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Media in Social Change Sociology

MEDIA IN SOCIAL CHANGE

SOCIAL CHANGE
Social change refers to any significant change over time in behavior patterns and cultural
values and norms. Here by “significant” change, sociologists mean changes having
profound social consequences. Examples of significant social changes having long-term
effects include the industrial revolution, the abolition of slavery, and the feminist
movement.
Today's sociologists readily acknowledge the vital role that social movements play in
inspiring dissatisfied members of a society to bring about social change. In order to
understand the nature of long-term social change, including looking for patterns and
causes, has led sociologists to propose the evolutionary, functionalist, and conflict
theories of change. All theories of social change also admit the likelihood of resistance to
change, especially when people with fixed interests feel unsettled and threatened by
potential changes.
The change is discussed by many theorists, sociologists, novelists in their own terms and
has given their own theories. Here some of the views about social change will also be
discussed.

THE “CHANGE” DEBATE


All cultures change through time. No culture is static. However, most cultures are
basically conservative in that they tend to resist change. Some resist more than others by
enacting laws for the preservation and protection of traditional cultural patterns while
putting up barriers to alien ideas and things. For example, the French government has
forbidden the commercial use of English words for which there are French
equivalencies. This is a reaction particularly to the widespread use and popularity of
terms such as "sandwich" and "computer" among young people. More recently,
Starbucks has found it very difficult to become established in France despite the fact that
it is becoming successful elsewhere in Europe. In contrast, some cultures are extremely
open to some kinds of change. Over the last two decades, the Peoples Republic of China

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has been rapidly adopting western technology and culture in everyday life. This can be
seen in their wide acceptance of everything from cell phones to American television
shows and fast food. McDonald's has already established 560 of their restaurants in
China and soon will be adding 100 more. KFC fried chicken franchises have been even
more popular. There are 1000 KFC outlets throughout the country with more than 100 in
Beijing alone. Taco Bell, A & W, and Pizza Hut are not far behind. In 2003, the Chinese
government made the decision to require all children in their country, beginning with the
3rd grade of elementary school, to learn English. This will very likely accelerate
westernization.
China is far from being unique in experiencing a revolutionary rate of change. It is now
abundantly clear that we are in an accelerating culture change period all around the world
regardless of whether we try to resist it or not. It is driven by the expansion of
international commerce and especially mass media. Ultimately, what is driving it is our
massive human population explosion. The number of people in the world now doubles in
less than half a century.

When analyzing the transformation of a culture, it is clear that different understandings


are gained depending on the focus. Anthropology began its study of this phenomenon,
during the late 19th century, largely from the perspective of trying to understand how
manufactured things, such as tools, are invented and modified in design over time. It
became apparent that there rarely are entirely new inventions. Most often, only the
function, form, or principle is new, but not all three. For instance, our modern jack, used
for lifting up the side of a car, is usually based on the principles of the lever and/or the
screw. Those principles were well known to the ancient Greeks more than 2,000 years
ago. By the 1940's, anthropologists began to realize that ideas, tools, and other artifacts
generally are not invented or changed in isolation. They are the product of particular
cultural settings. Cultures are organic wholes consisting of interdependent components.
Inventions often occur in response to other cultural changes. Similarly, the introduction of
new, effective birth control measures, mostly beginning in the early 1960's, allowed
people to easily limit the number of children they had and to space their births. This
affected the relationships of children with their parents and siblings. When there are
fewer children, parents can give more attention to each one. Likewise, more money per

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child is available for clothes, entertainment, gifts, and education. Potentially, there is
also more money and leisure time for parents when there are fewer children in their
family. Human economies change as necessity forces us to alter our relationship with the
environment. As our economies change, the rest of culture changes in response. We are
now facing potential major global cultural changes over the next century as a result of the
greenhouse effect that is presumably being caused or aggravated by the accelerated
burning of fossil fuels and forest products. The result likely will be progressive global
warming, shifting climates, and flooded coastal regions. Entire island nations in the
Pacific and Indian Oceans may disappear below the sea. Actually, this process of people
changing the global climate may have begun much earlier than the beginning of the
Industrial Revolution as it has been commonly thought. William Ruddiman of the
University of Virginia has evidence indicating that the rise of global temperatures began
about 8,000 years ago with the early spread of agriculture. He suggests that the massive
clearance of forests in Europe and Asia for farming beginning at that time released huge
amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In his estimation, this was enough
warming to put off an impending ice age. (What Actually Changes When Cultures
Change? By Dennis O'Neil)

THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE


Evolutionary Theories assume that there is a constant direction of social change
carrying all the societies through a same sequence of stages from simple to complex.
August Comte(1798-1857) known as the founder of sociology has discussed three stages
of social change i.e. (1) theological stage, guided by supernatural wisdom (2)
metaphysical stage, in which supernatural wisdom are replaced by principles and logics
(3)legal rational, in which society is guided by scientific principles and logics.

Hebert Spencer (1820-1903) was an English writer who explained Darwin’s theory he
saw a parallel social evolution, with societies moving through a series of stages fro
homogenous and simple tribal groups to more modern societies. He applied Darwin’s
“survival of fittest” to human societies and said those human will survive who are the
fittest and active members of the society similarly those societies will survive who have

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the ability to dominate and have values and norms that are the most logical and followed
by the members.

Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) was American sociologists who proposed a series of
seven stages through which societies passed from savagery to civilization.

Karl Marx (1813-1883) was a German philosopher who spent much of his life in
England, while he is classed as a conflict theorist, his theory of change is clearly
evolutionary, and he saw a series of successive changes of increasing technological
complexity, from primitive hunting o modern industrialization. Each stage has own
“mode of production” while all other elements of the culture were brought into harmony
with it.

Cyclical Theorists also a series of stages through which societies must pass. But, instead
of ending in a final stage of perfection they see a return to the starting point for another
round. There are many names who contributed in this school of thought. Pitrim Sorokin
(1889-1968) is one of those who was from Russia and than left Russia and went to USA.
He saw all the modern civilization in an endless cycle of three culture systems i.e.
ideational culture, idealistic culture, and sensate culture.

Functionalist theorist says that change is the functional need of the society and is
accepted. Societies those who change theme self survive and those societies are capable
of going with the time. This school of thought says only those changes are adopted which
are useful and are in fewer of society while those are rejected which are not useful.

