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Cloud computing is the next natural step in the evolution of on-demand information technology services and products. To a large extent cloud computing will be based on virtualized resources. The idea of cloud computing is based on a very fundamental principal of `reusability of IT capabilities`. The difference that cloud computing brings, is to broaden horizons across organizational boundaries.

According to the IEEE Computer Society, Cloud Computing is: "A paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include desktops, Entertainment centers, table computers, notebooks, wall computers, handhelds, etc."

We have lots of compute power and storage capabilities residing in the distributed environment of the cloud. What cloud computing does is to harness the capabilities of these resources and make available these resources as a single entity which can be changed to meet the current needs of the user. The basis of cloud computing is to create a set of virtual servers on the available vast resource pool and give it to the clients. Any web enabled device can be used to access the resources through the virtual servers. Based on the computing needs of the client, the infrastructure allotted to the client can be scaled up or down.


One of the key concepts of cloud computing is that processing of 1000 times the data need not be 1000 times harder. As and when the amount of data increases, the cloud computing services can be used to manage the load effectively and make the processing tasks easier. In the era of enterprise servers and personal computers, hardware was the commodity as the main criteria for the processing capabilities depended on the hardware configuration of the server. But with the advent of cloud computing, the commodity has changed to cycles and bytes - i.e. in cloud computing services, the users are charged based on the number of cycles of execution performed or the number of bytes transferred. The hardware or the machines on which the applications run are hidden from the user. The amount of hardware needed for computing is taken care of by the management and the client is charged based on how the application uses these resources.

Thus, people can access the information that they need from any device with an Internet connection including mobile and handheld phonesrather than being chained to the desktop. It also means lower costs, since there is no need to install software or hardware.


1. Self Healing
Any application or any service running in a cloud computing environment has the property of self healing. In case of failure of the application, there is always a hot backup of the application ready to take over without disruption. There are multiple copies of the same application - each copy updating itself regularly so that at times of failure there is at least one copy of the application which can take over without even the slightest change in its running state.

2. Multi-tenancy
With cloud computing, any application supports multi-tenancy - that is multiple tenants at the same instant of time. The system allows several customers to share the infrastructure allotted to them without any of them being aware of the sharing. This is done by virtualizing the servers on the available machine pool and then allotting the servers to multiple users. This

is done in such a way that the privacy of the users or the security of their data is not compromised.

3. Linearly Scalable
Cloud computing services are linearly scalable. The system is able to break down the workloads into pieces and service it across the infrastructure. An exact idea of linear scalability can be obtained from the fact that if one server is able to process say 1000 transactions per second, then two servers can process 2000 transactions per second.

4. Service-oriented Cloud computing systems are all service oriented - i.e. the systems s are such that they are created out of other discrete services. Many such discrete services which are independent of each other are combined together to form this service. This allows re-use of the different services that are available and that are being created. Using the services that were just created, other such services can be created.

5.Virtualized The applications in cloud computing are fully decoupled from the underlying hardware. The cloud computing environment is a fully virtualized environment.

6. Flexible Another feature of the cloud computing services is that they are flexible. They can be used to serve a large variety of workload types - varying from small loads of a small consumer application to very heavy loads of a commercial application.

7. Device and location independence: It enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.


The cloud computing works on the cloud - so there are large groups of often low-cost servers with specialized connections to spread the data-processing chores among them. Since there are a lot of low-cost servers connected together, there are large pools of resources available. So these offer almost unlimited computing resources. This makes the availability of resources a lesser issue.

The data of the application can also be stored in the cloud. Storage of data in the cloud has many distinct advantages over other storages. One thing is that data is spread evenly through the cloud in such a way that there are multiple copies of the data and there are ways by which failure can be detected and the data can be rebalanced on the fly. The I/O operations become simpler in the cloud such that browsing and searching for something in 25GB or more of data becomes simpler in the cloud, which is nearly impossible to do on a desktop.

The cloud computing applications also provide automatic reconfiguration of the resources based on the service level agreements. When we are using applications out of the cloud, to scale the application with respect to the load is a mundane task because the resources have to be gathered and then provided to the users. If the load on the application is such that it is present only for a small amount of time as compared to the time its working out of the load, but occurs frequently, then scaling of the resources becomes tedious. But when the application is in the cloud, the load can be managed by spreading it to other available nodes by making a copy of the application on to them. This can be reverted once the load goes down. It can be done as and when needed. All these are done automatically such that the resources maintain and manage themselves.

Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over services. application programming interfaces, usually web

Cloud architecture extends to the client, where web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications. Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled, where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users.

Fig. 2



Public cloud: Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional

mainstream. Public clouds are run by third parties, and applications from different customers are likely to be mixed together on the clouds servers, storage systems, and networks. A public cloud provides services to multiple customers.

Private cloud: Private clouds are built for the exclusive use of one client, providing the utmostcontrol over data, security, and quality of service (Figure 4). The company owns the infrastructure and has control over how applications are deployed on it. Private clouds can be built and managed by a companys own IT organization or by a cloud provider

Hybrid cloud: Hybrid clouds combine both public and private cloud models. This is most often seen with the use of storage clouds to support Web 2.0 applications.

Once an Internet Protocol connection is established among several computers, it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.


Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it. Examples include some computers, phones and other devices, operating systems andbrowsers.

Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Key characteristics include:

Network-based access to, and management of, commercially available (i.e., not custom) software

Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site, enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web

Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance, multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management characteristics

Centralized feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades

Platform Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers

Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)", delivers computer infrastructure typically a platform virtualization environment as a service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment,

clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. IaaS evolved from virtual private server offerings.

Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.

4.3 CLOUD STORAGE: Cloud storage is a model of networked computer data storage where data is stored on multiple virtual servers, generally hosted by third parties, rather than being hosted on dedicated servers. Hosting companies operate large data centers; and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them and use it for their storage needs. The data center operators, in the background,virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as virtual servers, which the customers can themselves manage. Physically, the resource may span across multiple servers.


Cloud computing products and services can be classified into 4 major categories: They are 1. Application as service ( AaaS) 2. Platform as a Service (PaaS) 3. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 4. Software as a Service (SaaS)

1. Application as s service (AaaS):

These are the first kind of cloud computing services that came into being. Under this, a service is made available to an end-user. The end-user is asked to create an account with the service provider and start using the application. One of first famous

application was web-based email service by hotmail started in 1996. Scores of such services are available now on the web.

2. Platform as a Service (PaaS):

Cloud vendors are companies that offer cloud computing services and products. One of the services that they provide is called PaaS. Under this a computing platform such as operating system is provided to a customer or end user on a monthly rental basis. Some of the major cloud computing vendor are Amazon, Microsoft, Google etc
3. Infrastructure as a service:

The cloud computing vendors offer infrastructure as a service. One may avail hardware services such as processors, memory, networks etc on agreed basis for specific duration and price.


Software as a service (SaaS): Software package such as CRM or CAD/CAM can be accessed under cloud computing scheme. Here a customer upon registration is allowed to use software accessible through net and use it for his or his business process. The related data and work may be stored on local machines or with the service providers. SaaS services may be available on rental basis or on per use basis.



When talking about a cloud computing system, it's helpful to divide it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system.

The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based e-mail programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Firefox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients.

On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server. A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other.

a cloud computing company has a lot of clients, there's likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Some companies require hundreds of digital storage devices. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage devices it requires to keep all its clients' information stored. That's because these devices, like all computers, occasionally break down. A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients' information and store it on other devices. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Making copies of data as a backup is called redundancy.





The key to a SOA framework that supports workflows is componentization of its services, an ability to support a range of couplings among workflow building blocks, fault-tolerance in its data- and process-aware service-based delivery, and an ability to audit processes, data and results, i.e., collect and use provenance information. Component-based approach is characterized by reusability (elements can be re-used in other workflows), substitutability (alternative implementations are easy to insert, very precisely specified interfaces are available, run-time component replacement mechanisms exist, there is ability to verify and validate substitutions, etc), extensibility and scalability (ability to readily extend system component pool and to scale it, increase capabilities of individual components, have an extensible and scalable architecture that can automatically discover new functionalities and resources, etc),customizability (ability to customize generic features to the needs of a particular scientific domain and problem), and composability (easy construction of more complex functional solutions using basic components, reasoning about such compositions, etc.). There are other characteristics that also are very important. Those include reliability and availability of the components and services, the cost of the services, security, total cost of ownership, economy of scale, and so on.In the context of cloud computing we distinguish many categories of components. From differentiated and undifferentiated hardware, to general-purpose and specialized software and applications, to real and virtual images, to environments, to no-root Differentiated resources, to workflow-based environments and collections of services, and soon.

