Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 72

EMI Driven by PI

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Outline
SI + PI = EMI
These disciplines are no longer independent of each other

Fundamentals of EMI
Where does it come from and how is it minimized Five Step EMC Design Flow

Power Integrity design methodology to reduce EMI


Fundamentals of Power Integrity Design Process to meet design specs in the Time and Frequency domain

2nd Presentation on EMI Driven by SI


Fundamentals of Signal Integrity
Crosstalk is the main contributor to EMI

Case studies that show perils of crosstalk in real world designs

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

SI/PI/EMI Design Overview


Frequency Domain Time Domain

Display Panel

EMI/EMC Signal Integrity


Common mode radiation - Differential mode radiation
-

Pwr Noise Signal

Control IC

Memory

Driver IC

Power Integrity

Electromagnetic Interference
PCB

Signal Integrity Power Integrity


Switching Noise - Impedance Profile - Power/Gnd Plane Resonance - Decoupling Capacitors
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Power Supplies

Impedance - Crosstalk - Reflection - Termination - Dielectric Losses


-

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Three Basic Elements of EMC


Emission EMI EMIsource source

Coupling process
Conduction EMI EMIFilters Filters Capacitive Shields Shields Inductive Space & Field

Conductive

Radiative

Low, Middle & High Frequency


EMI EMIFilters Filters

Low & Middle Frequency LC Resonance


Shields Shields Shields Shields Immunity EMS EMS

High Frequency
Shields Shields

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Loop Mode & Common Mode Noise


A PC Board & Cables
Loop mode current

A victim device

A Driver & Receiver

by AC Analysis of Q3D Extractor

Differential mode current flows --- Loop Common mode current flows --- Open We can see Common mode current is more serious than Normal mode.

Common mode current


2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Antenna theory
-A Differential mode current flow -A Common mode current flow Loop antenna theory Dipole antenna theory

131.6 10 -16 (f 2 AI) sin E= r

r : distance A : area of the loop

4 10 7 ( f Il ) sin E= r

r Length :l

I Illustration of a loop antenna

I Illustration of a dipole antenna

FCC B level Mag. E limit :40dBuV/m @ 3m Mag. E( Loop antenna) : 20mA Mag. E( Dipole antenna) : 8uA
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

EMC Design Flow

Impedance Analysis Planes deliver power to ICs and return path for signal Ensure that Plane impedance is smooth and low over broad frequency range

Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis

Enclosure Simulation

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

EMC Design Flow


Resonances indicate areas of high impedance and EMI potential Ensure power planes do not resonant in critical locations

Impedance Analysis

Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis

Enclosure Simulation

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

EMC Design Flow

Impedance Analysis

Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction If signal is not at the receiver, it went somewhere else Ensure clean signal transmission and good return path for critical nets Enclosure Simulation

Emissions Analysis

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

EMC Design Flow

Impedance Analysis

Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis

Non-ideal planes and tight routing can lead to unintentional signals Ensure there are no unintentional radiators

Enclosure Simulation

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

EMC Design Flow

Impedance Analysis

Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis Real enclosures are non-ideal and can pass radiation Ensure minimal radiation from PCB escapes the chassis holes

Enclosure Simulation

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

PI Methodology

Signal Integrity

Power Integrity

Electromagnetic Interference

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Power Integrity A Case Study Active devices require clean power to operate correctly Power distribution system (PDS) design engineers must ensure that all parts receive voltage between certain limits and that noise is kept sufficiently low Todays designs with many separate power domains of high current and low voltage devices complicate power integrity analysis

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Board Imported from Layout


VRM

Measuring impedance at the six VCC pins on U41

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

PDS Design Flow

Start

Finish Yes

EM extraction of impedance for critical devices

Determine frequencies of specification violations

Simulate in time domain to check for compliance

No

Choose capacitor or geometric change to address violations

Alter design according to findings

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Frequency Domain PDS Targets


(Power _ Supply _ Voltage) (Allowed _ Ripple )
Current
target

Mag. of Z

ZTarget =

|Z|
f

1 GHz
1KHz 1MHz 100MHz
High Frequency Ceramic Capacitors Power/Ground Planes Buried Capacitance

Switching Power Supply

Electrolytic Bulk Capacitors

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Defining the Target Impedance To define the target impedance we need to consider two factors:
VRM
VRM

