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There are seven ways of addressing data

namely:-
1. Immediate
ed a e add
addressing.
ess g
2. Absolute addressing.
3. Accumulator addressing.
4. Direct addressing.
5. Indirect addressing.
6 Memory mapped addressing
6. addressing.
7. Stack addressing.

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


Two additional but important addressing modes are
1. Circular addressing.
2 Bit-reversed addressing
2. addressing.

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


The assembly language instructions can be
classified into the following categories :-
1. Load-store
oad s o e ope
operations
a o s
1. Store operations.
2. Load operations.
3. Conditional store operations.
4. Parallel load and store/multiply
instructions.
5. Parallel store and add/subtract/multiply
instructions.
6 Miscellaneous load type and store type
6. type.

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


2 Arithmetic operations
2.
Add, Subtract, Multiply, multiply and accumulate, multiply and
subtract, double instructions, application specific.

3. Logical operations
AND OR
AND, OR, XOR
XOR, Shift
Shift, Test
Test.
4. Program-Control operations
Branch, Call, Interrupt, Return, Repeat, Stack-manipulating,
miscellaneous
i ll PCI iinstructions
t ti

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


P i t to
Points t be
b borne
b iin mind:-
i d
1. All immediate data is Prefixed by the symbol ‘#’.
2. Comments are to be p
prefaced by
y a semi colon i.e. ‘;’;
3. All alphabetical data must begin with 0.
4. At the end of the data the letters d, h, b, o symbolize decimal,
hexadecimal binary
hexadecimal, binary, octal respectively however no suffix to the
number means it’s decimal.
5. DP stands for data page pointer.

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


1 Immediate addressing
1.
Two types exist.
• The operand can be of short type(3, 5, 8 or 9 bits in length).
• The operand can be long type(16 bits in length).
Examples are
1 LD #20
1. #20,DP
DP ;LD
LD stands
d ffor lload
d
2. RPT #0FFFFh ;RPT stands for repeat.

2. Absolute addressing
data is addressed by the physical address only
Example MVKD 1000H,*AR5 ;MVKD Stands for move from data memory.
20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor
MVPD 1000H,*AR5 ;MVPD stands for move from program memory.
3 A
3. Accumulator
l t addressing
dd i
Used to transfer data between program and data memory.
p
Examples READA *AR2 ; This accomplishes
p *A Æ *AR2.
WRITEA *AR5; This accomplishes *AR5 Æ *A.
4. Direct addressing
Here similar to Immediate addressing mode the Location number can be
specified by short or long type.
Examples LD #4,DP
LD 3FH,A

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


5. Indirect addressing
Any location in data space can be addressed by the eight 16-bit auxiliary registers
namely AR0-AR7 and following are the modifications can be used in this mode
a.*ARn+0 i.e. addr Å (ARn+ AR0)
b *ARn-0
b. ARn 0
c.*ARn+
d.*ARn-
e.*ARn
f. *+ARn(lk)
g.*+ARn(-16-bit data)
h.*ARn+0B i.e. addr Å B(ARn+AR0) Similarly *ARn-0B
i *ARN+% ii.e. addr
i.*ARN+% dd Å CIRC (AR
(ARn+1)
+1) Si
Similarly
il l *AR
*ARn+0%
+0%
j.*+ARn(lk)% i.e. addr Å CIRC (ARn +lk)
k.*lk i.e. addr Å lk
Note:- n varies from 0 to 7.
Note:

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


6. Circular addressing
As mentioned in the last slide with block length say lk and SAR and EAR
being any two auxilary registers we can address.
Example LD *AR3+0%,A .
7 Bit-reversed addressing
7.
Here AR0 contains N/2 value where we compute N point FFT

8. Dual-operand
p addressing g
Instructions that will either read two reads or a read and a write in the same
clock cycle.
9. Memory-mapped addressing
Thi is
This i usedd to
t address
dd th
the accumulators,
l t auxilary
il registers
i t status
t t
registers etc.
Example LDM 3000H,A
STM AR4,B
AR4 B

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor


20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor
THANK YOU

20 th march 2007 By Manas.Anant.Savkoor