Cloud computing Components

Applications Facebook Google Apps SalesForce Microsoft Online Browser(Chrome) Firefox Cloud Mobile (Android iPhone) Netbook (EeePC MSI Wind) Nettop (CherryPal Zonbu) BitTorrent EC2 GoGrid Sun Grid 3tera App Engine Azure Mosso



Infrastructure Platforms


SalesForce Services Storage Standards Alexa FPS MTurk SQS S3 SimpleDB SQL Services Ajax Atom HTML 5 REST



Provider A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates live cloud computing systems to deliver service to third parties. The barrier to entry is also significantly higher with capital expenditure required and billing and management creates some overhead. Nonetheless, significant operational efficiency and agility advantages can be realized, even by small organizations, and server consolidation and virtualization rollouts are already well underway. Amazon.com was the first such provider, modernizing its data centers which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of its capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. This allowed small, fast-moving groups to add new features faster and easier, and they went on to open it up to outsiders as Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. User A user is a consumer of cloud computing. The privacy of users in cloud computing has become of increasing concern. The rights of users are also an issue, which is being addressed via a community effort to create a bill of rights. Vendor A vendor sells products and services that facilitate the delivery, adoption and use of cloud computing. For example:

Computer hardware (Dell, HP, IBM, Sun Microsystems)


Storage (Sun Microsystems, EMC, IBM) 12

Infrastructure (Cisco Systems)

Computer software (3tera, Hadoop, IBM, RightScale)

o o

Operating systems (Solaris, AIX, Linux including Red Hat) Platform virtualization (Citrix, Microsoft, VMware, Sun xVM, IBM)




1. Infrastructure service providers are taking advantage of the Cloud services.

2. Information services, entertainment-oriented services such as video on demand, simple business services such as customer authentication or identity management and contextual services such as location or mapping services are positioned well by using the service. 3. Other services, such as corporate processes (for example, billing, deduction management and mortgage calculation) and transactional services (for example, fiscal transactions), would take longer to reach the cloud and the mainstream. 4. Cloud computing infrastructure allows efficient use of their IT hardware and

software investments.

5. A cloud infrastructure can be a cost efficient model for delivering information services, reducing IT management complexity. 6. The Cloud makes it possible to launch Web 2.0 applications quickly and to scale up applications as much as needed when needed.

8.2 Demerits:
1. Stored data might not be secure: With cloud computing, all our data is stored on the cloud. The unauthorized users gain access to our confidential data.


2. Dependent on internet connection: Internet connectivity isnt completely stable and reliable. 3. Its not platform agnostic: Most clouds force participants to rely on a single platform or host only one type of product. 4. Can be slow: Even on a fast connection,web based application scan sometimes be slower than accessing a similar software program on our desktop PC.



Here are five free ways that you can get in on the new cloud computing phenomenon. 1. Use a cloud-based email service: All web-based email services are actually in the cloud. This includes Gmail, Hotmail, and Yahoo mail. In short, if all of your emails are stored online and not on your computer, you're already emailing in the cloud. You can also filter these accounts through your PC by using a software program like Microsoft Outlook or Mozilla Thunderbird, but why take up space on your PC when you could be using your free 7 GB of Gmail storage? Gmail is hugely popular for a reason. You can also take advantage of Gmail's free chat client, G-chat, designed for easy and casual communication between email correspondents. 2. Investigate online Docs services. At present there are two major cloud-based docs programs. These are Google Docs and docs.com, which is a Microsoft product designed to work with Office 2010 and integrated with Facebook. Both services allow for easy sharing, collaboration, and saving "in the cloud" to save space on individual PCs. Google Docs in particular has slightly fewer capabilities than Microsoft Word but it will almost certainly get the job done in a pinch with easy layout and design functions. 3. Collaborate online.


Services like Google Calendar can help you coordinate with people all over the place, whether or not they've invested in expensive office software. Docs software also allows for easy collaboration and sharing. Keep track of blog posting schedules in a spreadsheet or work together on a business presentation, even when you're at a distance. Scheduling meetings at any time of day has gotten much easier with these services, and now you won't even need to fork out the cash so that everyone has the same expensive software. 4. Share photos. Services like Flickr, Photobucket, and even Facebook can share your photos across the web for you. No more need to mail off CDs to friends and family; just upload them and your family can download them for free. You're also provided with an easy link, especially from Flickr, to post those pictures elsewhere on the internet. This solves the problem of buying your own webspace and storing your photos on your own PC. No need to worry about memory card space or PC meltdowns if all of your pictures are stored on the internet. 5. Start a blog. If you use services like Blogspot.com or WordPress.com, your blog is essentially stored in the cloud without you paying a penny. Customisation options are limited for these types of blogs, but if you're looking to save some money but keep your blog, there aren't many better ways to do it. Blogs enable you to share your thoughts and photos with the world, on one defined subject or on as many as you like.