Peak current
Determines maximum impedance

Package Model
C58 Cpkg L59 Lpkg R60 0 Rpkg 0 V35
logic_in enable pullup

Name=vrm

Spectral power
Determines cutoff frequency

Driver

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

R5

pulldown

50

VRM

VRM
io out_of_in

V33

DC=VCC 0

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Peak Current Peak driver current 37.87 mA Example:


Six drivers and 0.18 V maximum voltage swing:
Ansoft Corporation
40.00

Driver Current
Curve Info mag(Ipositive(vrm)) Transient

Driver
max 37.8706

35.00

30.00

mag(Ipositive(vrm)) [mA]

25.00

20.00

15.00

0.18 V = 800 m 6(37.87 mA )

10.00

5.00

0.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 Time [ns] 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Driver Spectrum
Ansoft Corporation
1.00E-003

XY Plot 4

Driver

1.00E-004

667 MHz

1.00E-005

Choose a frequency below which most of the signal energy lies

Curve Inf o

mag(vrm_pow er) Transient

1.00E-006

m ag(vrm _pow er)

1.00E-007

1.00E-008

667 MHz = 97% of Spectrum

1.00E-009

1.00E-010

1.00E-011

1.00E-012 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Spectrum [GHz] 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00

1 0.9 0.8

CDF

C D F

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Frequency [GHz]

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Power Integrity Investigation


Added two bulk 47 uF capacitors as specified by VRM manufacturer

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Bare Board vs. Bulk Capacitors

Resonance @ 50 MHz Target impedance 800 mOhm to 667 MHz

Bare Board Board w/ Bulk Caps

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Time Domain Schematic

J5_VCC

VCC_U41-2

VCC_U41-2

Driver

C58 Cpkg L59 Lpkg R60 0 Rpkg

pullup

Board
VCC_U41-44 VCC_U41-63 VCC_U41-84 VCC_U41-44 VCC_U41-63 VCC_U41-84

J5_VCC

logic_in enable

io

50

V35

out_of_in

R5

pulldown

VCC_U41-2 VCC_U41-21 VCC_U41-42

VCC_U41-2 VCC_U41-21 VCC_U41-42

x6

J5_VCC

800 Mbps data rate DDR2 IBIS driver into ideal termination used as load for PDS Package decoupling modeled using a capacitor w/ ESR, ESL

VRM
V33

DC=VCC 0

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Switching Power Noise


Ansoft Corporation
2.40
Curve Info pk2pk

U41 Power

Bulk

Bulk Only

~11-12 ns period
2.20

V(VCC_U41-2) Transient V(VCC_U41-21) Transient V(VCC_U41-42) Transient V(VCC_U41-44) Transient V(VCC_U41-63) Transient

0.6787

0.6995

0.8191

2.00

0.7597

0.7882

Y 1 [V ]

1.80

V(VCC_U41-84) Transient

0.6858

1.60

1.40

Shaded area represents time domain violation of 1.8 V 10%


1.20 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 Time [ns] 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

3Meter FF

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Choosing a Decoupling Capacitor To reduce the effect of a resonance, choose a capacitor with a low impedance at the resonant frequency

22 nF Capacitor

Board w/ Bulk Caps

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Bulk vs. HF Capacitors 1

Target impedance 800 mOhm to 667 MHz

Board w/ Bulk Caps Board w/ HF Caps 1

No Resonance @ 50 MHz

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Switching Power Noise


Ansoft Corporation 2.40
Curve Info pk2pk

U41 Power

HF1

Bulk Only

V(VCC_U41-2) 0.6481 Transient V(VCC_U41-21) 0.6979 Transient V(VCC_U41-42) 0.8802 Transient V(VCC_U41-44) 0.9182 Transient V(VCC_U41-63) 0.6925 Transient

2.20

2.00

Y1 [V]

1.80

V(VCC_U41-84) 0.7319 Transient

1.60

1.40

1.20 0.00

Shaded area represents time domain violation of 1.8 V 10%


10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 Time [ns] 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

3Meter FF

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Extending Low Impedance 10 1.2 nF capacitors were added across the board to extend minimum high-frequency impedance 1.2 nF capacitor was chosen due to low impedance at 200 MHz 4 of these were located near U41