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MEDIA IN THE BEGINNING


The beginning of visual media and even audio media were used for many
purposes by the different countries. The most miss utilization of this
fantastic media was used for propaganda during World War. This was the
time when this media was trying to developed from its childhood stage.
It is a say that well begin is half done. While in this case, it was an
opposite experience. Time has changed and this media has flourished
with a new technology and today we are talking this by using a new
media language. The whole history of electronic media had seen
different stages of how people, countries and the world has had used
this for their benefit. Today, communication rule the world, it is so
personalized that people now starting avoiding talking to each other,
meeting to each other. I would say it is a kind of psychic air which
almost grabs the people’s mind and heart. The socializing factor has
gone in the background. Another factor related with this communication
technology is information, which furthermore considered as a power.
Thousands of people need information about their health, education,
livelihood, and so on. For instance, take the example of HIV/AIDS and
STDs, if people know how to avoid these diseases, this could not be
happened what actually happening in African countries or other part of
the world. If people know that, saving environment means they are
saving all living being including themselves, may be then there is no
need of making “In convenient truth (an environmental documentary by Al
Gore)”. It is actually a long debate but what I mean is that the time
has come to think what best use of New Media technology and knowledge
could be? The idea of “Visual media for social change” developed
through all these madness. This is not a new idea, but this could be a

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reminder for and could be an alarm for, hey guys what are you thinking
to go ahead with fantasy world? Or would you like to give some
contribution back to your society? It is not forcible to anyone or no
one can change the idea or mind of anyone but it could be a serious
question for New Media Artist that, what benefit is you going to do for
society? Is it a technology and a toy for fun loving societies, where
food, health, education, shelter, livelihood is not an issue? My
supplementary question could be the opposite of mentioned question. For
the last few months, I am trying to search all these answers in the
light of the New Media Arts. It was not a surprise for me that my idea
and thinking is most marginalized in the fantasy world of the New
Media. However, being an optimistic and a social activist I will always
advocate for the use of New Media for social change. Today's discussion
with Eleanor was great in the sense of New Media advocacy. (Jayprakash Panwar 'JP'
14/Aug/2007 www.Rediff.com)

MEDIA’S INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY


The shift of media and media industry over the past few years into new forms, such as
DVD and the internet, changes the channels available for audiences to consume and
receive media. The change has caused some media theorists to call into question the
influence that the media has over attitudes and beliefs.
Urbanization, industrialization and life is one good change created by social conditions in
which the mass media has developed. Mass media plays a crucial role in forming and
reflecting public opinion:media connects the world to individuals and reproduce the self-
image of society. Critiques in the early-to-mid twentieth century suggested that media
weaken or delimit the individual's capacity to act autonomously . Mid twentieth-century
empirical studies, however, suggested more limited effects of the media. Current
scholarship presents a more complex interaction between the media and society, with the
media on generating information from a network of relations and influences and with the
individual interpretations and evaluations of the information provided, as well as
generating information outside of media contexts. The consequences and the mass media

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relate not merely to the way newsworthy events are perceived (and which are reported at
all), but also to many of cultural influences that operate through the media. The media
has a strong social and cultural impact upon society. This is predicated upon its ability to
reach a wide audience which often sends a strong and influential message. Marshall
McLuhan uses the term “the medium is the message” as a means of explaining how the
distribution of the message can often be more important that the message itself. [1] It is
through the persuasiveness of mediums such as television, radio and print media that
reach the target audience.
These have been influential mediums as they have been largely responsible in structuring
the daily lives and routines of Australians. Television broadcasting has a large amount of
control in influencing the content that society watches and the times in which they are
viewed. This is a distinguishing feature of traditional mediums and although they are by
no means redundant, the development of the internet has challenged the traditional
participation habits involved in mediums such as television. The internet has lifted some
of the restrictions placed on society by allowing for diversification of political opinions,
social and cultural differences and heightened level of consumer participation. There
have been suggestions that allowing consumers to produce information through the
internet will lead to a bombardment of too much information. It can however allow
society a medium for expressing opinions and moving away from the political restrictions
placed on society.( April 2007))

MEDIA’S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE

Most of the time we feel very strongly against many a things taking place around us. But
hardly ever we decide to act boldly. Be it any injustice being meted out to someone
unknown to us today or to ourselves tomorrow, we prefer being silent spectators. Accept
it or not for "practical reasons" we avoid the whispering sounds.
As is visible in the way the foreign lifestyle has engulfed our life and mindsets
too. Parents have stopped sounding like a 'nuisance' anymore since they realized their
suggestions are viewed as 'interference' in their own beloved kids' life. They have
somehow submitted themselves before the regularly updating definition of freedom.
There was a time when everything required a permission of parents. One couldn't decide

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upon living 'his/her own way' just because he/she has got into a 'big' college or institute.
What a youngster watches on TV or listening or doing in his/her spare time was parents'
first concern. Not to all youngsters such regulations felt 'disgusting' or 'suffocating'. For,
being just open to SEX was not the only benchmark of anyone's being 'modern' or 'person
of this planet'. People had friends and a huge social life too. Today, even mentioning such
thing can make your listeners turn off their faces or laugh at you. Probably, such talks
look fairy tales of 18th century. Of course today's youngsters are many a times sharp-
minded than youngsters of their age in the recent past. But it is also true that most of the
youngsters appear engulfed or swallowed up by the 'copy cat' style of life. What we
watch on big or small screen we just follow it without applying even our common
sense. Certainly, the long cherished lifestyle in urban and rural areas of the country had
its advantages and disadvantages too. But it had the power of keeping families united. It
had the charisma of going to each other's place for great affection. Today, it is just to
sound 'being in touch' we visit anyone's place. The values we give to our relationships
have lost their sheen. Except on marriages, parties or funerals that we come to reunite for
a few hours. Are we not living a life of seclusion in the absence of our near and dear
ones? We can take it as reward (read penalty) of blindly submitting our lifestyle to 'Filmi
lifestyle’.

