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SOCIAL CHANGE AND MEDIA

In the area of Sociology, we have tried to emphasize on the changes that

are brought by the members of the society. Social change has importance

in society because change in the behavior and attitude of the people and

environment of the society is so slow sometimes that we even don’t know

that what change has been brought in our lives. It was not tough for us to

research on social change, while we are researching of Social Change in

Pakistan.

'Social Change' in sociology is change in social relationships or culture.

In simple words it means such a change that deals with society, as well as

its members. ‘Social Change’ is also used as ‘Socio-Cultural Change’

which refers to the change in society as well as its culture. All societies are

involved in a process of social change; however, this change may be

increase by the members of the society when they are hardly aware. The

actions of individuals, organizations and social activities have an impact

on society and may become the way for social change. The process of

social change in any society is mostly very slow so that the members of

the society are unable to observe the change in the society. Social change

in simple is to motivate the intended people towards better life style.

There are some causes/factors and process, which are necessary to

brought change in society like diffusion, discovery, invention, physical

environment, population change, isolation & contact, social structure,

attitudes & values and so on. There are also few theories (Evolutionary,
Cyclical, Functional & Conflict theory and so on), which are discuss in

following respectively.

While in present the media is playing a vital role in social change. Through

media we should aware the members of society that how to change their

life style, attitude and behaviors. Change can never always be positive. In

some cases people brought such changes which are against the religion,

behavior and attitude of the members of the society. There are three

things included in process of social change are: Discovery, mean a shade

of human perception of reality which already exist. Like discovery of Oil &

gas in Pakistan, it affects the lifestyle of human and society of SUI.

Invention, a new combination or new use of existing knowledge. Human

being using their existing knowledge and invent new things I.e. Mobile,

radio, Bluetooth etc. It’s revolutionizing which change world and change

human lifestyle. The biggest social invention is ALPHABATES. Diffusion is

the spreading and transferring of culture from one society to other society.

When two culture exchange some ideas and thoughts, it’s called culture

diffusion. Diffusion is two way process: one person learns as well teach.

The factors which affecting rate of social change are: Physical

environment mean topography. The social change is higher in that area

where communication is easy. If we compare Peshawar with chital, the

Peshawar area is plan and communication is easy as compare to chital

and rate of social change is higher in Peshawar. Population change,

change in population may be increase or decrease. In case of increase

society goes from tradition to urban. While in case of decrease member of

society become closer to each other and goes toward traditional society.
Isolation & contact, change comes in society due to contacts and

isolation. Collectively we take example of faster social change in that area

which is lies nearly with G.T road. Social structure, collectively its mean

what type of social relationship prevailing among member of society. In

Pakistan collectivism is prevailing. While in American society individualism

prevailing. Now human moving from collectivism to individualism.

Attitudes & Values, these are behavior, perception and outlook of an

individual or group about different thing of society. Our internal thoughts

playing a vital role in attitudes and values. e.g. educated people have

more exposure and have more adoptability than non-educated people.

Perceived needs, sociologist said that all need is not real, such as

luxuries. Those needs are real which drive satisfaction. Technology

development comes by perceived needs. Culture base, accumumilation

of knowledge and techniques available for invention. Where more

invention and techniques avail, there rate of social change will be high.

Culture base have two parts: one is cross fertilization and second is

exponential principle. Cross Fertilization, using the techniques and

knowledge of one field in other field. e.g. Laser technology is the invention

of physics, while it’s using in different other fields like in Bio, medical and

so on. Exponential principle, it’s mean that the availability of unlimited

techniques, there would be more chances of invention and the rate of

social change would also be higher.e.g Mobile, T.V. Internet etc.

There are some theories playing a vital role in social change:

Evolutionary theory, this theory social change was based on the

assumption that all societies develop from simple, ‘small-scale’ beginnings


into more complex industrial and post-industrial societies. According to

this theory change always takes place in one direction. Change always

means progress. This development process was thought to be unilinear,

that is, there was one line of development from simple to complex.

Conflict theory, Marxism (Marx and Engels) Marxism also saw itself as

offering a 'scientific account' of change but, in opposition to

Functionalism, this focused on the premise that radical change was

inevitable in society. Marxism argued that the potential for change was

built into the basic structures of society, the relationships between social

classes, which Marx saw as being essential to the social relations of

production. According to Marx, ultimately society reaches a point where its

own organization creates a barrier to further economic growth and at that

point, crisis precipitates a revolutionary change of the society, for

example, from feudalism to capitalism or from capitalism to socialism.

Cyclic theory, Based on the observation that civilizations rise and fall. An

exemplar of cyclical theory is the work of Pitirim Sorokin, he identified 2

types of cultures: Ideational cultures—emphasize spiritual values and

Sensate cultures—emphasize sensual experience. Suggested that

societies move between these two extremes of sensate and ideational

culture. Functional theory, Functionalist theory emphasizes social order

rather than social change. Talcott Parsons viewed society as consisting of

interdependent parts which work together to maintain the balance of the

whole, rather like the human body with its mutually dependent organs

working for the health of the entire organism. Key concepts of this theory

are those of differentiation and integration.


In the era of modern technology MEDIA is playing an important role in

changing human lifestyle, behavior, attitude and aware them, that what

are there rights and how to achieved those rights. The creative media

improve health, education, promote human rights and foster social

change. Media inspires people to make positive personal choice that

improve their health and place them on the path to social and economic

independent. The best delivery method to reach the audience, including

radio, television, print, internet, mobile messaging and so on.

1. INTRODUCTION1

In this area of Sociology, I have tried to emphasize on the changes that


are brought by the members of the society. Social change, being as a
topic, has its importance in society because change in the behavior and
attitude of the people and environment of the society is so slow
sometimes that we even don’t know that what change has been brought
in our lives. I mainly try to cover-up those theories, factors and impacts (of

1
Report of Ms Rabia from Mass communication, National University of Modern
Languages
social change) on society which are essential to brought change in it. First
of all, I described the social change and later on its various aspects
through which it is being brought. It was not tough for me to have
research on social change, in general, but in case of Social Change in
Pakistan. Social Change in Pakistan is the topic which took a lot of time to
study about the changes that are brought by the people in the society. At
the end of this Intro about my research, I would like to say thanks to my
father for his guidance.

1.SOCIAL CHANGE

What is Social Change?


'Social Change' is a term used within
sociology and applies to amendment in social relationships or culture. In
simple words it means such a change that deals with society, a planned
community of people, as well as its members.

‘Social Change’ is also used as ‘Socio-Cultural Change’ (in anthropology),


The term social change is used to indicate the changes that take place in
human interactions and interrelations. Society is a web of social
relationships and hence social change means change in the system of
social relationships. These are understood in terms of social processes and
social interactions and social organization. Auguste Comte the father of
Sociology has posed two problems- the question of social statics and the
question of social dynamics, what is and how it changes. The sociologists
not only outline the structure of the society but also seek to know its
causes also. According to Morris Ginsberg social change is a change in the
social structure.

Societies are characterized by change: the rate of change, the


processes of change, and the directions of change. The actions of
individuals, organizations and social activities have an impact on society
and may become the medium for social change. The process of social
change in any society is mostly very slow so that the members of the
society are unable to differentiate between off and on changes in the
society. To observe the change in the society various socialists describe
theories factors and patterns of social change through which these
changes are being brought.

2. Impact of Technology Change


Factor means those reasons which are essential to brought changes in
society.

I. TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES

The causes of social change below affect or characterize every aspect


of society across the world. On a macro scale, they shape all of our major
social institutions (economics, politics, religion, family, education,
science/technology, military, legal system, and so on. On a micro scale,
they shape our values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. In sum, they
influence our ways of life.

II. INDUSTRIALIZATION (Economic Change)

Change in the economy is one of the main


factors of Social Change. If in any country there is some economic
revolution, it would directly impact on the masses. Economic change
brought change in the attitude and behavior of the people which later on
results change in the society which is called Social Change. For example;
being as a prime minister of Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, he announced
Nationalization, a system in which all the private firms would be handed
over to the Government. This Nationalization brought a major economic
revolt in Pakistan, people were able to get more governmental jobs and
the society was moving towards a change in their thoughts, behaviors and
attitudes. This process results in a good communication between
government and masses.

