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IN THIS ISSUE
No. 40,622
Books 11
Business 16
Crossword 15
Culture 9
Opinion 12
Sports 14
LECH WALESA
SOLIDIFYING HIS
LEGEND ON FILM
PAGE 9 | CULTURE
CRAFT BEERS
EUROPES MOVE
INTO AMERICA
PAGE 17 | BUSI NESS WI TH
ROGER COHEN
ISRAELS TIME
TO RISK PEACE
PAGE 13 | OPI NI ON
CURRENCIES STOCK INDEXES
OIL
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I NTRODUCI NG I NYT. COM
China to report economic growth
Beijing is set to report third-quarter
economic growth early Friday. The
target for all of 2013 is 7.5 percent, with
some leaders arguing for urgent
adjustments. inyt.com/business
Bringing up the dead to seek truth
It is becoming more common in Latin
America to exhume the remains of the
dead; Brazil plans to examine a former
president to investigate claims that
spies poisoned him. nytimes.com/americas
The octopus that almost ate Seattle
The Giant Pacific Octopus is, in the
words of a conservationist, a glamour
animal. It is also tasty. Therein lies the
conflict. nytimes.com/magazine
Xi Jinping in cartoon form
An animated video depicts Chinas top
leader and his fellowrulers with more
playfulness than is typically seen in the
country. sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com
I NSI DE TODAYS PAPER
The worlds wartime debt to China
Chinas forgotten role in the Allied
victory over the Axis in World War II
helps explain its geopolitical aspirations
today, writes Rana Mitter. OPINION, 12
Ful l cur r ency rat es Page 19
ONLI NE AT I NYT. COM
Snowden says he shielded data
Obama issues call
to avoid a replay
GURAM BUMBIASHVILI, GEORGIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM
The Dmanisi Skull 5 was described as
the worlds first completely preserved
adult hominid skull of such antiquity.
BY JOHN NOBLE WILFORD
After eight years spent studying a 1.8
million-year-old skull uncovered in the
republic of Georgia, scientists have
made a discovery that may rewrite the
evolutionary history of our human
genus, Homo.
It would be a simpler story with fewer
ancestral species. Early, diverse fossils
those recognized as separate species
like Homo habilis, Homo erectus and
others may actually represent vari-
ation among members of a single,
evolving lineage. This was the conclu-
sionreachedby aninternational teamof
scientists led by David Lordkipanidze, a
paleoanthropologist at the Georgian
National Museum in Tbilisi, the journal
Science reported on Thursday.
Excavatedin2005, thecranium, known
as Skull 5, was described as the worlds
first completelypreservedadult hominid
skull of such antiquity. Unlike other
Homo fossils, it had a number of primit-
ive features: a long apelike face, large
teeth and tiny braincase, about one-third
WASHINGTON
BY JAMES RISEN
EdwardJ. Snowden, the former National
Security Agency contractor, said in an
extensive interview this month that he
didnot takeanysecret N.S.A. documents
with himto Russia when he fled there in
June, assuring that Russian intelligence
officials could not get access to them.
Mr. Snowden said he gave all of the
classified documents he had obtained to
journalists he met in Hong Kong, before
flying to Moscow, and did not keep any
copies for himself. He did not take the
files to Russia because it wouldnt
serve the public interest, he said.
What would be the unique value of
personally carrying another copy of the
materials onward? he added.
He also asserted that he was able to
protect the documents from Chinas
spies because he was familiar with that
nations intelligence capabilities, saying
that as an N.S.A. contractor he had tar-
geted Chinese operations and had
taught a course on Chinese cybercoun-
terintelligence.
Theres a zero percent chance the
Russians or Chinese have received any
documents, he said.
American intelligence officials have
expressed grave concern that the files
might have fallen into the hands of for-
eign intelligence services, but Mr.
Snowden said he believed that the
N.S.A. knewhe had not cooperated with
the Russians or the Chinese. He said he
was publicly revealing that he no longer
had any agency documents to explain
why he was confident that Russia had
not gained access to them. He had been
reluctant to disclose that information
previously, he said, for fear of exposing
the journalists to greater scrutiny.