The sudden exposure of Cable channels have brought in Hollywood's vulgarity in our
Pakistani families. Today, as a parent one cannot just tell a little strongly to his/her own
child about not doing anything. For, they know the suggestion would fall on deaf ears. As
today's youngsters is fast loosing faith in tolerance. Unsurprisingly, such an attitude
creates problem in nurturing relations in married life too. Just ask any parent to go and
stop anyone from watching any song or movie, which is coming on television. The
hesitation would be just because nobody wants to face an 'open-mouthed' reply. But why?
Who is responsible for such a precarious situation? Cannot we, as youngsters, make our
parents at comfort with us?
Be it any 'item number' or late night episodes shown on AXN or Movie channels, the
media moguls are simply attacking our life and brain-washing our future generations.
Like any individual with no control on his/her lifestyle or objective we have somehow

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submitted ourselves to others' way of life. By the time we realized the repercussions of
such a 'trapped lifestyle', we would have lost our golden years of career too. It is
regrettable when the western world is striving to take lessons from our tradition way of
family system; we have lost interest in it. Can addiction to marijuana, cocaine, foreign-
brands of drinks or half-naked lifestyle make us look more 'successful' than anyone in
any part of the world? Well, sooner or later we have to learn what we could get benefited
from even today-the Indian lifestyle.
We should show how much deep-rooted we are to our family values without feeling
embarrassed of it for a second in any gathering. It is only when we learn how to live with
pride in our present circumstances; we will ensure great success despite every limitation
or obstruction. But are we ready to change at bit today?
( Can We Dare To Change? By: Sandeep Datta””)

Media has changed the lifestyle as well as the structure of the families in
Pakistan. Once it is consider as the luxury item but now it is the reach of almost every
common people due to this families are modernized day by day and even they are broken
into separate family system or you can say nuclear family system. This is only due to the
influence of media. In Pakistan after the 1980s the trend had changed and the electronic
media start moving the use of television start increasing. Before 1980s the people are not
very much interested in watching television. Even people don’t have their own television
at their homes and they go to others home of their relatives and friends to watch
television. But now time has changed and the television is available at almost every
home. Even in rural areas or in village’s people watch television as their great source of
recreation. This thing has great impact on the lifestyles of families, different type of
programs are telecast on television for the person of every generation from elder to
younger women and men. With the use of dish and cable network the use of television is
very increased. People are more aware with the things. You can watch almost all types of
programs on television like news, fashion shows, dramas, movies etc. people love to
watch non Pakistani channels instead of Pakistani channels. People watch Indian and
English channels more than Pakistani channels that are not a right thing. Due to the
increase in the use of watching Indian channels we are moving toward their culture. The

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Indian dramas had a very great impact on the women of our family. They demand those
things that they watch on the television.

MEDIA BOOM IN PAKISTAN


The media scene in Pakistan has seen a tremendous growth over the last few years:
The open media policy adopted by the present regime has resulted in frenzy with every
big shot of Pakistan opening up his/her TV or FM channel. Leaving aside the quality of
these channels for a while, let’s have a look at the impacts of this trend. We only had a
single TV channel i.e. PTV till 2001. NTM proved to be a bit of fresh air in the early
90’s, but the conspiracies of PTV bureaucracy ultimately led to its closure. By then most
of the Pakistanis especially the urbanites of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad had already
switched over to the cable TV. So when Indus TV network started its transmission on 14th
August, 2001, it was a new phenomenon in Pakistani media scene. People started taking
notice of this channel and its viewer ship increased many folds within months. Then other
business interests jumped into the bandwagon in opening up new TV channels and since
then there is no looking back. Now there are more dozens of private TV channels
operating in Pakistan.

These TV channels can be divided into five categories. First one has the largest market
share and it comprises both News and Entertainment channels of Urdu language. They
also have the largest viewer ship and revenue generation. The second category is of
English TV channels. It’s a new phenomenon and only a single channel, i.e. Dawn News
has recently started its transmission. The third category is of hybrid channels mostly
catering to the urban youth of Pakistan. They mostly play both desi and foreign musical
content interspersed with catchy programs related to the issues of young generation. The
fourth category is of channels offering regional language programs. These channels are
offering their services in almost all languages of Pakistan whether it’s Sindhi, Baluchi,
Brahvi, Punjabi, Pashto or Kashmiri. They have proved to be a massive hit especially

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among the rural populace of Pakistan. Last but not the least is the genre of sports
channels. Currently only one channel i.e. GEO SUPER is reining this field.
The TV industry, of course, will be preferred as its the strongest medium of expression.

Before we take on a long and arduous journey on analyzing the TV industry, let us have a
go at the Radio scene, FM Radio to be more precise, in Pakistan. The traditional AM
radio was literally dead in Pakistan by early nineties. The urban listeners were fed up
with the old-fashioned type of entertainment that was and still is the hallmark of Radio
Pakistan.

Braving all the above mentioned grim realities of radio scene in Pakistan, the first FM
channel of Pakistan, FM 100, was launched in 1995. This channel revolutionized the
radio scene of Pakistan. Targeting the young and urban population, FM 100 gained
massive listeners base in a few months. The people who were sick of traditional radio
switched over to FM because the a) the content was new and pop-oriented (b) the
interactive style with live call in really caught peoples attention and the DJ phenomena
was also warmly accepted by the urban masses

To cut the long story short, the bureaucracy at the Radio Pakistan decided to launch a
Sarkari FM channel, FM 101, in 1998 to curb the growing popularity of FM 100. Since
2001, we have seen a massive growth of FM channels all over Pakistan. It is operating in
Pakistan, by the end of this year. Now FM listening has become a habit of many Pakistani
urbanites irrespective of their economic standings. In fact its become almost impossible
to not listen to FM channels while driving. The FM mobiles have further broadened the
listener’s base of these channels. I must say that urbanites have become sort of addicted
to FM mania.

As they say, quantity and quality are two opposite sides of a coin, so same is the case
with these FM channels. Only a few of them stand out in quality. First let’s have a look at
the sub-categories of these FM channels. The most popular ones are indeed the
entertainment FM channels. The second one deals with community based channels. The
community based channels mostly cater to the educational institutions and NGOs. We
also have some sectarian based FM channels (of course operating illegally) in the tribal
areas, which are a great mess for national security.

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This post mainly deals with the entertainment based channels. Although we have seen a
tremendous growth in this industry but there is still a huge room for improvement. As per
the international norms, Pakistani FM channels also cater to different social and
economic groups of Pakistan. First we have the hi-fi FM channels which mostly cater to
the elite and the professional classes. City FM 89 is the most notable one with its crisp
programming and popularity among the target audiences. Some of its programs especially
Cloud 89 has garnered international repute for their socio-political content and innovative
concepts. There are some critics too who think that the moderator of the program,
Hameed Haroon a.k.a Red Baron tries to force his own ideology on the interviewees.
Radio Active 96 is another elite channel catering mostly to the young generation.

Radio One FM 91 is a channel with broader listeners base. It caters both to the desi as
well as vilayati music lovers. The content and style makes this channel one of the most
popular ones among all the urbanites. Then there are other channels which mostly play
Pakistani and Indian music like FM 100, FM 101, Apna Karachi 107 (famous for its
traffic updates), Hum FM, Must FM and others. Their quality ranges from good and
average to being gross. The old channels especially FM 100 and FM 101 have now lost
their significance and major chunk of listeners due to their scruffy programming.