Characteristics of industrialized societies

• Smaller percentage of workforce employed in agriculture


• Increased division of labor, specialization of occupations
• Increase in education of workforce
• Increase in economic organizations (businesses)
• Stronger link between government and economy –
interdependent
• Technological change – new goods and services produced and
new occupations result; control of environment and the need to
do so.
• Geographical mobility
• Occupational mobility
• Population change:
• Demographic transition; move from (1) high birth rates and high
death rates (with smaller population sizes) to (2) high birth rates
and low death rates (with extreme population growth) to (3) low
birth rates and low death rates (with populations maintenance).
• People have fewer children as society industrialized because role
of family changes and technological advancements allow control
of reproduction.
• Families change from extended to nuclear families due to
geographic and occupational mobility. Family is no longer mainly
seen as an economic unit.

III. MODERNIZATION

The process of moving from an agrarian to industrial


society is called Modernization.

Characteristics of Modern Societies

• Larger role of government in society and civil service to run


governments
• Forming of social institutions to control behavior
• Laws and sanctions to regulate behavior
• Improved quality of life which means, ability to buy good and
services, better public health and housing facilities
• change of governments; replacing goods and services such as
cars, mobile ; Change in occupations and careers
• Control over and management of environmental resources: oil,
water, land, animals, etc... The ability to mass produce food,
energy, etc...
• Larger role of science in society to produce knowledge to
advance society. Larger role of education and universities.
• Improved quality of life – higher per capita GDP, ability to buy
good and services, more recreational time, better public health,
housing
• Self-efficacy
• Ability to adapt, expects, and desire continuous change.
Example: change of governments; replacing goods and services
such as cars, phone service, marriages; change in occupations
and careers.
IV. URBANIZATION

When large populations live in urban areas rather than rural areas, usually
results from economic opportunities: either people move to a city for jobs,
or rural areas become the sites of large businesses which leads to
population growth. If the people from rural areas heavily migrate to urban
areas then the economy might deprived to give services to those people
and create frustration among them and this would lead to the change in
society’s behavior , attitude and environment.
In Pakistan, majority is living in ruler area but now seeking the
better life style peoples are moving towards in urbanization. It is
happened changing the social change awareness. Cities offer social
benefits as well as economic benefits: transportation, schools, diffusion of
new products and services, and health care, cultural resources.

Characteristics of urban populations

• More diversity
• Independence
• Weaker social attachments – higher crime
• Secularization
• Mass communication systems

If urbanization occurs to fast, infrastructure can not support


population (transportation, public health issues, housing, schools,
emergency services, jobs). This can result in poverty and class conflict.
Class conflict and poverty may also result if large urban areas experience
loss of jobs.

V. Development of the means of transport and


communication

Development of transport and communication has led to the


national and international trade on a large scale. The road transport, the
train service, the ships and the aero planes have eased the movement of
men and material goods. Post and telegraph, radio and television,
newspapers and magazines, telephone and wireless and the like have
developed a great deal. The space research and the launching of the
satellites for communication purposes have further added to these
developments. They have helped the people belonging to different
corners of the nation or the world to have regular contacts.

VI. Transformation in the economy and the evolution of the


new social classes

The introduction of the factory system of production has turned the


agricultural economy into industrial economy. The industrial or the
capitalist economy has divided the social organization into two
predominant classes-the capitalist class and the working class. These two
classes are always at conflict due to mutually opposite interest. In the
course of time an intermediary class called the middle class has evolved.

VII. Unemployment

The problem of unemployment is a concomitant feature of the rapid


technological advancement. Machines not only provide employment
opportunities for men but they also take away the jobs of men through
labor- saving devices. This results in technological unemployment.

VIII. Technology and war

The dangerous effect of technology is evident through the modern


mode of warfare. The weaponry has brought fears and anxieties to the
mankind. They can easily destroy the entire human race reveal how
technology could be misused. Thus greater the technological
advancement the more risk for the mankind.

IX. Changes in social institutions

Technology has profoundly altered our modes of life. Technology has not spared the
social institutions of its effects. The institutions of family, religion, morality, marriage, state,
property have been altered. Modern technology in taking away industry from the household
has radically changed the family organization. Many functions of the family have been taken
away by other agencies. Marriage is losing its sanctity. It is treated as a civil contract than a
sacred bond. Marriages a re becoming more and more unstable. Instances of divorce,
desertion and separation are increasing. Technology has elevated the status of women but it
has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at
home. Religion is losing hold over the members. People are becoming more secular, rational
and scientific but less religious in their outlook. Inventions and discoveries in science have
shaken the foundations of religion. The function of the state or the field of state activity has
been widened. Modern technology have made the states to perform such functions as -the
protection of the aged, the weaker section and the minorities making provision for education,
health care etc. Transportation and communication inventions are leading to a shift of
functions from local government to the central government of the whole state. The modern
inventions have also strengthened nationalism. The modern governments which rule through
the bureaucracy have further impersonalized the human relations.

X. Cultural Lag

To provide a law of social change comparable to the laws of physics and biology that
William F. Ogburn in 1922 advanced his theory of social lag. Ogburn pointed out that social
changes always originate in the invention by some individual of a new way of doing
something new to do. So far he was following in the tradition established by Gabriel Trade;
but Ogburn then began to wander in the tracks of Marx, Historically, he argued, inventions
occur most often in the field of material technology, if only because the advantages of an
improvement in technology are self-evident. With each development in technology there
comes, however, some disturbance to the effective working of the existing social order. A
strain or stress is set up between the new technique and various organizational aspects of the
social system, changes in which come slowly if at all; the result, disequilibrium between new
technology and old social organization, is social lag. The core of Ogburn's theory is the idea
that change first occurs in the material technology.

XI. Social Movements

Social Movement is one of the major forms of collective behavior. We hear


of various kinds of social movements launched for one or the other
purpose. A social movement can be defined as collectively acing with
some continuity to promote or resist change in the society or group of
which it is a part. Horton and Hunt have defined it as a collective effort to
promotes or resist change. Smelser defines it as organized group effort to
generate or resist social change. According to M.S.A Rao social movement
includes two characteristics.

XII. Collective Action

Social Movement involves collective action. However it takes the form of a


movement only when it is sustained for a long time. This collective action
need not be formally organized. But it should be able to create an interest
and awakening in relatively large number of people.

XIII. Oriented towards social change

A social movement is generally oriented towards bringing social


change. This change could either be partial or total. Though the
movement is aimed at bringing about a change in the values, norms,
ideologies of the existing system, efforts are also made by some other
forces to resist the changes and to maintain the status quo. The counter
attempts are normally defensive and restorative rather than innovative
and initiating change. They are normally the organized efforts of an
already established order to maintain itself.
According to Yogendra Singh social movement is a collective
mobilization of people in a society in an organized manner under an
individual or collective leadership in order to realize an ideologically
defined social purpose. Social movements are characterized by a specific
goal which has a collective significance ideological interpretation of the
collective goal a rank of committed worker and strong leadership. Social
movements have a life-cycle of their own origin, maturity and culmination.
T.K Oomen observes that a study of social movements implies a study of
social structure as movements originate from the contradictions which in
turn emanate from social structure. He states that all social movements
centre around three factors- Locality, Issues and social categories.
Anthony Wallace view social movement as an attempt by local population
to change the image or models they have of how their culture operates.

An important component of social movement that distinguishes it


from the general category of collective mobilization is the presence of an
ideology. A student strike involves collective mobilization and is oriented
towards change. But in the absence of an ideology a student strike
becomes an isolated event and not a movement. A social movement
requires a minimum of organizational framework to achieve success or at
least to maintain the tempo of the movement. To make the distinction
clear between the leaders and followers to make clear the purposes of the
movement to persuade people to take part in it or to support it, to adopt
different techniques to achieve the goals - a social movement must have
some amount of organizational frame-work. A social movement may adopt
its own technique or method to achieve its goal. It may follow peaceful or
conflicting, violent or non-violent, compulsive or persuasive, democratic or
undemocratic means or methods to reach its goal.