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

HF 1 vs. HF 2

Target impedance 800 mOhm to 667 MHz

New resonance @ 80 MHz

Board w/ HF Caps 1 Board w/ HF Caps 2

Impedance exceeds 800 mOhm @ 350 MHz

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Switching Power Noise

Ansoft Corporation
2.40

U41 Power
Curve Info V(VCC_U41-2) Transient pk2pk

HF2

0.2552

2.20

V(VCC_U41-21) Transient V(VCC_U41-42) Transient V(VCC_U41-44) Transient V(VCC_U41-63) Transient

0.2857

0.2930

2.00

0.4047

0.3083

Y1 [V]

1.80

V(VCC_U41-84) Transient

0.3359

1.60

1.40

Shaded area represents time domain specification 1.8 V 10%


1.20 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 Time [ns] 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Removing a Resonance Six 8 nF capacitors were added near U41 to cancel resonance at 80 MHz

Added capacitors

U41

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

HF 2 vs. HF 3

Target impedance 800 mOhm to 667 MHz

Board w/ HF Caps 2 Board w/ HF Caps 3

Impedance crosses 800 mOhm @ 500 No resonance @ 80 MHz MHz

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Switching Power Noise

Ansoft Corporation
2.40

U41 Power
Curve Info V(VCC_U41-2) Transient

Final
pk2pk

0.2416

2.20

Maximum peak to peak noise of 371 mV


2.00

V(VCC_U41-21) Transient V(VCC_U41-42) Transient V(VCC_U41-44) Transient V(VCC_U41-63) Transient

0.2685

0.2660

0.3264

0.3709

Y1 [V]

1.80

V(VCC_U41-84) Transient

0.3142

1.60

1.40

Shaded area represents time domain specification 1.8 V 10%


1.20 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 Time [ns] 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Buried Capacitance

Due to parasitic inductance it is impossible to decouple the board with capacitors at frequencies greater than a few hundred MHz Using a thinner dielectric layer between power and ground planes introduces additional capacitance and reduces high frequency impedance

Capacitance of parallel plates:

A C = d
Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

HF 3 vs. Buried Capacitance

Target impedance 800 mOhm to 667 MHz

Board w/ HF Caps 3 Target impedance specification met


Board w/ Buried Capacitance

Impedance crosses 800 mOhm @ >667 MHz

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Switching Power Noise

Specification Met!

Ansoft Corporation
2.40

U41 Power
Curve Info V(VCC_U41-2) Transient

Buried
pk2pk

2.20

Maximum peak to peak noise 273 mV 24% smaller than limit


V(VCC_U41-21) Transient V(VCC_U41-42) Transient V(VCC_U41-44) Transient V(VCC_U41-63) Transient

0.2177

0.2295

0.2418

2.00

0.2549

0.2729

Y 1 [V ]

1.80

V(VCC_U41-84) Transient

0.2169

1.60

Time-domain noise specification met


1.40

Shaded area represents time domain specification 1.8 V 10%


1.20 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 Time [ns] 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

3Meter FF

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Conclusions SI / PI / EMI are all based on the same electromagnetic fundamentals and cannot be separated Impedance and resonant mode simulations connect the frequency domain to the spatial domain and allow selection of capacitor value and placement Frequency domain extractions are useful for quickly optimizing PDS designs, but time domain simulations are necessary to ensure compliance with device specs Using a single design environment can help reuse the same models for SI/PI/EMI simulations
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Questions

Any Questions?

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

EMI Driven by Signal Integrity


Fundamentals of Coupled SI/PI/EMI Part 2 Aaron Edwards

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

SI + PI = EMI
SIGNAL INTEGRITY
Trend: Cost / Performance targets drive the integration of ICs, SoCs, and SiPs onto low cost printed circuit boards. Chip/Package/Board Co-design is required

EMC/EMI
Far Field - CPM2 - 1.27v Baseline
60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 -10.00 -20.00 0.00

dBuV/m_

0.50

1.00
GHz

1.50

2.00

POWER INTEGRITY

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Where is the problem? Intentional Signals


Focus on Clock and High Speed Signals
Stripline not necessarily better than Microstrip Examine Clock Harmonics filter if necessary

Differential signaling is a standard to improve signal-tonoise ratios, however, its use always leads to Common mode noise
Common Mode Conversion
SCD11=0.5*(S(1,1)-S(1,3)+S(3,1)-S(3,3)) SCD21=0.5*(S(2,1)-S(2,3)+S(4,1)-S(4,3))

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Where is the problem? Unintentional Signaling Common mode will always exist
Common Mode noise is the main contributor to EMI