Now let’s have some dig at the advertisement trends of these channels. Unfortunately,
Radio Pakistan still takes the big portion of the cake, followed by the oldest FM channel
of Pakistan. One wonders why the advertisers still prefer the grand daddies.I think the
sole reason is the extensive coverage of these channels which attracts the wallets of these
advertisers. The advertising revenues of these FM channels can be seen here (Please note
that these revenues are in millions, not in billions as written over there). The quality of
advertisements is quite appalling on most of the channels. I am surprised at even the elite
channels like City FM 89 and Radio One playing the same ads of candies and phone
entertainment services. At least they should prefer quality over these nasty ads provided
that they are owned by business tycoons.

On a final note, it’s quite satisfying that FM channels, despite their shortcomings have
revolutionized the listening trends in Pakistan. Most of these channels have sprung up in
a few years and needs time for evolution. One can hope that with the passage of time, the

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process of natural selection will take place and the sub-standard FM channels will be
discarded by the listeners.

SOCIAL CHANGE IN INSTITUATIONS OF THE SOCIETY

FAMILY STRUCTURE
Media has a great impact on the family lifestyle. The major reason is the advancement of
electronic media. Television plays a great role in it. The use of television create different
types of issues relate to the family members of the family. Television also plays a great
role in the awareness of different types of things related to the families. Like family
health issues, like family planning programs, campaigns for the cure of different diseases
like HIV aids, hepatitis, polio etc and other different types of diseases. With the passage
of time now the whole world is connected trough satellite media broadcasting the
introduction of dish TV and cable network is the advanced form of television media.
Though with lot of advantages and disadvantages it gave birth to different types of family
issues like teen issues, children issues, kids issues etc. these all issues are related with the
awareness of media network:

SPECIAL ISSUES FOR TEENS:

There are different types of issues regarding the teens:

Television viewing generally drops during adolescence as young people start to spend
more time socializing, doing schoolwork, and using other media, such as music, video
games, computers and the Internet.

Because watching television is a relaxing activity, requiring low levels of concentration,


teens tend to watch TV when they're alone or bored. But even though viewing drops
during these years, it's still important for parents to know what their kids are watching.

For teens, television is a major source of information about sex. A survey conducted in
1997 by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 61 per cent of young teens, ages 13-15,

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rated entertainment media as their top source of information on sexuality and sex health.
This should concern parents because although two-thirds of TV shows contain sexual
content, only one in ten includes any reference to safe sex or the consequences of
unprotected sex.

The main focus of many teen dramas is sex, with each episode containing countless
verbal and visual references to sexual activity. These highly sexualized portrayals of
relationships bear little resemblance to the real lives of teens—and are generally not
balanced by clear messages about safe and healthy attitudes towards sex.

The early teen years are considered a crucial time for the development of healthy self
esteem. Insecurities over attractiveness and weight are increasing while at the same time
teens are bombarded with TV images of impossible thinness and beauty. It's important
that young people understand that most of the images they see on TV are unrealistic and
unattainable.

Because teens are usually not supervised when watching television, parents have to make
a concerted effort to find out what they are watching. You can help lessen the negative
effects of TV if you:

 Watch your teens' favorite shows with them occasionally—if they'll let you!

 use television as a springboard for talking about topics such as sex, AIDS,
smoking, drug and alcohol use, divorce and peer pressure

 talk about what you find objectionable on TV, and ask their opinions

 encourage teens to analyze and question what they see on TV

 steer kids towards diverse, good quality programming such as science shows,
documentaries, news, realistic teen dramas

 watch music videos with your kids and discuss the often-sexist images of women
and the representations of masculinity

SPECIAL ISSUES FOR YOUNG CHILDERN:

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Parents of young children need to actively manage and control TV viewing in the home.
Children need a variety of activities for healthy development and television can be a fun
and educational part of a child's daily routine, if managed properly.

Preschoolers (2-5 years)

 Children in this age group should spend most of their day playing and socializing,
not watching TV. The Canadian Pediatric Society suggests no more than one hour
of television per day for preschoolers. The American Academy of Pediatrics
recommends no television for children under age two, saying that parents should
focus on interacting with their children instead.

 Because preschoolers are more prone to exhibiting aggressive behavior after


watching shows containing violence, parents should restrict their exposure to
violent programming, especially cartoons. Avoid buying action toys based on
violent programs.

 The good news for this age group is that there is a lot of wonderful programming
for it, particularly on public television. Build up a videotape library of your kids'
favorite shows—because preschoolers love to watch the same programs over and
over again.

School-aged kids (6-11 years)

 Because television takes time away from reading and schoolwork it's important to
control TV viewing during the school week. Studies show that even one to two
hours of daily television viewing by school-aged children has a significant
harmful effect on academic performance, especially reading.

 Unfortunately, there is a dearth of good programs for older kids, so they tend to
spend their time watching cartoons and adult-oriented fare. Try to find quality
shows that are aimed specifically at this age group, or appropriate general
audience fare such as nature shows, family sitcoms or sports.

 Children at this age (as well as preschoolers) like action cartoons, and identify
with superhero figures. Parents should actively supervise superhero play to
minimize the aggressive aspects and maximize the creative, imaginative potential.

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FRIGHTENING TV CONTENT

Because young children have trouble distinguishing make-believe from reality, parents
need to safeguard them from violent or scary TV content. Research shows that children
want to be protected from media images that are disturbing or frightening. A 2000 study
by Ryerson University asked more than 900 kids, between 2 and 12, if they felt they
should be protected from certain kinds of TV shows, Web sites and video games. Over
half (64 per cent) said they needed safeguarding, while only 19 per cent said they didn't.

It's important for parents to understand what is appropriate TV viewing for the various
developmental stages of childhood. In her book Mommy, I'm Scared, author Joanne
Cantor describes the types of media images that children find most frightening at
different ages:

Two-to-seven-year-olds:

 visual images, whether realistic or fantastic, that are naturally scary: vicious
animals, monsters, and grotesque, mutilated, or deformed characters

 physical transformations of characters, especially when a normal character


becomes grotesque

 stories involving the death of a parent or child victims

 natural disasters, shown vividly

 Seven-to-twelve-year-olds:

 more realistic threats and dangers, especially things that could happen to children

 violence or the threat of violence

Seven-to-twelve-year-olds:

 More realistic threats and dangers, especially things that could happen to children

 violence or the threat of violence

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TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON KIDS

Television is one of the most prevalent media influences in kids' lives. According to Kids'
Take on Media, a survey conducted in 2003 by the Canadian Teachers’ Federation,
watching TV is a daily pastime for 75 percent of Canadian children, both boys and girls
from Grade 3 to Grade 10.