In a wide-ranging interviewover sev-
eral days in the last week, Mr. Snowden
offered detailed responses to accusa-
tions that have been leveled against him
by American officials and other critics,
provided new insights into why he be-
came disillusioned with the N.S.A. and
decided to disclose the documents, and
talked about the international debate
over surveillance that resulted fromthe
revelations. The interview took place
through encrypted online communica-
tions.
Mr. Snowden, 30, has been praised by
privacy advocates and assailed by gov-
ernment officials as a traitor who has
caused irreparable harm, and he is fac-
ing charges under the Espionage Act for
In an interview, he denies
Russians and Chinese
had access to U.S. secrets
WASHINGTON
BY MICHAEL D. SHEAR
After a long battle that left his Republi-
can adversaries bruised and fractured,
President Obama on Thursday urged
their party to view the end of the 16-day
government shutdown and the debt-ceil-
ing battles as new opportunities for bi-
partisan compromise in the weeks
ahead.
But evenas he pleadedfor a newspirit
of cooperation in Washington, Mr.
Obama made clear that he believed that
some conservatives had flirted danger-
ouslywitheconomic disaster. The ability
of the two sides to brook what has beena
gaping divide remained uncertain.
Probably nothing has done more
damage to Americas credibility in the
world, our standing with other coun-
tries, than the spectacle that weve seen
these past several weeks, he said in re-
marks, delivered at times in a scolding
tone, fromthe State Dining Roomat the
White House. It has encouraged our
enemies, its emboldened our competit-
ors and its depressed our friends, who
look to us for steady leadership.
Across the globe, investors shrugged
at the decision to end the shutdown.
European stocks dipped as investors
appeared more interested in other cor-
porate news. Wall Street saw a mild
pullback after a 1.4 percent gainonWed-
nesday.
Financial officials expressed skepti-
cism about the likelihood that the
parties in Washington would reach a
better outcome as they seek a broader
budget deal by the end of the year.
The Republicans sent home late
DOUG MILLS/NYT
The Lincoln Memorial was among the facil-
ities reopened on Thursday in Washington.
With debt crisis averted,
divided Republicans
ponder next strategy
THOMAS SAMSON/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
French furor Students in Paris held a sign reading Support for Leonarda and Khatchik on Thursday, a reference to two teenagers Leonarda Dibrani, who is a Roma
Kosovar, and Khatchik Kachatry, an Armenian who were deported because they lacked proper papers. The government is nowquestioning its own policy. PAGE 4
Fossil could streamline
story of human evolution
Chinese money will fuel Britains nuclear ambitions
LONDON
BY STEPHEN CASTLE
AND CHRIS BUCKLEY
After struggling for several years to fi-
nance a new generation of nuclear
plants, Britain has found a deep-pock-
eted partner in China and opened a
highlysensitivepart of its energymarket
to major investments fromthat country.
George Osborne, chancellor of the Ex-
chequer, while visiting a nuclear energy
station in southern China on Thursday,
announced that the government would
allowChinese firms to buy stakes in nu-
clear power plants in Britain and that
they could eventually acquire majority
holdings.
The agreement comes with caveats
but opens the wayfor Chinas fast-grow-
ing nuclear sector to play a significant
role in Britains frustrated plans to pro-
ceed with construction of a nuclear
plant at Hinkley Point in Somerset, the
countrys first planned new reactor in
nearly two decades.
The project fits into Britains overall
plan to add several nuclear sites to its
aging fleet of nine nuclear plants as it
seeks to move closer to a clean-energy
future, even while countries like Ger-
many have pulled back from nuclear
power since the Fukushima nuclear dis-
aster in Japan in 2011. The announce-
ment also marks the first time Chinese
companies would be building or invest-
ing in nuclear power stations outside of
China, according to Kirsty Alexander,
head of communications for the Nuclear
Industry Association.
