by the Haber process.

N

2(

g

)

3

H

2(

g

)

2 NH
2
NH

3(

g

)

[3]

(d) (i) What is the difference between an endothermic and an exothermic reaction?

[1]

(ii) Bond breaking is an endothermic process. Bond energy is the amount of energy needed to break or form one mole of the bond. Complete the table and explain why the forward reaction is exothermic.

the table and explain why the forward reaction is exothermic. 7 – Energy Change Mostafa Barakat
the table and explain why the forward reaction is exothermic. 7 – Energy Change Mostafa Barakat

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Classified Chemistry IGCSE

128

Paper_3_Topic 7

18) June 2013 [31] Q (5_b)

[3]

(b) A reactivity series can also be established by measuring the voltage of simple cells. The diagram shows a simple cell.

voltage of simple cells. The diagram shows a simple cell. Results from cells using the metals

Results from cells using the metals tin, cadmium, zinc and copper are given in the table below.

tin, cadmium, zinc and copper are given in the table below. Write the four metals in

Write the four metals in order of increasing reactivity and explain how you used the data in the table to determine this order.

[3]

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