How much impact TV has on children depends on many factors: how much they watch,
their age and personality, whether they watch alone or with adults, and whether their
parents talk with them about what they see on TV.

To minimize the potential negative effects of television, it's important to understand what
the impact of television can be on children. Below you will find information on some
areas of concern.

Violence

Over the past two decades, hundreds of studies have examined how violent programming
on TV affects children and young people. While a direct "cause and effect" link is
difficult to establish, there is a growing consensus that some children may be vulnerable
to violent images and messages.

Parents should also pay close attention to what their children see in the news since studies
have shown that kids are more afraid of violence in news coverage than in any other
media content. Fear based on real news events increases as children get older and is better
able to distinguish fantasy from reality.

PROS AND CONS OF MEDIA HAVE ON FAMILTY STRUCTRE


There are different positives and negative impacts made on our family lifestyle due to the
increase of watching television.

PROS

 People are connected with the whole world keep sitting at their home.
 They watch all types of news of all over the world.

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 People are aware of about different things on television.


 Awareness of different diseases, like HIV aids, hepatitis etc.
 Family planning programs for the women.
 People are aware of new fashions in use.
 Due to the advancement of media it will create a lot of job opportunities for the
all the generation s like elder, younger, children men and women.
 People are aware of their country affairs.
 There are different types of programs being telecast on television for the
recreation of peoples.
 People are aware of different social issues regarding their lives.
 People can easily pass their time by watching television.
 People are aware of different campaigns start in Pakistan related with health,
education.
 It will give time to sit together for the families.

CONS

 People waste there lot precious time on watching television.


 People believe more what so ever is telecast on television.
 It promotes sexual attraction between male and females.
 It destroys our youth. They move towards fashion and the modernization.
 People are adopting others culture means western culture.
 Indian media had badly effect our families, their life style and their living patterns
are completely changed.
 Indian channels like star plus and other Indian channels badly affect the minds of
our females. After watching dramas on TV wives demand that thing from their
husbands what so ever they watch on television which is a virtually created on the
television and those things are out of reach of the common men of the society.
 Our family structure is changed rapidly into nuclear family system or you can say
separate family system.

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 People learn different types of illegal thing from television.


 Due to the openness of media in our society there are lots of commercials and
advertisements star telecasting on television which you can’t watch while sitting
with your whole family members.
 It promotes lot of unethical things which is against our family norms, traditions
and culture.

EDUCATION
Whether we live in Germany or the United States, we are all aware of the pervasiveness
of new media in our everyday lives. We are surrounded by television, the internet, cell
phones, blogs, blackberries, pod casting, and other digital formats, as well as the more
conventional print media.

These media forms offer educators incredible opportunities for teaching. However, at the
same time they pose an equal number of challenges as we strive to make sense of media
forms and employ them effectively as educational tools.

How can we interpret and deal with these media and their influence? How do these media
directly and indirectly shape our opinions, as well as those of our students and the rest of
the society in Germany and the United States? How do we process the information
presented to us? How does the German media differ from American media? How do our
respective national media portray the other country? What is the role of the newspaper in
the digital age?

Join 10 Illinois and 10 German educators in an important, exciting, and constructive


seminar and cultural exchange in which we consider contemporary media. The seminar
will be hosted by the ministry of education for the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.

English serves as the primary language of instruction, but knowledge of the German
language can be useful. The seminar is open to full-time K-12 teachers, school librarians,
and counselors, with three or more years of full-time experience. Special preference will
be given to teachers with German language skills and to IHC seminar alumni (who have

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not attended the Germany seminar in the past). Participants pay their own airfare and
some incidental expenses. Room, board, group ground transportation, and course
materials are paid for by the host organization.

IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

Distance education is distinctively and widely acknowledged for it’s exhaustive


utilization of information and communication technologies for teaching – learning
process. A variety of media such as radio, television, computer and Internet etc are being
used as a part of learning material by many Open and Distance Learning (ODL)
institutions. As a result, course delivery in such institutions is multi-channel; multi-media
mix (Kulandai Swaymy, 2002). The requirements of the distance education for
developing the course material using the multi-media approach has necessitated, apart
from print material, embracing of technologies such as radio, television, audio and video
cassettes. Last decade has witnessed a virtual explosion in the advancements made in
several areas of technology especially those relating to computer, networking and
communications, which have a direct bearing on the distance education system

There are some positive educational implications associated with using technologies in
Distance Education, like the availability of greater variety of learning resources;
improved opportunities for individualities learning; the possibilities of greater control for
students over their learning; more extensive coverage via technologies and therefore
greater access to them; greater flexibility offered by the wide range of technologies;
characteristic fall in the cost of new technologies as they become established; and there is
a higher degree of interactivity as convergence occurs between old and new technologies.

Because of their qualities, such as greater delivery capabilities, contributing to specific


learning activities, promoting participatory learning, motivating the learners to get
involved with learning activities, accommodating individual needs and extending the role
of teacher etc electronic media such as radio, television, computer and Internet etc have
been embraced as a part of learning material by many ODL institutions. However, in
practice, the pattern of technologies use among institutions across the world is varied, and

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is commonly influenced by non-pedagogical factors, such as cost, access and availability


as much as by pedagogical factors. The ways in which different institutions employ any
one particular technology are also subject to great variation.

Some PROS and CONS of Media on education:

PROS

 Education is widespread all over the world.


 You can listen to lecture sitting in your home.
 The lectures can be stored and than can be retrieved.
 Cost of the education is been lowered because of distant education.
 Availability of greater variety of learning resources
 Improved opportunities for individualities learning
 Video conferencing has made education is easier and if you want ot ask question
it is answered on the spot.

CONS

 Miss use of information.


 Intellectual property right issues.
 Due to physical absence matters can not be discussed thoroughly with the
instructor.
 One of the main issues is that the respect of teacher has diminished although not
fully finished but student now don’t respect their teacher as much as wanted. It
may be because of not knowing who is his/her teacher or the distance between the

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teacher and student. Like in ancient times teachers were given a high place in the
society which is now absent in our society.