XIV. BUREAUCRATIZATION

Process by which most formal organizations in a society (businesses,


government, non-profits) run their organizations via the use of extreme
rational and impersonal thinking, an extreme division of labor, and record
keeping

All tasks and functions broken down into small parts which become
positions in the organizational hierarchy. Roles attached to positions. Pay
and benefits attached to positions not persons. People can rotate in and
out of positions but organization survives with little change. Although
bureaucratization allows us to be highly efficient and effective and
produce surpluses of goods and services, it also can lead to extreme
inefficiencies:

Characteristics of Bureaucratization
• People in the organization become machine like – just performing
the specific aspects of their role; no more, no less. People
interactions with the organizations become machine like –
example, voice systems.
• Wasting of workforce skills
• Inefficient transactions – have to speak to 10 different people
before you get to the right person.
• Mass amounts of paperwork –jobs become largely processing
paperwork.
• Miscommunication.
• Power is held by a few at the top of the hierarchy which can
become problematic if they seek to protect their individual power
in the organization. Bureaucrats.
• Temptation to cheat – corporate crimes. Often because of a lack
of checks and balances which gets lost in the maze of offices,
departments, positions, supervisors, managers, administrators,
etc… or because of extreme power/position in the organization
and ability to exploit it.
• Goal of departments becomes to survive in the organization and
protect their own resources, rather than work together to provide
a product.

3. Process of Social Change

I. DIFFUSION

Rate at which populations adopt new goods and services is


called diffusion. In this process, when people adopt new things and service
others got impressed and influences them to have the same one and in
result it brings change in the society. This is the spreading and
transferring of culture from one society to other society. When two culture
exchange some ideas and thoughts its called culture diffusion. Diffusion is
two way process, one person learns and teach also. Diffusion is selective
process, we select those things which are suit us and to our culture. In
contact and isolation diffusion is fast.

II. INVENTION

An invention is often defined as a new combination or a new use of


existing knowledge. Human being use their existing knowledge and invent
new things. Thus inventions may be classified as material inventions, such
as the telephone, or airplane, and social inventions. The biggest social
change is Alphabates. It is revolutionize which change the world and
change human life. Invention may be different in form and function.
Different in function mean, the things which already prevail and make
some modification in them. e.g “changche” .

1. Prevailing things describe into new things


2. Function things are same but it is modified

III. DISCOVERY

A discovery is a shared human perception of an aspect of reality


which already exists. A discovery becomes a factor in social change only
when it is put to use.
For example, America is discovered. Natural Gas is discovered in
Baluchistan.
The question arose that how discovery affect social change. The best
example of Gas discovery in Pakistan. It affect the lifestyle of Pakistani
people and affect society.

4.Factors of Social Change

I. Physical Environment

Major changes in the physical environment are very compelling


when they happen. The desert wastes of North Africa were once green and
well populated. Climates change, soil erodes and lakes gradually turn into
swamps and finally plains. A culture is greatly affected by such changes
although sometimes they come about so slowly that they are largely
unnoticed. Human misuse can bring very rapid changes in physical
environment which in turn change the social and cultural life of a people.
Deforestation brings land erosion and reduces rainfall. Much of the
wasteland and desert land of the world is a testament to human ignorance
and misuse. Environmental destruction has been at least a contributing
factor in the fall of most great civilization. Many human groups throughout
history have changed their physical environment through migration. In the
primitive societies whose members are very directly dependent upon their
physical environment migration to a different environment brings major
changes in the culture. Civilization makes it easy to transport a culture
and practice it in a new and different environment.
Simply we can say that in plan area social change is higher as compare to mountain areas,
because the communication and interaction of society members is easy in plan area. Where
communication easy, the social change would be high. For example the area of peshawar is
plan and communication is easy and the rate of social change is fast as compare to Chitral,
Dir, Gilgit and so on.

II. Population change

A population change is itself a social change but also becomes a casual


factor in further social and cultural changes. When a thinly settled frontier
fills up with people the hospitality pattern fades away, secondary group
relations multiply, institutional structures grow more elaborate and many
other changes follow. A stable population may be able to resist change but
a rapidly growing population must migrate, improve its productivity or
starve. Great historic migrations and conquests of the Huns, Vikings and
many others have arisen from the pressure of a growing population upon
limited resources. Migration encourages further change for it brings a
group into a new environment subjects it to new social contacts and
confronts it with new problems. No major population change leaves the
culture unchanged.
Change in population may increase or decrease in population. In case of
increase in population society goes from tradition to urban or simple to
complex. While in case of decrease the member of society become closer
and make more relationship with each other and goes back to traditional
society. The decrease in population mostly come by natural disasters. The
best example is the Earth quick in Balakot, Hazara, Azad Kashmir.

III. Isolation and Contact

Societies located at world crossroads have always been centers of


change. Since most new traits come through diffusion, those societies in
closest contact with other societies are likely to change most rapidly. In
ancient times of overland transport, the land bridge connecting Asia,
Africa and Europe was the centre of civilizing change. Later sailing vessels
shifted the centre to the fringes of the Mediterranean Sea and still later to
the north- west coast of Europe. Areas of greatest intercultural contact are
the centers of change. War and trade have always brought intercultural
contact and today tourism is adding to the contacts between cultures says
Greenwood. Conversely isolated areas are centers of stability,
conservatism and resistance to change. The most primitive tribes have
been those who were the most isolated like the polar Eskimos or the
Aranda of Central Australia.
Collectively we can put the example of those areas which are lies on
or near with G.T road, the social change is fast there due to contacts and
isolation.

IV. Social Structure

The structure of a society affects its rate of change in subtle and not
immediately apparent ways. A society which vests great authority in the
very old people as classical China did for centuries is likely to be
conservative and stable. According to Ottenberg a society which stresses
conformity and trains the individual to be highly responsive to the group
such as the Zunis is less receptive to the change than a society like the
Ileo who are highly individualistic and tolerate considerable cultural
variability. A highly centralized bureaucracy is very favorable to the
promotion and diffusion of change although bureaucracy has sometimes
been used in an attempt to suppress change usually with no more than
temporary success. When a culture is very highly integrated so that each
element is rightly interwoven with all the others in a mutually
interdependent system change is difficult and costly. But when the culture
is less highly integrated so that work, play, family, religion and other
activities are less dependent upon one another change is easier and more
frequent. A tightly structured society wherein every person's roles, duties,
privileges and obligations are precisely and rigidly defined is less given to
changes than a more loosely structured society wherein roles, lines of
authority, privileges and obligations are more open to individual
rearrangement.
The question arose that how social strcuture affect society, it is
quite simple. If we see collectively, when a person change their life style,
attitude, behavior and so on. The other members of society will pointed
him and fire him. While in individualism society change fast and the
member of society not fire individuals.

V. Attitudes and Values

To people in developed nations and societies change is normal.


Children there are socialized to anticipate and appreciate change. By
contrast the Trobriand Islanders off the coast of New Guinea had no
concept of change and did not even have any words in their language to
express or describe change. Societies differ greatly in their general
attitude toward change. People who revere the past and preoccupied with
traditions and rituals will change slowly and unwillingly. When a culture
has been relatively static for a long time the people are likely to assume
that it should remain so indefinitely. They are intensely and unconsciously
ethnocentric; they assume that their customs and techniques are correct
and everlasting. A possible change is unlikely even to be seriously
considered. Any change in such a society is likely to be too gradual to be
noticed. A rapidly changing society has a different attitude toward change
and this attitude is both cause and effect of the changes already taking
place. Rapidly changing societies are aware of the social change. They are
somewhat skeptical and critical of some parts of their traditional culture
and will consider and experiment with innovations. Such attitudes
powerfully stimulate the proposal and acceptance of changes by
individuals within the society. Different groups within a locality or a society
may show differing receptivity to change. Every changing society has its
liberals and its conservatives. Literate and educated people tend to
accept changes more readily than the illiterate and uneducated. Attitudes
and values affect both the amount and the direction of social change. The
ancient Greeks made great contributions to art and learning but
contributed little to technology. No society has been equally dynamic in all
aspects and its values determine in which area-art, music, warfare,
technology, philosophy or religion it will be innovative.