Cloud computing is seen as a service of the future, just as an electrical, telephone or heating gas utility. You would hook on to the services and pay for the usage, just as you do for your power and gas bills. So businesses would no more have to set aside capital expenditure to invest in costly servers and information technology set ups for the required facilities to run their business. Their role would be restricted to buying the necessary equipment like


computers, much as you would buy electrical appliances, heating equipment, telephones and the like to utilize the services that are available from the service provider. So companies would be enabled to concentrate on their core businesses and would use the cloud computing way for their needs for data management. Costs of developing future applications can be drastically reduced as there would be no need for the developer to market and sell these new applications. He would just make it available to the cloud computing service provider who in turn would put it on to his servers and make it available to everyone at the same time. This universal application of the new resource would lead to huge savings in computer time as newer software would be instantly available without any need for downloading it on to individual computers and networks and the necessary reconfiguring that this involves. Computers would not require high capacity hard drives as the need for this will be taken care of by the service providers. This could greatly reduce the cost of setting up information technology departments, which again need their own service setups. So you are probably looking at cheaper use of IT, or up gradation of present systems where the main aim of the computer will be fast access to the internet and the ability to use all the services that are on offer. As this would make outsourcing very easy, the costs of developing new software will reduce drastically. You could very easily move to places where costs are minimal, and which because of the cloud computing the developers are still able to access all the resources needed for development of the software. This extreme centralization of servers to carry out all computer based work, will greatly enhance security as users will no more be vulnerable to viruses and malware which can be easily controlled by the providers of the service. As all users will be using the same applications, the portability of data and information will be very easy and companies can work worldwide and yet have the same information and data available to all its various departments at the same time. This will greatly reduce any need to have costly and time consuming conferences and the like which are mainly aimed at everyone in the company working to the same standards.


The need for very costly high end servers for individual companies and institutions will become almost zero, as they would have full access to the servers of the service provider. What one can see is the development of services providing huge resources for parallel computing which could be just a part of this cloud computing idea. So cloud computing has a very bright future. This would however need infrastructure of a very high caliber so that connections to the internet are not interrupted because of poor power or other problems.



Providers including Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Sun and Yahoo exemplify the use of cloud computing. It is being adopted by individual users through large enterprises including General Electric, L'Oral, and Procter & Gamble.




Cloud computing builds on decades of research in virtualization, distributed computing, utility computing, and more recently networking, web and software services. It implies a service oriented architecture, reduced information technology overhead for the end-user, great flexibility, reduced total cost of ownership, on demand services and many other things. In today's global competitive market, companie s must innovate and get the most from its resources to succeed. Cloud computing infrastructures are next generation platforms that can provide tremendous value to companies of any size. They can help companies achieve more efficient use of their IT hardware and software investments and provide a means to accelerate the adoption of innovations. Cloud computing increases profitability by improving resource utilization. Costs are driven down by delivering appropriate resources only for the time those resources are needed. Cloud computing has enabled teams and organizations to streamline lengthy procurement processes.

Cloud computing enables innovation by alleviating the need of innovators to find resources to develop, test, and make their innovations available to the user community. Innovators are free to focus on the innovation rather than the logistics of finding and managing resources that enable the innovation. Cloud Computing Brings Possibilities.. Increases business responsiveness Accelerates creation of new services via rapid prototyping capabilities Reduces acquisition complexity via service oriented approach Uses IT resources efficiently via sharing and higher system utilization Reduces energy consumption Handles new and emerging workloads Scales to extreme workloads quickly and easily Simplifies IT management Platform for collaboration and innovation Cultivates skills for next generation workforce

Cloud Computing is a technology which took the software and business world by storm. The much deserved hype over it will continue for years to come.



Magazines: Cloud Computing MLADEN .A.VOUK -Issues, Research an Implementations , Information Technical Interfaces ,june 2008

Websites: www.ibm.com/developerworks/websphere/zones/hipods/library.html http://communication.howstuffworks.com/cloud-computing2.html www.thbs.com http://www.wikipedia.org/