How? Through Crosstalk


Beware the low speed nets; use post-layout analysis to scan for unintended coupling Coupling may be direct, through intermediate metal or even from plane cavities

This presentation focuses on crosstalk, the primary SI contributor to EMI radiation

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Crosstalk Definition and Sources Signal integrity examines the quality of transmitted waveforms through a physical interconnect; Traces, connectors, vias, etc Crosstalk is the coupling of energy from one current carrying conductor to another. It occurs when the electromagnetic fields from one conductor interferes with another conductor, thus changing its desired characteristics There are 2 main components to Crosstalk:
Mutual Inductance and Mutual Capacitance

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

How to calculate crosstalk Mutual Inductance


Mutual Inductance induces current from an aggressor line onto a victim line by the magnetic field.
The noise voltage that is injected onto the victim line can be calculated by 2 methods Method #1 Analytical Calculation Vnoise,Lm = Lm di/dt Method #2 Field Solution

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

How to calculate crosstalk Mutual Capacitance


Mutual Capacitance is the coupling between 2 conductors via the electric field.
The induced noise that shows up on the victim net can be calculated by 2 methods Method #1 Analytical Calculation Inoise,Cm = Cm dv/dt Method #2 Field Solution

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Coupling Dictates Crosstalk Strength


Near and Far End Crosstalk
The magnitude of the Mutual Capacitive and Inductive Coupling will determine the amount of current induced on the victim net. The summation of these currents determine near and far end crosstalk

ICM ICM ILM

Inear = ICM + ILM Ifar = ICM - ILM


2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Analytical Crosstalk Calculations


Back of the envelope calculations can be used as a quick check:
Zo

Terminated Victim
Driven Line

Zo
Far End

Vinput LM CM A= + L C 4

TD

TD = X LC
B= Vinput X LC LM C M L C 2Tr
A B

Un-driven Line victim Zs


Driver

Near End

Zo

ZO =

L C

Tr

~Tr

Tr

Near - End Crosstalk [NEXT] = Vb Va Crosstalk Coefficient [kb] = Vb Va


2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Source signal Far End of Source Signal Near-end X-talk Far-end X-talk

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Analytical Crosstalk Calculation Example


Vsource Vinput 1V 500mV 1in 50ohms 61.5ohm s 100ps 200ps

L /inch=
Trace Width Height Trace Separation Thickness Dk 13mil 10mil 7mil 2mil 3.55

8.55nH 2.39nH 2.26pF 0.389pF

2.39nH 8.55nH 0.389pF 2.26pF


TD

Trace Length Source Impedance Termination Impedance Risetime Delay Time

C/inch=

ZO =

L 8.55nH = = 61.5ohm C 2.26 pF


A B

Vinput LM C M 500mv 2.39nH 0.389 pF + = + A= = 56mV 4 4 8 . 55 nH 2 . 26 pF L C

TD = X LC = 1in 8.55nH * 2.26 pF = 0.139ns


B= Vinput X LC LM CM 500mV *1in 8.55nH * 2.26 pF = 2Tr C 2 *100 ps L

Tr ~Tr

Tr

2.39nH 0.389 pF 8.55nH 2.26 pF = 37 mV


Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Field Solution Crosstalk Example


Same example using Method #2 Field solutions

HFSS 2D Extractor SIwave

m2(A) = 57.4mV m1 (B) = -37.2mV m4-m3 (TD) = 0.1359ns

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Parameterization Captures Trends Impact of Length and Spacing


Trace Length = 1,2,3,10in

Trace Spacing= 7, 12, 17, 22, 27mil As Length increases, Ifar accumulates As Trace Spacing increases, Inear decreases

As Trace Spacing increases, Ifar decreases


2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Parameterization Captures Trends

Crosstalk Cm Lm Trace Spacing


GND Plane Distance

Increase

Decrease

NE

FE

NE

FE

Dk Trace Width Under-etching

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Good Coupling, when Xtalk is desired Differential Signaling

Why Differential Signaling?