Cultural Factor influences the direction and character of technological


change Culture not only influences our social relationships, it also
influences the direction and character of technological change. It is not
only our beliefs and social institutions must correspond to the changes in
technology but our beliefs and social institutions determine the use to
which the technological inventions will be put. The tools and techniques of
technology are indifferent to the use we make of them. For example the
atomic energy can be used for the production of deadly war weapons or
for the production of economic goods that satisfy the basic needs of man.
The factories can produce the armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and
iron can be used for building warships or tractors. It is a culture that
decides the purpose to which a technical invention must be put. Although
technology has advanced geometrically in the recent past, technology
alone does not cause social change. It does not by itself even cause
further advances in technology. Social values play a dominant role here. It
is the complex combination of technology and social values which
produces conditions that encourage further technological change. For
example the belief or the idea that human life must not be sacrificed for
wants of medical treatment, contributed to the advancement in medical
technology. Max Weber in his The Protestant Ethic and the spirit of
Capitalism has made a classical attempt to establish a correlation
between the changes in the religious outlook, beliefs and practices of the
people on the one hand and their economic behavior on the other. He has
observed capitalism could grow in the western societies to very great
extent and not in the eastern countries like India and China. He has
concluded that Protestantism with its practical ethics encouraged
capitalism to grow in the west and hence industrial and economic
advancement took place there. In the East, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism
and Islam on the other hand did not encourage capitalism. Thus cultural
factors play a positive as well as negative role in bringing about
technological change. Cultural factors such as habits, customs, traditions,
conservatism, traditional values etc may resist the technological
inventions. On the other hand factors such as breakdown in the unity of
social values, the diversification of social institutions craving for the new
thoughts, values etc may contribute to technological inventions.
Technological changes do not take place on their own. They are
engineered by men only. Technology is the creation of man. Men are
always moved by ideas, thoughts, values, beliefs, morals and philosophies
etc. These are the elements of culture. These sometimes decide or
influence the direction in which technology undergoes change. Men are
becoming more and more materialistic in their attitude. This change in the
attitude and outlook is reflected in the technological field. Thus in order to
lead a comfortable life and to minimize the manual labor man started
inventing new techniques, machines, instruments and devices.

VI. Technological Factors

The technological factors represent the conditions created by man


which have a profound influence on his life. In the attempt to satisfy his
wants, fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable man creates
civilization. Technology is a byproduct of civilization .When the scientific
knowledge is applied to the problems in life it becomes technology.
Technology is a systematic knowledge which is put into practice that is to
use tools and run machines to serve human purpose. Science and
technology go together. In utilizing the products of technology man brings
social change. The social effects of technology are far-reaching. According
to Karl Marx even the formation of social relations and mental conceptions
and attitudes are dependent upon technology. He has regarded
technology as a sole explanation of social change. W.F Ogburn says
technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in
turn adapt. These changes are usually in the material environment and
the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies customs
and social institutions. A single invention may have innumerable social
effects. Radio for example has One of the most extreme expressions of
the concern over the independence of technology is found in Jacques
Ellul's 'the technological society'. Ellul claims that in modern industrial
societies technologist has engulfed every aspect of social existence in
much the same way Catholicism did in the middle ages. The loss of human
freedom and the large-scale destruction of human beings are due to the
increasing use of certain types of technology which has begun to threaten
the life support systems of the earth as a whole.
VII. Perceived Needs

Sociologist says that all needs are not real such as luxuries and so
on. Those needs are real which drive satisfaction. The technology
development is also come by perceived needs. For example when an
individual buy a Motor cycle after it his needs will be become higher and
he will think that to purchase a Motor Car now. This is perceived needs.

VIII. Cultural base

Culture base mean accumulation of knowledge and techniques


available for invention. Where more techniques and knowledge available
there will be more chances of invention. Where invention is fast, the rate
of social change will too fast. There are two parts of cultural base.

i. Cross Fertilization

Cross fertilization mean the using of techniques of area in other


field.

For Example:
Laser technology is the invention of physics but it using in many
different field. Like in Medical mostly operation are performing through
laser technology. Specially, operation stone in kidney.

ii. Exponential principle :

Exponential principle mean that the availability of unlimited


techniques. Where more unlimited techniques would available there will
more chance of invention and at the other hand rate of social change will
be fast. E.g. Mobile, TV, Internet etc.
5.THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE

There are four theories in Social Change.

i. Evolutionary (Linear) Theory

ii. Conflict Theory

iii. Cyclical Theory

iv. Functional ( Functionalism) Theory

v. Societal Change

vi. Organizational Change

vii. Theories of Social Structure

viii. Social Movement


I. Evolutionary (Linear) Theory

This theory of social change was based on the


assumption that all societies develop from simple, 'small-scale' beginnings
into more complex industrial and post-industrial societies. According to
this theory:
• Change always takes place in one direction
• Change always means progress
• Change always leads to betterment

This development process was thought to be unilinear, that is, there


was one line of development from simple to complex. It also assumed that
the changes inherent in this development were all 'progress’. This theory
emerged around the time Charles Darwin was publishing his theories on
the origin of species; that biological species evolved from the simple to
the complex and that there was 'survival of the fittest'.

II. Conflict Theory

Marxism (Marx and Engels) Marxism also saw itself as offering a


'scientific account' of change but, in opposition to Functionalism, this
focused on the premise that radical change was inevitable in society.
Marxism argued that the potential for change was built into the basic
structures of society, the relationships between social classes, which Marx
saw as being essential to the social relations of production. According to
Marx, ultimately society reaches a point where its own organization
creates a barrier to further economic growth and at that point, crisis
precipitates a revolutionary change of the society, for example, from
feudalism to capitalism or from capitalism to socialism. Marxists believed
that social order was maintained through socialization, education and
ideology. . While Conflict Theory is useful in explaining ongoing changing
patterns of race and gender relations, it struggles to effectively explain
the impressive impact of industrial development on society or the changes
to family organization.

a. Education

It” is a good example of conflict theory as applied to education. He


argues that teachers treat lower-class kids like less competent students,
placing them in lower “tracks” because they have generally had fewer
opportunities to develop language, critical thinking, and social skills prior
to entering school than middle and upper class kids. When placed in
lower tracks, lower-class kids are trained for blue-collar jobs by an
emphasis on obedience and following rules rather than autonomy, higher-
order thinking, and self-expression. They point out that while private
schools are expensive and generally reserved for the upper classes, public
schools, especially those that serve the poor, are underfunded,
understaffed, and growing worse. Schools are also powerful agents of
socialization that can be used as tools for one group to exert power over
others – for example, by demanding that all students learn English,
schools are ensuring that English-speakers dominate students from non-
English speaking backgrounds. Many conflict theorists argue, however,
that schools can do little to reduce inequality without broader changes in
society (e.g. creating a broader base of high-paying jobs or equalizing
disparities in the tax base of communities).

b. Crime

“The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison” is a good example of
a conflict theory perspective on crime. Conflict theorists argue that both
crime and the laws defining it are products of a struggle for power. They
argue that a few powerful groups control the legislative process and that
these groups outlaw behavior that threatens their interests. For example,
laws prohibiting vagrancy, trespassing, and theft are said to be designed
to protect the wealthy from attacks by the poor. Although laws against
such things as murder and rape are not so clearly in the interests of a
single social class, the poor and powerless are much more likely than the
wealthy to be arrested if they commit such crimes. Conflict theorists also
see class and ethnic exploitation as a basic cause of many different kinds
of crime. Much of the high crime rate among the poor, they argue, is
attributable to a lack of legitimate opportunities for improving their
economic condition. They would also be likely to point to racism as well
as classism in the criminal justice system, suggesting that crime will
disappear only if inequality and exploitation in that system and in society
at large are also eliminated.

c. Sports

Again, the conflict theorists would be likely to look at who “makes it”
in sports through a lens of inequality. As in Messner’s article, the conflict
theorist would point out that while many people strive for big-time athletic
success, boys (or girls) from the lower classes may be under inordinate
pressure to achieve athletic success as their “ticket out of the ghetto.”
The conflict theorist would also be critical of the commercialism pervading
sports today, pointing out that athletes are not as socially valuable as,
say, teachers but make a lot more money. Some argue that athletes are
often exploited by corporate and university interests, thus becoming
“commodities” and possibly becoming “alienated” from a sport they once
loved. Because sports is such a big-time business, conflict theorists would
be concerned that college players in particular are being exploited by
colleges and universities, who may give them scholarships but make
much more money off their talents than the players do. In turn, colleges
often “use” players for their talents while investing little in their
education. As above, the conflict theorist would point out that inequality
in sports cannot be reduced unless changes first occur to lessen broader
income inequalities and our commercial culture.