RELEGION

By Islamic electronic media we mean that the media should be designed in such a way
that it will present the true Islam. In Pakistan, Islamic media does not exist. In 1977
during Zia’s era there was a process of Islamization in which use of dopatta was made
compulsory for the television announcers, actresses and they were forced to cover their
heads with dopatta. Another step taken by TVBy Islamic electronic media we mean that
the media should be designed in such a way that it will present the true Islam. In
Pakistan, Islamic media does not exist. In 1977 during Zia’s era there was a process of
Islamization in which use of dopatta was made compulsory for the television announcers,
actresses and they were forced to cover their heads with dopatta. Another step taken by
Zia was ban on nudity i.e. ban on display of nude posters particularly on portraying
women as publicity symbols. Display of nude scenes and moving films with nudity were
also banned.

The function and role of Islamic media is very important for a society they should
provide the general public with the knowledge of Islam through informative programmes
about religion they can educate the people as well as able to remove all the
misconceptions regarding Islam. The most important role of Islamic media is to promote
religious sectarian harmony among public by showing programmes and by calling
Renowned Religious Scholars for educating the public. Secondly they have to play an
important role in character building of the public. They have to transmit true Islamic
values among the public related to religion. They have to create a positive image of Islam
in the western world that Islam means Peace and Muslims are not terrorists.

Television

Islamic Channels

 QTV-ARY

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 LABBAIK

 ILIM TV.

These are the list of religious channels which are producing programmes relate to Islam.
QTV Part of ARY Digital group was started in September 2003. It’s a first Islamic
channel in the country. It was started with a purpose to educate the public regarding Islam
and to present the true image of Islam throughout the World. Its targeted audience is the
Muslims around the World. They design programmes for every member of the society
such as man, womam and especially for the children so that they can learn about their
religion from their childhood. QTV also offered certificated courses for the people sitting
in homes they just have to watch the program Q –Campus and in the end of a program
there is a question and answer sessions and they have to answers these questions and if
there answers are correct they will get a certificate. They offered certificate courses for
Arabic grammar, Hadiths, etc.

The structure and policy of Islamic electronic media is to present the true Islam and to
educate, and guide the general public about the right way of Islam. So they design their
policies in way such that they can educate the public and to introduce the modern
enlighten vision of Islam. Their main aim is to remove the misconceptions related to
Islam.

Services provided by the Islamic media are to spread Islam, secondly to remove all the
misconceptions relate to Islam, thirdly they wanted to present complete information about
the religion and also to solve problems of people relate to Islam. For this purpose they
invite renowned Religious Scholars, which help the public in understanding the true
Islam and answer their questions.

Recent statistic shows that the viewer ships of Islamic channels have increased now.
People these days are more interested in getting information about the religion as
television is now found in every house in urban as well as in the rural areas.

Mostly the target of Islamic media is the people who are uneducated and do not have the
knowledge about the religion and also target the Muslims living in the western world.

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RADIO

Mostly radio channels like FM 100.101,103 only made religious programmes on special
occasions like Ramadan, Muharram, Rabiul-ul Aval, and Hajj. In daily transmission they
broadcast recitation of Quran with translation, Hamd and Naat in the beginning of their
transmission. Radio Pakistan shows programmes related to Islam in order to educate the
public and to create awareness in them regarding religion.

POPULAR RELIGIOUS PROGRAMMES ON VARIOUS CHANNELS

According to a survey programmes, which are popular, are Aalim Online (Geo), Aaj
Aurat aur Islam, Deen Aasan (ATV) AAJ Islam (AAJ TV) Seratay Mustakeem, (TV 1)
Haeya UL fallah (PTV). Aalim Online is a religious program that has tried to tackle the
issues, which were not discussed even behind closed door The program broadcast almost
daily, brings together Islamic scholars from the two main schools of thought, Sunni and
Shia, who answer questions via live telephonic calls from various corners of the world.
AAJ Islam: AAJ Islam is a programme design to safeguard the beliefs and protect the
theological foundations of the religion by answering the questions in the light of Quran
and Sunnah. Religious leaders of the highest order will take questions and provide the
ideological reasoning behind every aspect of Islam and is its modern application. The
format of the programme is talk show. Aaj Aurat aur Islam: It’s a programme based on
the teaching of Islam with regard to the status and role of women. Dr Sammar Fatima
renowned religious scholar gives answers in the light of Quran, and Hadith.

INTERNET

The most important medium used for communication these days is the Internet. In
Pakistan there are many websites related to Islam but there are so many controversies
regarding these websites because people are of the opinion that some websites are not
educating people regarding the true teachings of Islam and some are doing propaganda
against Islam and encouraging wrong concepts related to Islam some people are of the

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views that there are some websites which are owned by non Muslims and are providing
the people with the incorrect information about Islam but on the other hand there are
some websites which are providing the people with the complete knowledge of Islam
their main target is the youth but they are very few. There are many websites, which are
in Urdu also, which are working in order to inform the people regarding true Islam.

In terms of credibility and authenticity there are many controversies regarding these
Islamic websites. Some are of the view that these websites are using religion for their
own benefits and exploiting people in terms of religion.

The future of Islamic channels and shows is very bright because nowadays people are
interested more in knowing about their religion and with the help of more and more
dedicated Islamic channels and programmes they will gain more awareness about that
which will help them not only in becoming a good Muslim but also a good citizen. But
the most important thing needed is that the programmes related to religion should be
design very carefully correct and accurate information should be given to the people on
the topic of Islam due to these Islamic channels and programmes those who don’t have
the complete awareness regarding religion will be able to educate themselves by
watching these programmes and by doing this, the media can play a significant role for
the betterment of the society.

Some PROS and CONS of Media on Religion:

PROS

 Awareness about Islam as we can see that Islam is the fastest growing religion in
the world.
 Image of Islam can be bitterly produced.
 Islamic channels show TV Programs which are very useful in the preaching of
Islam.
 The teaching of Islam can spread at a high pace.

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 You can directly contact any “AALIM” without any problem and ask about any
issue you want.

CONS

 Some Evil minded people are spreading false rumors about Islam and it damage
the image of Islam very quickly as the information spread at a fast speed.
 Sectarian conflicts are exaggerated by some forces.
 Some channels are trying to make some non Islamic issues legal such as
“KHUDA KAY LEYE”.
 The extra freedom that is given to media is damaging the image of Islam and
some forces are hurting the feelings of Muslims. Such as in case of caricatures of
our beloved Prophet (P B U H).

