Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

03501481 Marine Engineering Lab II

Universal Vibration Apparatus TM 01

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS
Portal Frame

1
1
1

List of Components

EXPERIMENTS
Experiment 9: Transverse Vibration of a Beam with One or More Bodies Attached Experiment 10: Forced Vibration of a Rigid Body - Spring System with Negligible Damping Experiment 11: Free Damped Vibrations of a Rigid Body - Spring System Experiment 12: Forced Damped Vibration of a Rigid Body - Spring System
References 4 10 10 14 16 17

APPENDIX: Data Tables

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

1. INTRODUCTION
The TM01 Universal Vibration Apparatus enables students to perform a comprehensive range of vibration experiments with the minimum amount of assembly time and the maximum adaptability. The experiments lead the student through the basics of vibration theory by, initially, very simple experiments which make way for those of a more extensive nature as experimental aptitude increases. This manual primarily give details of the apparatus required and the experimental techniques involved for each experiment in turn. Each experiment starts with an 'Introduction' dealing with the purpose and basic theory involved. Further sections detail the apparatus and experimental method with reference to diagrams included in the text. Finally, the form of calculations and results is given.

2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS

Figure 1 TM0l Apparatus


Portal Frame

The apparatus shown in Figure 1, consists of a basic portal frame, robustly constructed from square, rolled hollow section, vertical uprights and double channel horizontal members. The frame mounts on four castors for ease of mobility. Screw jacks allow the weight of the frame to transfer to the floor during experiments, which
3

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

enables the entire rig to be leveled prior to the experimental work and guarantees rigidity. The frame has been fully machined for experiments. A cupboard is fitted at the front to houses all the components when they are not in use.

Figure 2 Front Panel and Rear Panel of Control Box

A d.c. motor driven exciter is used for all forced vibrations experiments powered by a control unit. This combination comprises of a control box and d.c. motor, which provides precision speed control of the motor up to 3000 rev/min. This motor drives the two unbalance discs to provide force excitation to the member attached to this exciter assembly. The front panel of the unit contains a speed control and a period/frequency meter. The front panel also includes a start/stop switch for drum recorder and a low speed/high speed selection switch for this recorder. The individual power on/off switches for two different kinds of sensor and plotter pens are also included. The back panel includes power sockets for mains input, power output to d.c. motor, power output to drum recorder motor, 2 sensor connection sockets labeled sensor names, 2 connectors for 2 pens and PC connection to AiD card inside PC.

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

Part Number
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 C1 C2 C3 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 E1 E2 E3 E6 E11 H1 H2 I1 S1 S4 M1

Description
pendulum sub-frame(cross beam) Simple pendulum-Wood ball B3 Simple pendulum-Steel ball Kater(adjustable) pendulum Wooden compound pendulum Simple bob pendulum Bifillar suspension
Top adjusting assembly(Spring)
Guide bush assembly

Relevant experiment
1,2,3,4,5 1 1 4 3 2,3 5
6,10,11,12

Loading platform

6 6 9,10,11,12 10,11,12 10,11,12 10,11,12 10,11,12 10,11,12 10,11,12 14 9 9 9 9 9,10,12 7,9 7 7

Pivot mounting Damper assembly Damper bracket Out-Of-Balance disk Beam support Stylus and support Drum Plotter pivot support for stylus Pivot mounting with lateral movement
Damper Support
Support for Linear Displacement Transducer

Flexible Beam Exciter motor Rotor (254mm diameter) Rotor and addition Bracket LDT (Linear Displacement Transducer) Optical Sensor Magnetic Stand to hold optical sensor

Table 1 List of components

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

3. EXPERIMENTS
Experiment 9: Transverse Vibration of a Beam with One or More Bodies Attached lntroduction The frequency of transverse vibrations of a beam with bodies attached is identical to the critical (whirling) speed of a shaft of the same stiffness as the beam, carrying rotors of masses which correspond to those of the bodies on the beam. One has to think in terms of small size rotors, otherwise gyroscopic effects are involved. In the case of a beam with just one body attached, the basic theory is the same as that in Experiment 6. For a beam with two or more bodies attached, other methods can determine the frequency of free transverse vibrations. Examples are as follows: 1. Rayleigh or energy method (gives good results); 2. Dunkerley equation (only approximate, but quite adequate); 3. Rigorous (accurate) analysis (arduous); 4. Experimental analysis, using the equipment described below, (fairly simple quick) Apparatus The basic apparatus for this experiment is in Figure 20. A bar of steel of rectangular cross-section (E6) is supported at each end. The left-hand support (D1) pivots in two ball bearings in a housing located on the inside face of the vertical frame member.