III. Cyclical Theory

• Based on the observation that civilizations rise and fall


• An exemplar of cyclical theory is the work of Pitirim Sorokin
• Sorokin identified 2 types of cultures
 Ideational cultures—emphasize spiritual values
 Sensate cultures—emphasize sensual experience
• Suggested that societies move between these two extremes
of sensate and ideational culture
• Societies occasionally arrive at an intermediate point, or
idealistic point, which represents a harmonious mix of both
ideational and sensate cultural features

IV. Functional Theory

Functionalist theory emphasizes social order rather than social change.


Talcott Parsons viewed society as consisting of interdependent parts
which work together to maintain the balance of the whole, rather like
the human body with its mutually dependent organs working for the
health of the entire organism. Key concepts of this theory are those of
differentiation and integration.
Functionalists see society as a homeostatic system--consisting of solid
parts.
• The normal state of society is one of stability
• Because society is an open system, it is usually in a
energetic state, or a state of near stability
Society changes, as it try to find combine conditions which act upon it
• The changes, however, are bit by bit and very slow
• The purpose of these changes is to bring society to a place
of stability.

V. Societal Change

Factors in societal change may be summarized under three main


headings: economic, political and cultural.

Marx is perhaps the most famous proponent of the notion that


societies/forms of social organization are largely determined by economic
factors and in particular the impact of industrial capitalism. Among
political influences the state – government – now plays a very large role in
social life and change in industrial societies. Cultural influences clearly
play an important part in social change. For example, secularization and
the development of science have had major effects on the way in which
we think, attitudes to legitimacy and authority, and have thus also
influenced social structures, systems and values (Giddens and Duneier,
2000). If these are the key factors in societal change, foundations wanting
to effect change at this level need to focus on changing economic,
political or cultural structures and processes. This macro approach to
social change is adopted by some international foundations aiming to
change economic and political conditions. These fundamental themes of
resources, power/politics, and cultural factors reappear, in a sense, in
theories of organizational change.
Theories of Social Change

VI. Organizational Change


Very broadly, there are four main approaches to organizations and
organizational change:

Classical / early modernist, Modernist, symbolic interpretive


and post modern

Classical and early modernist theorists are more concerned


with stability than change. Early modernists see change as planned
change in which a change agent introduced change in a deliberate way.

In contrast, for the modernists organizational change stems


from changes in the environment and is outside the organization's direct
control. More recently, population ecology, organizational life cycle and
learning organization theories have seen organizations as not just
adapting to external pressures but creating their own internal dynamics.

Symbolic Interpretive theories of organizational change are


essentially dynamic insofar as because the processes of social
construction are seen as both reproducing existing structures and leading
to their alteration.

The post modern approach explores the paradox of


stability/change in organizations. Post modernist theory sees planned
organizational change as rhetoric and change processes as discourse.
Both theories reject the notion of organization, as some sort of definable,
discrete entity, focusing instead on organizing as an on' going dynamic
process. Depending on which approach to organizational change is
adopted, a foundation wanting to effect change at this level would need to
recruit top management or consultants to introduce change from within;
attempt to change the organization via changes in its environment;
encourage change from within by creating learning organizations; change
the rhetoric and discourse of the organization/management.

VII. Theories of Social Structure

The themes of organizational change have parallels in theories of


individual and group change.

According to Backer (2001), behavior is more likely to change if: the


person forms a strong positive intention, or makes a commitment, to
perform the behavior; there are no environmental constraints that make it
impossible for the behavior to occur; the person possess the skills
necessary to perform the behavior; the person perceives that the
advantages of performing the behavior outweigh the disadvantages; the
person perceives more normative pressure to perform the behavior than
not to perform it; the person believes that performance of the behavior is
more consistent than inconsistent with his or her self' image or that it
does not violate personal standards; the person’s emotional reaction to
performing the behavior more positive than negative; and the person
perceives that he or she has the ability to perform the behavior under a
number of different circumstances.(Backer, 2001) Foundations wanting to
encourage change at this level might work to reduce environmental
constraints on changing particular behaviors, and/or try to alter the
advantage/disadvantage calculus by attempting to strengthen normative
pressures.
ories of Social Change

VIII. Social Movement

It is worth highlighting an approach to economic, cultural and


political change which stresses the role of individuals, groups and
organizing in effecting social change. Groups can attempt to encourage or
discourage social change via social movements. The conditions under
which social movements occur have been the subject a long and vigorous
debate. Marx believed that social movements/revolution occurs as a
result of the contradictions or
UN resolvable tension in societies, in particular related to economic
changes. But contrary to Marx’s expectations revolutions did not occur in
all advanced industrial societies. This led Davies (1962) to theories that
social protest movements are more likely to occur not when people are in
dire poverty but when there is some improvement in their living conditions
and their expectations start to raise i.e. relative deprivation. But Tilly
(1978) pointed out that Davies’ theory does not explain how and why
different groups mobilize to achieve change. Tilly distinguishes 4
components of collective action:
The organization, mobilization of resources, common interests, and
opportunity

Collective action is a means of mobilizing group resources when


people have no institutionalized means of making their voices heard, or
when their voices are repressed by government.

Smelser (1963) identified six conditions for the development of


social movements: structural conduciveness; structural strain; spread of
generalized beliefs and suggested ways of remedying them; precipitating
factors – trigger factors. These four conditions do not lead to development
of social movements unless there is leadership, a means of regular
communication, funding and material resources. The way in which a social
movement develops is strongly influenced by the operation of social
control.

Touraine’s (1977, 1981) analysis differs from Smelser’s principally


in allowing that social Movements may develop spontaneously to achieve
desired social changes rather than being Responses to situations. His
ideas include: historicity – there are more social movements today
because people know that social activism can be used to achieve change;
rational objectives and strategies regarding how injustices can be
overcome; interaction in the shaping of social movements i.e. movements
develop in deliberate antagonism with established organizations and with
rival social movements. He emphasizes the way in social movements
occur in the context of fields of action i.e. the connections between a
social movement and the forces or influences against it. Foundations
adopting a social movement approach to achieving societal change would
obviously work to foster the development of (selected) social movements.
How exactly a foundation might do this depends in large part on the
particular theory of social movements it favors. For example, Smelser’s
theory would suggest a focus on promoting leadership, means of
communication, funding and material resources. Touraine’s theory might
suggest a focus on promoting the idea of social activism and interactions
between social movements.

In the era of modern technology MEDIA is playing an important role in

changing human lifestyle, behavior, attitude and aware them, that what

are there rights and how to achieved those rights. The creative media

improve health, education, promote human rights and foster social

change. Media inspires people to make positive personal choice that

improve their health and place them on the path to social and economic

independent. The best delivery method to reach the audience, including

radio, television, print, internet, mobile messaging and so on.

CASE STUDY & ARTICLES

(Social Change in the Post Relief Aid of Earthquake in


Pakistan)

Social Change in the Post Relief Aid of Earthquake in Pakistan

1. Introduction

Relief in simple words is assistance in time of difficulty or it means to


provide temporary comfort in trouble. Soon after the devastative
earthquake the relief phase started and it continued for more than six
months. During this phase the survivors were provided with goods of
immediate needs. Their emergency needs were given preferences both by
government and private sectors. The relief programs consisted of;
recovery of the corpses, provision of edibles, tents, dresses, and cash
amounts, medical facilities, formation of tent village etc

As the earthquake struck Pakistan, philanthropic works were started by


various actors. Those involved government agencies, community itself,
NGOs, religious organizations, Jihadist Groups, volunteer workers and
political organizations. All these actors helped the victims in terms of
providing them immediate help for basic recoveries. These philanthropic
efforts were both physical and financial.