POLITICS

Over the past century we have seen so much changes in the political system of the
world.and media has been one of the most important factor in changing the conditions.
From boosting of the compaign to the coverage of violance or protests agianst
government these all are the result of media.but it has been oue dilema that the
government use media to strenghten their self and if media in any way talk aginst
government the government try to burry their voices. In recent exemple of Lal Masjid
and Case of chief justice the government didn’t let the media to give coverage or
information to general public. And history tell us that the dictators or monarchs use media
in their favour eithier it was print media or elecronic media.

REVIEW OF TRENDS IN POLITICAL CHANGE: FREEDOM AND CONFLICT

 POLITICAL GOVERNANCE

During the 20th century, the number of democratic states and number of people living
in democracies increased. In 2000, over half of the world population lives in democracy,
but one third live in authoritarian regimes. Almost all more developed states are now

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democracies. Almost 2/3rds of less developed countries are democracies, but almost 30
percent are authoritarian or totalitarian regimes

Table 1
World population living under these Governance types

1900 1950 2000


Population Population Population
Percent of Percent of Percent of
Population Population Population
(millions) (millions) (millions)
Democracy 0 0% 743 31% 3,439 58%
Restricted_Democracy 207 12% 286 12% 298 5%
Constitutional_Monarchy 299 18% 78 3% 0 0%
Traditional_Monarchy 23 1% 16 1% 58 1%
Absolute_Monarchy 610 37% 13 1% 0 0%
Authoritarian_Regime 0 0% 122 5% 1,968 33%
Totalitarian_Regime 0 0% 817 34% 142 2%
Colonial_Dependency 503 30% 118 5% 0 0%
Protectorate 27 2% 203 9% 5 1%
Total 1668 - 2,396 - 5,910 -

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Table 2
Number of countries with these Governance types

Less Developed More Developed


Countries Countries
1900 1950 2000 1900 1950 2000
Democracies 0% 4.2% 53.1% 0% 34.8% 95.7%
Restricted_Democracies 14.7% 14% 11.2% 10.9% 4.3% 0%
Monarchies 7% 8.4% 7% 45.7% 6.5% 0%
Regimes 0% 13.3% 28.7% 0% 43.5% 2.2%
Colonies 52.4% 40.6% 0% 6.5% 2.2% 0%
Protectorates 14% 18.9% 0% 4.3% 8.7% 2.2%
Empires 11.9% 0% 0% 32.6% 0% 0%
Number of countries 143 143 143 46 46 46

Democracy's Century: http://freedomhouse.org/reports/century.html

 FREEDOM

The Freedom House country ratings also can be combined with census from the
International Database data to show the number of people who were living in countries
with freedom, partial freedom and no freedom. These data show that freedom increased
for both less developed and more developed countries. However, using population to
examine freedom in less developed countries shows

1. Only moderate growth in the number of people in freedom in Less Developed


countries.

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2. Significantly less freedom and less growth in freedom than might be indicated by
looking at freedom using countries as the unit of analysis. For example, table 2 shows
over 50% of less developed countries are democracies. However, only 32% of people in
less developed countries live in countries that are free.

Table 3
Percent of people living in countries that are free, partially free, and not free

1980 2000
Less Developed Countries
Free 26.5% 31.5%
Partially Free 29% 26%
Not Free 45% 43%
More Developed Countries
Free 88% 99%
Partially Free 5% 0.2%
Not Free 7%

Freedom House ratings available at http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=1

The above analysis does not include many of the countries and satelites of the former
Soviet Union. These countries did not exist until 1990 or so. In 2000, a few of these
countries (e.g., Latvia, Slovakia, Slovenia, also East Germany) were free. Several more
were partially free, but a few (e.g., Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) were still not free
in 2000. Inclusion of these countries might change the percents above slightly.

A number of less developed countries gained freedom, while a number of less developed
countries lost partial freedom. (No countries went from Free to Not Free).

 TERRORISM

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Data from the US Department of State shows that, since the late 1980s, there has been a
decline in the number of international terrorist attacks. Data from the Terrorism
Knowledge base show a similar decline since the early 1980s.

The major decline in international terrorist attacks was in Western Europe. On the other
hand, Asia experienced an increase in international terrorist attacks. Other regions
experienced less consistent patterns over time from 1991 to 2003; there was a consistent
increase in the number of casualties from international terrorist attacks in Asia, but few
other consistent trends in casualties from international terrorist attacks. Three different
regions had, in three different years, a few attacks with a large number of casualties.

On the other hand, data from the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base show that since the
mid to late 1990’s there have been a large increase in the number of total terrorist
incidences, injuries and fatalities. Most of this increase is due to an increase in domestic
terrorism.

The above changes in the political conditions during the last century can be said that
caused by boom in media for instance we talk about freedom then it is media that played
important role in giving the people right and up to date information and awareness about
their rights and responsibilities. Similarly political governance system has been changed
parallel to changes and boom in media. And at last but not the least terrorism which
seems to be the most widely used and misused word now days why it has spread so fast
we can imagine. That’s because of media and especially electronic media which made it
really fast to move.

Some PROS and CONS of Media on Politics:

PROS

 People are aware of current affairs.


 Freedom of expression.
 People have all the coverage to what government is doing and can decide whether
government is doing fair or not.

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 E-Election or electronic election. Now the process is in the hands of PC’s not men so
least chances of errors.
 Faster communication between countries.
 Forecast of future projects.
 Least chances of corruption as everything is known to the general public and every
common man know what is right and wrong.

CONS

ECONOMY

An economy is the realized system of human activities related to the production,


distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area.

The composition of a given economy is inseparable from technological evolution,


civilization's history and social organization, as well as from Earth's geography and
ecology, e.g. ecoregions which represent different agricultural and resource extraction

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opportunities, among other factors. Economy refers also to the measure of how a country
or region is progressing in terms of product.

The earliest economic activity centered around food gathering and animal hunting.
During the Stone Age, which lasted until about 11000 years ago, early humans wandered
in tribal or family groups, hunting animals for food and picking nuts, berries, and fruits
where they could. All of this continued until an agricultural revolution occurred. People
realized that instead of always having to hunt for animals and search for berries, they
could just domesticate them. This meant that they would graze the animals like sheep.
They would domesticate them for milk and meat. They could also grow their own desired
plants. This meant that humans would have a reliable supply of food. This improved
people’s lives and provided leisure time, which could then be used to develop other
activities. The demands of crops and herding animals also encouraged people to remain
in one location, so villages and towns began to develop. That was the first human
economic activity as trading was first performed among people. The food grown by
individuals now would not only be used to feed themselves, but if they had more than
they needed they could trade for other needed equipment. Continued improvement in
agricultural technology—such as the plough, the tractor and better farming techniques—
led to even better lives for people. The new technology improved crop yields and food
quality, and also resulted in better methods for storing, transporting, and selling food.
One result of this technological change was that people had more time to do other things
beside produce food. They could become craftspeople, working with metal wood or cloth.
Or they could host other things, including teaching, developing laws, practicing
medicine, or leading their growing communities. These new crafts and skills that people
developed from the leisure time they created from the new farming techniques, generated
jobs and money. For example metal workers could sell their products to farmers and they
would either barter with food, or would trade with capital (money). The money would
then keep flowing around the community and the economic activity would increase.