Figure 20 Set-up for Experiment 9

The right-hand support consists of two roller bearings (E1), which are free to move in a guide block located on the inside face. At the centre of the beam bolt a small motor driving two 'out-of-balance' discs (Excitor Motor and Speed Control unit). Connect the motor via leads to the precision speed control unit, which applies a wide range of exciting frequencies to the beam.
6

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

Clockwise rotation of the control knob on the speed control unit will increase the speed of the motor - thus increasing the out-of-balance rotating force produced by the unbalanced discs. As the speed increases as indicated by the speed meter on the control unit, the beam begins to vibrate transversely. Over a discrete band of frequencies increasingly larger amplitudes of vibration are produced which reach a peak at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of free natural transverse vibration of the system, i.e. beam plus added components. Part A: Transverse Vibration of a Beam Procedure Suspend bodies of different size mass, m, below the motor. For each mass m, adjust the speed control until the beam vibrates at its natural frequency. In order to determine accurately the exact value on the speed meter, it is expedient to take the beam through the range of excessive amplitudes several times, noting the limits of the range. From these, we can locate the frequency at which the amplitude and resultant noise appears greatest. Record your observations in Table 12.
Table 12 Results

Mass m (kg) 3.95 4.35 5.95 7.15 8.35

Frequency (Hz)

Results A graph of (1/f2) to a base of m gives a straight line, as in Figure 21. The intercept on the vertical axis is equal to (1/f2b) = Natural frequency of the system, i.e. beam plus added components. = Natural frequency of the beam by itself. Dunkerley's equation is applicable to this situation, and is given by 1 1 1 = +

Here, f1 stands for the natural frequency of a corresponding light beam with mass m attached. Clearly when m=0, f1=infinity, f = fb Evaluate and compare with the theoretical value obtained from:

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

= 2 where L E I mo = Length of the beam (m); = Modulus of elasticity of material of the beam (N/m2); = Second moment of area of the beam section: = Mass of the beam by itself (kg); no masses attached.

Also, from the graph, when the system is not vibrating (period = 0) f = infinity and 1/f2 = 0. The corresponding value of mass m is then equal to me, the equivalent mass of the beam. me =m0, where is a constant. Determine the value of . How does it compare with the generally accepted value of 0.5?

Figure 21 Graph of 1/f2 versus m

Part B: Damped Transverse Vibration of a Beam Introduction Damping forces are counteracting forces in a vibration system, which gradually reduce the motion. Damping occurs in all natural vibration and may be caused by coulomb friction (rubbing between one solid and another), or viscous resistance of a fluid as in this experiment on damped transverse vibration of a beam where a viscous damper is used. Apparatus This is shown in Figure 20 (the same set up as for Experiment 9A, but with certain additions). In this experiment you will require the amplitude of vibration and phase angle. Fit a damper (D2) and its support (D3) to the beam to create damping. Use the linear transducer to determine the amplitude and phase angle very accurately at any exciting frequency.
8

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

Procedure Allow the speed control unit time to warm-up, then adjust the linear transducer vertical position so that it reading is zero on computer display. Energise the motor to produce a definite amplitude at a predetermined frequency. Read the amplitude on computer display. You may also find the phase angle on computer display. By following this procedure for a range of frequencies, you can assess the effect of damping by varying the valve opening of the damper and thus altering the damping characteristics of the system. Compare the results obtained with these settings with an undamped condition (the system minus dashpot). Plot graphs of amplitude and phase angle against the frequency ratio /n , i.e. (exciting frequency/natural frequency). The results, in Tables 13 to 15, show the effect of increasing damping on amplitude and phase angle. For each damping condition a graph of amplitude against frequency can be plotted, from which a value for the natural frequency for each damping condition can be found. Figures 22 and 23 are typical graphs of amplitude and phase angle plotted against frequency ratio.
Table 13 Results for the case without damping

Disc speed (Hz)

/n

Phase angle ()

Max amplitude (mm.)

Table 14 Results for the case of minimal damping

Disc speed (Hz)

/n

Phase angle ()

Max amplitude (mm.)

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

Table 15 Results for the case of maximal damping

Disc speed (Hz)

/n

Phase angle ()

Max amplitude (mm.)

10

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

Figure 22 Comparison of the damping ratio

Figure 23 Comparison of the phase lag 11

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

References 1. Manual for Universal vibration apparatus TM01, Kinetics corporation limited. 2. Thomson W.T., Theory of Vibrations with Applications, 5th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc., 1998. 3. Craig R.R., Kurdila A. J., Fundamental of Structural Dynamics, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.

16

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

Appendix A

17

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

18

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

19

Revised 14th June 2011

Dr.-Ing. Amphon Jarasjarungkiat

20