Cheques For Injured and Deaths

DEATH Rs. 100,000


INJURY Rs.25000 Major Injuries / Rs.15000 Minor Injuries

2. Impacts of relief works on the social life

Relief works had great impact on the social life of the people of
earthquake hit areas. Many major changes occurred due to the relief
works.

2.1. Dependency Syndrome

Each household was provided with excessive amount of edibles such as


wheat flour, ghee, tea, pulses, and rice. They were also given cash
amounts by individuals, government and various organizations for more
than six months, which developed dependency syndrome among the
community and majority of them left working. They would roam around
the area so as to find more relief goods. Many of them would catch every
newcomer and asked for help by showing their national identity cards.
This tendency led them to leave work and majority of them did not work
for a year after the earthquake. Only few persons started work six months
of major earthquake.
People are waiting for relief outside the camp of RDP (Rural Development
Program me)

2.2 Changes in Statuses

The major earthquake brought a rapid change in statuses of the


community people. Before earthquake there were strong feelings of
superiority among the Swati (Caste) against Go jars and other castes.
Usually Swati would consider; they are superior and it was reflected by
their behavior and their residence patterns. Swati would keep distance
from Go jars and Mazaree (Land worker on rent).Majority of Go jars and
Mazaree would feel deprived due to their lower social and economic
statuses.

Major changes regarding each aspect of human life took place i.e. people
living in an unorganized and socially stratified society faced a change as
after earthquake. They all were to face same problems of fear, hunger,
shelter, and family disorganization. It was for the first time when all the
residents of the village faced identical problems and all of them were in
search of relief goods. During first days of the earthquake when
helicopters would drop relief goods the community people both Swatis and
Go jars would rush to catch more goods and in during that situation the
class difference would not be given any importance.

Helping organizations would come to the village and the people of high
status would also stand in rows with people of low status. All the residents
would stand in rows for relief goods. During this process conflicts would
emerge between Swatis and Go jars but the Swatis would get instant
replies due to their new statuses as now all of them were equal. This
tendency brought great disturbance in the village and after one month of
the earthquake Swatis changed their strategy and threatened Go jars and
Mazaree not to forget their past and after that they would contact helping
organizations to come to the village and when helping organizations
would arrive the Swati elders would lead them to the village as the
officials of organizations were unaware of the village ethnic composition
.so majority relief goods would be distributed among Swati people.

2.3 Impact on religiosity of people

All community members accuse of NGOs of spreading immorality among


the females of area. People of the village developed sense of hatred and
jealousy among each other. Before the earthquake they would cooperate
but after earthquake majority of them have left cooperation with one an
other. Before earthquake people would offer five time prayers in mosques
but after earthquake the tendency of people to offer prayer has changed
to a great extent. Only few elders go to mosques for prayer. Before
earthquake people had fear of Allah (God) but after the earthquake this
tendency has decreased. Regular aftershocks hit the area due to which
many people terms those after shocks as missed call from Allah’s side.

2.4 Disputes

During the process of relief works helicopters would drop tents and other
relief goods near the earthquake hit areas. People would rush to collect
those goods. In this process weak and old individuals would remain empty
handed. There were many cases of conflicts among the people for relief
goods in earthquake hit areas. These disputes were of many kinds which
are mentioned as under in a detail.
2.4.1. Inter Family Disputes

Inter family conflicts had developed as each one wanted to get maximum
relief .when the relief teams would arrive and prepare the list of
Households with the help of indigenous people during this list formation
process. Few people would get their names written. They would not tell
the names of their relatives which then caused conflict.

2.4.2. Inter Group Disputes

During relief process many disputes emerged between Swati and Go jar
groups. Swatis were economically well-off and they had lost assets
comparatively more than Go jars. They anticipated more relief goods but
they received equal amount of relief goods from governmental authorities
while they expected more share than that of Go jars and other people.
“This situation was interpreted by the Swatis Balakot as due to ethnicity of
District Nazim who was Go jar. From last few years politically the area is
dominated by the Go jars and district Nazim was Go jar. So the Swatis
would consider him to be responsible for all the process. Gojars, on other
hand, considered themselves to be ignored in relief works due to Swatis as
they would lead the officials of all the helping organizations in village and
would provide them wrong data about Gojar families. The organizations
officials would not involve all the community members in distributing
process of relief. They would give preference to Swatis.

2.4.3. Disputes of Khan and Mazaree

The system of patron and client prevails in the area. The clients reside on
lands of patrons. After the earthquake when the relief works were started
the clients were given relief goods but after a month many patrons
compelled the clients to leave their lands. When relief workers would
arrive at the village the patron would not allow their clients to get relief
goods. The patrons would also not let any one to write names of their
clients for relief goods. This tendency led towards conflicts among patrons
and clients. Few clients were beaten and their relief goods were taken by
patrons. “Ashfaq was a Swati. He was landlord of village where as Safdar
was a Mazara, working on the land of Ashfaq. After the earthquake a huge
quantity of relief goods was distributed to the community. Mr. Safdar took
a lot of relief. But his patron did not allow him to get relief goods. The
patron would also not let Safdar to write name for relief goods. Few times
Safdar was beaten by Ashfaq and his relief goods were set aside. Ashfaq
would not allow his client to work on his land as Mazara after the
disaster.”

2.5. Exposure of Modern Technology and Outer World

After earthquake various cellular companies provided the area with mobile
phone services. Majority of the community people when got cash amount
in relief from government and other organizations bought mobile phones.
This also affected norms of the area as in many cases young generation
was accused of using this technology for love. Many local people for the
first time came in contact with foreigners.

2.6. Economic development of community life

Majority of the people of earthquake hit areas did not buy edibles for a
year due to the stock which they had received in relief from various
organizations and government. Few Mazaras who had nothing before
earthquake received a lot of relief goods, which brought dramatically
change in the economic status. Many Swatis faced hard days due to the
destruction of their houses and all luggage’s, which made them stand
among the Gojars with low economic status. Upper class of the people of
earthquake hit areas faced problems and received severe economic
shocks due to earthquake .Same was the case with middle class
population while the lower class population enjoyed the most positive
impact of the relief. This brought a huge moral and economic support to
these people.

2.7. Less community participation in decision making

only in few cases community was taken into consideration while in


majority cases they were given no importance in decision making due to
which many relief works were considered as useless by the community.
Certain programs were perceived as contrasting and disastrous for culture
of the area. In majority programs the community was treated as recipients
not as participants. So this causes as a big social change after the
earthquake.

3. Summary and Conclusion

Current study was conducted in the earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The
basic question of the research was to find out that how relief brought the
major social changes in the earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The
objectives of the study were to find out the reasons and causes of social
change in relief process of the earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The data
was collected through anthropological techniques and methods. The
researcher collected the data by using the qualitative techniques of
participation observation, key informants, case study, socio economic and
census survey, photography, random sampling, in-depth interviews and
secondary data.

Earthquake brought an emphatic social changes in the norms and and


values of the culture of earthquake hit areas of Pakistan. The majority of
people were engaged in the equal cultural system where they were living
in identical tent culture. The status was of no matter and the people were
enchanting the relief aid from the local and foreign donors. Many of them
were sitting free at home and it leads them to dependency. If we look at
the over situation we would see that earthquake has not come as an
examination of local of Pakistan it has also come as a test of donations
and help of the national and international agencies.

Satellite Television and Social Change in Pakistan: A


Case Study of Rural Sindh

Published in Books & Authors (Daily Dawn) on May 20, 2007

Review:
SINDH is the land of devoted Sufis and sand dunes. It has been home to
the most advanced of ancient civilizations — the Indus Valley. It is blessed
with a legacy of the poetic works of Sachal Sarmast, Shah Abdul Latif
Bhitai and many others. But do we also know that ages ago, Sindhi
women were given prime importance in decision-making, Sindhi folk tales
and fiction always depicted strong and central female characters and the
process of acculturation, after the advent of Islam in Sindh, took around
three centuries.