Modern Economic Activities—Industrial Revolution and Urbanization The modern era


for economics started around 1700 A.D. It was that time when a second agricultural
revolution took place. Farmers began to apply new scientific knowledge to producing

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food, especially through the use of machines and equipment. This drove the development
of manufacturing, and the Industrial Revolution was underway in the 1800’s. This
revolution dramatically changed economic activities. Huge numbers of people were no
longer needed as food producers. Many moved from farms to cities to find work in the
new factories that were springing in there. Cities became the focus of economic activity
during the Industrial Revolution. Urbanization shifted the population from the
countryside to the cities. Cities that were built on manufacturing grew and expanded. By
the beginning of the 1900’s, more and more people were working jobs not related to
agriculture and manufacturing. This created the different types of industries (primary,
secondary, tertiary). These jobs were created to provide consumers in the cities with
services such as entertainment, shops and stores, banking and insurance.

All these revolutions and changes in economic system have brought us to today’s
economy. There are 4 types of economic systems: traditional, command, market and
mixed. Economic systems is the way economy works. The 4 basic resources to an
economy are land, labor, capital, and technology. Land refers to all natural resources that
we use to make something such as minerals, energy, water, or land. Labor refers to
human energy, efforts and talents that go towards making something. Capital is money—
money invested in machinery, buildings and the like. Technology includes all resources
that are not natural resources, such as scientific knowledge which allows decisions to
made. These are the world’s economic systems: 1) Traditional economy is an economy in
which decisions are made based on what has been done in the past. People organize their
economic choices by following their religion, custom and tradition. An example of how
traditional economy worked would be if there was a new road to be built, elders might be
consulted and the decision would be made according to the tradition of the people. 2)
Command economy is an economy where decisions are made by a central authority, such
as dictator or a government. Citizens are required to carry out these decisions with few
personal choices. An example would if a new industry was to built there, people in power
decided if it fit into their plans and if it met their needs. The citizens of the country would
have to carry out these commands. A country that follows this economic system is North
Korea. 3) Market economy is an economy where decisions are made by all members of

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the society based on their own needs and desires. Citizens make their own choices
through buying and selling in the market place. If a factory were to be constructed,
decisions would be made by a corporation, based on whether or not profit could be made.
The government might or might not be involved. A country that uses this type of an
economic system is the United States. 4) In mixed economies decisions are made within a
system that has aspects of both market and command economies. Governments,
businesses and individuals are all included in the making of the decision. So, if there was
an automobile manufacturing industry to be built there, the decision to construct a road
would be made after discussions among governments, businesses and consumers. The
decision would rest in the hands of any of these groups. Canada is an example of a mixed
economy.

In modern economies, there are three main sectors of economic activity:

 Primary sector: Involves the extraction and production of raw materials, such as
corn, coal, wood and iron. (A coal miner and a fisherman would be workers in the
primary sector.)
 Secondary sector: Involves the transformation of raw or intermediate materials into
goods e.g. manufacturing steel into cars, or textiles into clothing. (A builder and a
dressmaker would be workers in the secondary sector.)
 Tertiary sector: Involves the provision of services to consumers and businesses, such
as baby-sitting, cinema and banking. (A shopkeeper and an accountant would be
workers in the tertiary sector.)

First, the majority of world population has been and continues to be in Asia (except
Japan). Over time, however, this majority shrank from 65% in 1000 CE (Common Era) to
51% in 1950. At the same time, the percent of world population in Western Europe and
its offshoots (including the US) grew from 10% in 1000 CE to 19% in 1950. More
recently, population dynamics have been changing. While the population in the Western
Offshoots (US and others) has nearly doubled between 1950 and 1998, the population of
Asia (except Japan) nearly tripled in that same time. In addition, the population of Africa
has more than tripled.

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In consequence of the differences in population growth, the percent of world population


in Asia has increased slightly, up to 57% in 1998, while the percent of world population
in Western Europe and it's offshoots declined to 12% in 1998.

Second, in 1000 CE, economic output per capita was approximately similar across all
regions. As a result, percent of world economic output for each region was roughly
similar to percent of world population. After 1000 CE, output per capita started to vary
by region, increasing most dramatically in Western Europe and in its offshoots. As a
consequence, percent of world output from Asia decreased from 67% in 1000 CE to 16%
in 1973, while percent of world output from Western Europe and its offshoots increased,
at the same time, from 9% to 51%.

SOCIAL ECONOMY

Social Economy refers to the economy of the social web and emerging social media
technologies, rather than “social innovation” or “social enterprise”.

The merging together of these definitions and exploration will make very interesting
intersection of social media and social innovation. Or call it new media in the social
economy, if you will.

The use of social media technologies to meet social needs, empower civil society, fight
global warming will have a huge impact on raising citizen awareness and activism.
Already, a number of sites have emerged, with the ability, if not, the express intention to
impact positive social change.

Social media differs from traditional media in that it enables interaction and dialogue its
users, and can be entirely self sustaining through user-generated content. Social media
relies heavily on democratic principles that allow anyone to promote anything from
videos and news stories, to music and photos. Social media is a force to be reckoned
with, as it has the awesome potential to democratize society by placing the power of
information back into the hands of civil society through citizen journalism. It can harness
the wisdom of crowds and create community in unprotected ways.

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Some PROS and CONS of Media on Economy:

PROS

 Societies learn form their past experiences in case of failures.


 Awareness to common men thaw ether economy is growing or not.
 The type of economic system a country having also determine the state of
common man.
 Like the fascist or dictatorship economy bound common men not to raise voice
against government so productivity is low.
 Fast communication is there which means productivity will increase.
 Economic strategies of developed are available and underdeveloped countries can
learn from their strategies.

CONS

 Government use media in their favor which hide the real facts and figures from
general public and there are greater chances of corruption.
 It is difficult to maintain law and order when government has given liberty to
general public because some people can use it for their personal purpose.
 Threat of hacking or security because of transfer of government’s confidential
data via internet.

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