When lines are tightly coupled, noise affects both lines. Thus at the receiver, the difference between the two lines remains constant Stray transient noise on the two conductors will selfcancel, which leads to a reduction of noise from the power supply Because differential signaling creates a known return path, signal quality will significantly improve in the presence of non-ideal ground return paths, or other discontinuities such as connectors, wirebonds, vias, etc..
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Good Coupling Differential Signaling


Back of the envelope calculations of Differential and Common Mode Impedance can be used as a quick check Leven = L11 + L12 Lodd = L11 L12 Codd = C11 + C12 Ceven = C11 - C12 Lodd L11 L12 Leven L11 + L12 Z odd = = Z even = = Codd C11 +C12 Ceven C11 C12 Zdifferential = 2*Zodd Zcommon = ()*Zeven
Magnetic Field Magnetic Field

Electric Field

Electric Field

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

3D Crosstalk Needs Field Solution

2.2 inch total length of trace. 88 mil via transition

Peak Near-End Crosstalk: 25mV Peak Far-End Crosstalk: -21.8mV


Far-End Probe

Near-End Probe

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Bad Coupling Via Transition

Peak Near-End Crosstalk: 13.1mV Peak Far-End Crosstalk: -14mV

2.2 inch total length of trace 88 mil via transition


Total length of parallel via routing is 4% of the total length. Yet the Near-End Crosstalk only reduces by 48%. The Far-End Crosstalk only reduces by 36%

Near-End Probe

Far-End Probe

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Bad Coupling Via Transition


Added Ground Vias
Peak Near-End Crosstalk: 19mV 10.3mV Peak Far-End Crosstalk: -20mV -10.9mV

Total length of parallel via routing is 4% of the total length. Yet the Near-End Crosstalk only reduces by 24%. The Far-End Crosstalk only reduces by 8%
Near-End Probe
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Far-End Probe

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Chip/Package/Board Co-Design Case #1

Signal Integrity

Power Integrity

Electromagnetic Interference

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Capturing the Complete System Ansoft EMI Design Flow

S.O.C. Database

CPM

Package Database

PCB Database

S-Parameters SIwave

Nexxim Designer

FrequencyDomain Voltages

Resonance Analysis Impedance Analysis Near field plots Far field plots
Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Package and Board Models Case #1

Package has been merged onto board Coupling between the bondwires, leadframe, and board are simulated
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Apaches Chip Power Model


SIwave Full-Wave Package/PCB Model

CPM
VDD

I/O Interface

VDDQ
Chip Power Model
Package PCB

Input Level Buffer Buffer Shifter

SIG

VSS

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Designer & Nexxim

Terminations

SIwave Model CPM Model

Drive VDDs with CPM Capture coupled highfrequency noise Run Near/Far-Field Simulations using transient results

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Time and Frequency Domain Results

Transient Power Noise


60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 -10.00 -20.00 0

Far Field3m - 1.27VFar - No Decaps - Baseline Fields

dBuV/m__

0.5

1
G H z

1.5

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Near Fields at 1GHz

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Baseline

1.27 V w/ Decap

1.1 V

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Chip/Package/Board Co-Design Case #2

Signal Integrity

Power Integrity

Electromagnetic Interference

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Ansoft Virtual Chamber

Driver settings

27
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Solving the Field Solution Using Time Domain Information


FFT of Transient Data Near/Far Fields Computed in SIwave and HFSS

Time
28
2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Frequency

Radiation
Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Agreement captured in simulation


10 M Measurement

ONLY PCB Spectrum

SIwave

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Excessive Common Mode coming from Driver


Transient Waveform
Glitch seen in falling waveform; this will create Common Mode Noise

Original Driver

Ideal Driver

Common Mode Spectrum


2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Intentional Signaling contributing to EMI


Original Driver Ideal Driver Even Harmonics are now absent but EMI is still high Problem is not just common mode

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Adding a filter to reduce problematic higher harmonics

Pi Filter added to driver output to squelch higher harmonics of 13.56 MHz clock

Component values optimized in Designer


2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Reduced Common Mode after filtering


Transient Waveform

Ideal Driver

Filtered Driver Signal integrity still OK but high frequency spectrum is reduced

Common Mode Spectrum


2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved. Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

EMI from Intentional and Unintentional Signaling suppressed


Original Driver Filtered Driver EMI is now sufficiently suppressed

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary

Conclusions Crosstalk is major concern for SI


Need to examine all relevant coupling: vias, traces, etc. Simulation can help determine acceptable levels of coupling

Target impedance helps ensure good PI


Target impedance is defined in Frequency domain Need to verify ripple in time domain

EMC is comprised of good PI and SI


Poor plane design can spread common mode noise Unintentional coupling is a big source of radiated emissions

2008 Ansoft, LLC All rights reserved.

Ansoft, LLC Proprietary