Mohammad Ali Sheikhs’ work makes one realize how little we actually
know about the place we live in, of its history, culture and society (both
primitive and present). The book will be of interest to marketers,
advertisers, media persons, mass communication professionals,
sociologists, anthropologists, other social scientists and anyone who cares
for history and wants to gain a basic insight into the rich and complex
culture of Sindh.

Several Pakistani and foreign authors and travelers have written about
Sindhi society, as it was during different epochs. However, this is the first
time somebody has acknowledged and investigated the kind of impact
that a popular medium like television has on the rural society of Sindh
(which is actually 60 per cent of the entire population of the province).

Technological advancement is said to be directly related to social


progress.

Television is a medium that affects everyone in society, directly or


indirectly, since it is so easily accessible. The satellite exposes us to a
range of value systems, belief systems, and social institutions and so on.
It perhaps not only brings about changes in traditional and indigenous
values and customs, but also helps in the process of social and cultural
evolution.

The author makes us aware of prevalent mindsets in the region. For


instance, many people in Sindh do not watch television because they
consider it un-Islamic or a satanic practice. Another interesting example of
influence on thinking patterns, is as follows:

“A group of college students remarked that they knew now that MBA
is a much sought-after degree as almost every second hero in a television
drama is shown to be a holder of this degree and that chartered
accountants get very high salaries as they are shown to be leading a
luxurious life.”

With the statistics of survey results provided for a number of categories, a


base is established for addressing issues such as linguistic barriers,
illiteracy, the issue of Karo-kari, the lack of cultural diffusion between
Sindhis and Mohajirs (immigrants from India) and so on. With further
research and updates, goals may be chalked out and television content
adjusted accordingly, to achieve these for the betterment of society.

The book will also prove to be an amazing guide for those preparing a
dissertation and/or conducting a research on this subject. Shaikh has
devoted an entire section to explaining the research methodologies used
by social scientists (quantitative and qualitative), which in his opinion, are
perhaps more important than the actual end results obtained. He
elaborates on why he chose a certain method, how questions and surveys
were developed and how to get the best response from the target
audience.

Inclusion of colour photographs or sharper black and white images as well


as slightly better proof reading of the text would have considerably added
to this otherwise brilliant work of research. The research is intensive but
the work is not exhaustive with regard to understanding the Sindhi people.
It is merely a beginning (hopefully) that will inspire others to delve further
into the subject, the use of which cannot be emphasized enough. —
Ayesha Hoda.
PAKISTAN: Media's role for positive social change

Importance of media as link between government and civil


society stressed at workshop organized by Pakistan Press
Foundation and European Union
Dawn
Tuesday, April 18, 2006
Karachi --- The media should play the role of a catalyst to ensure a
positive social change, said speakers at a workshop here on Monday.

The five-day workshop on "Training of trainers on media and local


government" was organized by the Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF) with
support of European Union at a local hotel.

Addressing the concluding session of the workshop, the head of EU's


delegation to Pakistan Michael Dale said the role of media was very vital,
as it was a go-between between the government and civil society. He said
that the media was not only the conscience of society but also its safety
valve.

Mr Dale said it was very difficult to be unbiased while reporting, but it was
the prime responsibility of media to ensure objectivity and impartiality
while discharging their professional duties.

He said sometimes to boost sales, some newspapers indulge in


sensationalizing of news. He said it was a two-edged sword as if used for a
positive purpose, it would get appreciation of readers, but if an unbiased
news item was sensationalized, the media would lose its credibility. He
said that the credibility and confidence of readers was a major asset of
the media.

Mr. Dale said the media should play the role of a catalyst for a rapid and
positive social change. He said that it were not the yes-men but the
people who dared to say 'No', which helped the society to progress and
prosper. He said that the media could only help the society by raising bold
questions.

Mr Dale said that not only in countries like Pakistan but also in the
Western societies many vested interests find their way in government. He
said here the responsibility fell on the shoulders of media to unearth the
negative vested interest in the larger interest of public and society.

Quoting example of Western countries, he said that people sued media


there for giving wrong information.

Mr Dale hoped that the participants would use information obtained


during the training workshop in their practical work. He stressed for
public-private partnership to solve the problems of masses. He assured
that the European Union would continue to support such training
programmes in future.

Earlier, City Nazim Syed Mustafa Kamal, addressing the workshop, said
the local government and media had a close relationship.

He said that the objective of local government, the third tier of


government, was to facilitate masses at grassroot level.

He said that the media provided a useful guidance for the local
government regarding the problems of people. He said that during the last
four months as a city mayor, he had found the media very positive and
helpful.

The city nazim said that Karachi was a big city with a population of around
18 million, and having 170 union councils. He said that it was not possible
for the city government officials to monitor each and every area of the city
and know all their problems. He said that here the city government had to
rely on media, which provided it with useful information about the
problems faced by the masses.

He said that he always welcomed the criticism and took it as a positive


response. He said that sometime vested interest also used media for their
negative designs, but again these cases were very rare and 99 per cent
media reports were a very positive and constructive.
Syed Kamal said that for the first time in history of Karachi, his
administration was inviting suggestions and feedback from the citizens
before initiating a new uplift scheme.

Quoting example of the Hassan Square Flyover projects, he said that


suggestions had been invited from citizens and decision was taken in their
light.

PPF Chairman Fazal Qureshi, General Secretary Owais Aslam Ali, Roshan
Ara and others also spoke.

Adequate security urged for journalists

The Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists, the Karachi Union of Journalists


and KUJ's Dawn unit have condemned the April 11 blast at Nishtar Park
and expressed concern over the security lapse which besides killing
prominent religious leaders and others injured over 100 people, including
eight media personnel.

A joint statement demanded security for journalists in view of the


deteriorating law and order situation in the country, particularly in
Karachi, Balochistan and tribal areas.

The statement said the situation in Karachi demanded foolproof security


measures and required newspaper establishments and owners of TV
channels to provide life-saving jackets and life insurance cover to their
reporters and other staff members and to pay them security allowances.
Effective security steps were also urged for newspaper employees
returning home after night duty.

Agenda for Social Change!


By Hashim Abro

Pakistan times

WHILE visiting various parts of the country from Karachi


to Kalat and chatting with all and sundry and discussing different issues,
in particular, population growth, role of womenfolk and Ulema in
stabilization of population, during week I have concluded that the
population growth rate in the country had declined considerably and
dropped to 1.9 per cent, but still three million are being added every year.

As a result, it is creating more challenges. Besides, it also has implications


on government’s efforts towards fighting poverty. The population
explosion has increased the pressure on resources; therefore, water
availability has declined from 5,300 cubic metres per capita in 1951 to
850 cubic metres per capita today.
Of course, few can deny that Pakistan is facing an intense crisis of
resources. There is intense competition for the nation’s limited natural
resources that is leading to quarrels among provinces distribution of NFC
Award is evidence, between communities and even families. Our land and
water resources are being exploited to the hilt. The exploitation of our
resources is threatening our forests, natural reserves, and general
ecology. Over use of resources is contributing to natural disasters
occurring more frequently and with greater devastation.

Yes, for many Pakistanis, life is a big struggle just to put together the bare
essentials for survival, and shortages of resources works most against the
poor and underprivileged. Even as sections of Pakistan’s middle-class
struggle with scarcities - it is the poor and vulnerable sections of society
who suffer most. It is true that better management of resources could
reduce this problem.

Others have argued that if the family planning like project were to be
implemented in some acceptable form that could alleviate such problems
in the future. But even with appropriate development schemes and
optimum utilization of scarce resources, it would be hard to argue, that on
a per capita basis, Pakistan’ s natural resources are not becoming severely
strained.

No doubt, some Pakistanis have the luxury of taking long showers twice or
thrice a day - even their pets are bathed daily, and their cars scrubbed
from top to bottom. Others are lucky if they get to bathe once a week. And
many are lucky just to have access to clean drinking water.

If in the future, Pakistan is to become a more egalitarian nation, and


attempt to share its water-resources in a fairer and more just way, it is
evident that with projected population growth rates, it is unlikely that
every Pakistani citizen will have access to a reasonable amount of water
every day. The same would be true of other precious resources like land,
energy and scarce minerals.

Even as “globalization of the media” has created amongst many


Pakistanis the desire for a more comfortable and even extravagant
lifestyle, our growing population makes it almost impossible for anything
more than tiny elite to actually live that way. This is creating tremendous
stress in terms of rising middle-class and even working class expectations
and what is actually possible for Pakistan’s limited geography to deliver.
With the population still growing rapidly amongst the poor peasants, the
consequences for the future are serious, if not catastrophic.

Last month addressing the foundation-stone laying ceremony of the


Population House, Shaukat Aziz emphasized the need to expedite efforts
to control increasing population to ensure rapid development of the
country. Of course, population planning is very critical to the development
and economic growth of the country and no nation without active
involvement of all stakeholders particularly Ulema, Mashaikah and women
can make the real difference because in all civil societies they are
considered the virtual agents of social change .

The Ministry of Population Welfare is doing a wonderful job to involve


Ulema and Mashaikh in the whole area of population planning to create
awareness among the people and reach to every door to speed up its
efforts to control population growth. We can learn a lot from the Ulema of
Egypt, Iran and Bangladesh, who in this regard.

The ongoing international conference in Islamabad under the auspices of


the Ministry will go a long way to tap the untapped potential and bring
about the attitudinal change needed to be brought in, allowing them to
better deal with issues regarding gender, education, reproductive health,
environment and narcotics. Prime Minister Shauakt Aziz was apt to say
that the models adopted by the neighbouring countries to check their
population growth may also be studied and adopted if these can help
achieve country’s goals.

It is, indeed, the need of the hour to harness this potential — the Ulema
and Mashaikh — proper direction, as they could have a decisive impact on
the future of the country. And that is one of the surest means to achieve
population stabilization! And that is an agenda for action on which the
incumbent Shaukat Aziz Government should work.

Social change News, OF journalism


It is said that” change is always good” so it also implies on society? social
change in simple is to motivate the intended PEOPLE towards better life
style, which ultimately leads to change in a community .though it is very
difficult to bring change in society. there are
several hindrance. First of all these should
be removed before launching a change
process. However it is not definite that
change is always positive! In today’s world
of technology the negative aspect of change
is sharply absorbing in societies, anyhow yet I am talking about pre-
requisites of social change. So what should be the strategies before
bringing change in particular segment? Few are here that I consider
worthy.

1) Purpose of change

Explaining the purpose, aim and objectives of change, it is


important before driving towards bringing the change, it is essential for
the target audience to know about what is the motive behind the change
& how they get benefits from it.

2) Knowing the existing lifestyle

It is keeping in mind the ground norms, values, behaviors and the


overall social setup of the target locality.

3) Knowing the hindrance lies between gaining better lifestyle

It is must to consider the prominent barriers lies in the way of


change & development. They may be physical, psychological, social,
religious or financial. All of them should be studied before formulating
strategies for social change.
4) Venues of financial support

It is said that money open closed doors, so financial aid plays a vital
role in change process.

5) Selection of appeal

Selection of appeal is directly related to psychological orientation of


intended public, selection of appeal should be done carefully, keeping in
mind the existing mental approach.

6) Selection of communication channel

Proper selection of media is very essential for a change campaign.


it is important to make possible that the selected media is accessible to
intended public locality.

7) Importance of feed back

It is necessary to identify the means that should be used to get


feedback as how he feels about the change & comment how to improve
the change plan.

08) Proper planning

Good planning is the cause behind the success of any project, so


all the change strategies is properly planned in order to gain suitable
results.
Reference

• http://www.sociologyguide.com
i. Impact of Technology
ii. Theories of Social Change
• http://www.iguides.org/articles/

i. Social Change in the Post Relief Aid of


Earthquake in Pakistan
• Report of Ms Rabia from National university of modern
Languages.
• Paul B.Hortan, Chester L. Hunt. Sociology. Mcgraw-Hill
International Edition.
1. Process of Social Change
2. Factors of Social Change

Case Studies

• Satellite Television and Social Change in


Pakistan: A Case Study of Rural Sindh.
(http://dawn.com/weekly/books/archive/070520/books15
.htm)
• Social Change journalism

(http://www.zebno.com/?cat=21)
Table of Contents
1.................................................................................................................SOCIAL CHANGE AND MEDIA

5..........................................................................................................................................INTRODUCTION .1

6.........................................................................................................................................SOCIAL CHANGE.1

6.................................................................................................IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY CHANGE.2

I.TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES.............................................................. ..7


II.INDUSTRIALIZATION (ECONOMIC CHANGE)............................................... ...........................7
III.MODERNIZATION................................................................................ ........................8
IV.URBANIZATION................................................................................ ...........................9
V.DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEANS OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION................................................. ........9

VI.TRANSFORMATION IN THE ECONOMY AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE NEW SOCIAL CLASSES................................10

VII.UNEMPLOYMENT.................................................................................................... ..........10
VIII.TECHNOLOGY AND WAR................................................................................................. ....10
IX.CHANGES IN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS......................................................................................... ..10
X.CULTURAL LAG.............................................................................................................. ...11
XI.SOCIAL MOVEMENTS................................................................................... ......................11
XII.COLLECTIVE ACTION.................................................................................................... .....11
XIII.ORIENTED TOWARDS SOCIAL CHANGE.......................................................... ...........................11

XIV.BUREAUCRATIZATION..................................................................... ........................12

13........................................................................................................PROCESS OF SOCIAL CHANGE.3

I.DIFFUSION....................................................................................................... ...........13
II.INVENTION................................................................................ ................................13
III.DISCOVERY............................................................................................... ................14

14.........................................................................................................FACTORS OF SOCIAL CHANGE.4

I.PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
14
II.POPULATION CHANGE.................................................................................. ........................15
III.ISOLATION AND CONTACT.................................................................... ................................15
IV.SOCIAL STRUCTURE...................................................................................................... .....16
V.ATTITUDES AND VALUES...................................................................... ................................16
VI.TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS................................................................................ ...................18

19.............................................................................................................................VII.PERCEIVED NEEDS

20.......................................................................................................THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE.5

I.EVOLUTIONARY (LINEAR) THEORY................................................................................... ..........21


II.CONFLICT THEORY................................................................................................ .............21

22 B.CRIME

22 C.SPORTS

III.CYCLICAL THEORY.............................................................................. ..............................23


IV.FUNCTIONAL THEORY................................................................................... ......................23
V.SOCIETAL CHANGE...................................................................................................... .......24
VI.ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE............................................................................................ .......24
Classical / early modernist, Modernist, symbolic interpretive and post modern ......25
VII.THEORIES OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE.......................................................... ...............................25
VIII.SOCIAL MOVEMENT................................................................................................... ......26

27.......................................................................................................................CASE STUDY & ARTICLES

(SOCIAL CHANGE IN THE POST RELIEF AID OF EARTHQUAKE IN PAKISTAN)...................................... ..........27

32

SATELLITE TELEVISION AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF RURAL SINDH ..........................32
PAKISTAN: MEDIA'S ROLE FOR POSITIVE SOCIAL CHANGE.................................... .............................34

AGENDA FOR SOCIAL CHANGE!


BY HASHIM ABRO........................................................................................................... .....36
SOCIAL CHANGE NEWS, OF JOURNALISM......................................................... .............................38

1) PURPOSE OF CHANGE ........................................................................................................ 39


2) KNOWING THE EXISTING LIFESTYLE.................................................................... ......................39
3) KNOWING THE HINDRANCE LIES BETWEEN GAINING BETTER LIFESTYLE................................. ...................39

4) VENUES OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT........................................................................ .....................40


5) SELECTION OF APPEAL................................................................................................... .....40
6) SELECTION OF COMMUNICATION CHANNEL................................................... ...............................40

7) IMPORTANCE OF FEED BACK............................................................................... ..................40


08) PROPER PLANNING.............................................................................................. ............40

41 REFERENCE