But Britains ability to pull off its ambi-
tions with Chinas help is anything but
assured. Details of the Hinkley Point
project, including energy price guaran-
Firms will be able to buy
stakes in plants, and
eventually have majority
A TRANSFORMATION IN U.S. POLITICS
The Republicans have lost badly and
wont be able to mount another budget
fight, Anatole Kaletsky writes. PAGE 16
SHUTDOWNS METER IS STILL RUNNING
The impact of the governmental
shutdown will continue to reverberate
despite its end, economists say. PAGE 6
Wednesday by the House speaker, John
A. Boehner, to rest after the exhausting
confrontation began efforts to re-
group on Thursday. Moderate law-
makers urged the Republican Party to
reassure Americans through positive
legislation, while some in the most con-
servative wing said they would contin-
ue to fight the Democrats programs
and priorities. Still, it remained unclear
SNOWDEN, PAGE 6
CONGRESS, PAGE 6
SKULL, PAGE 4 BRITAIN, PAGE 17
E.U. MOVES TO BOLSTER ONLINE PRIVACY
The measure could block U.S. warrants
demanding data fromInternet firms
about European citizens. PAGE 16
Europe on alert for printed guns
Lawenforcement agencies are
concerned about the proliferation of
gun-making software that can be used
to make a weapon on a consumer-grade
3-Dprinter. BUSINESS, 16
Optimismon German coalition
Angela Merkels conservative bloc and
its Social Democratic rivals agreed to
open formal talks on reviving the
grand coalition that led a prosperous
Germany from2005-9. WORLDNEWS, 4
Federer could use a newvoice
Paul Annacone, Roger Federers
former coach, said their breakup could
be an opportune time for himto hear a
newvoice; it really could be. SPORTS, 14
FRANCISCO SECO FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
GROOVY LI SBON A spin around the Portuguese capitals music scene reveals far more than
fado, including indie jazz, African beats and American retro rock. inyt.com/travel
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2 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
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page two
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1938 Valeras Price for Aiding Britain
LONDON The British government, which
is generally expected to abandon its pro-
posed partition of Palestine, today [Oct.
17] was faced with a strong demand that
it nowintervene to end the partition of
Ireland into the twenty-six counties rep-
resented in the government of Eire at
Dublin, and the six counties of Ulster
represented in the government of North-
ern Ireland at Belfast. This demand
comes straight fromEamon De Valera,
Prime Minister of Eire. He insists that
the 1920 divorce of Ulster fromthe rest of
Ireland must be annulled and that the
whole thirty-two counties be represent-
ed in an all-Ireland Parliament at Dublin.
1963 Tito Expects Kennedy Visit
WASHI NGTON President Tito of
Yugoslavia said today [Oct. 17] he be-
lieves President Kennedy and Soviet
Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev agree
that active peaceful co-existence is a
useful basis for further development of
international relations. Speaking to
newsmen after an afternoon at the
White House, Marshal Tito disclosed
that Mr. Kennedy had accepted his invi-
tation to visit Yugoslavia, tendered dur-
ing their discussions. Asked when the
trip might be made, Marshal Tito
shrugged amiably.
IN OUR PAGES
IN YOUR WORDS
our best to emulate her, Martha
Reeves, the former lead singer of
Martha and the Vandellas, said in a tele-
phone interview on Tuesday. I dont
think I would have been successful at all
without her training.
Among her other pupils were the Su-
premes, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye
and Smokey Robinson. Diana Ross, the
Supremes former lead singer, has de-
scribed Mrs. Powell as the person who
taught me everything I know.
Officially, Mrs. Powell was a director
of Motowns artist development depart-
ment. But in reality she was equal parts
headmistress, psychotherapist and
iron-willed favorite aunt.
Her combined ministrations, she told
her charges, were meant to equip them
for precisely two contingencies: invita-
tions to the White House and invitations
to BuckinghamPalace.
I teach class, Mrs. Powell was fond
of saying. And class will turn the heads
of kings and queens.
Though Mrs. Powell was associated
with the label for just five years, from
1964 to 1969, her presence was felt long
beyond. At Motown, singers were re-
quired to take instruction from Mrs.
Powell for two hours a day whenever
BY MARGALIT FOX
MaxinePowell, theMiss Manners of Mo-
town, who as the director of the labels
in-house finishing school in the 1960s
was considered in no small part respon-
sible for its early success, died on Mon-
day in Southfield, Michigan. She was 98.
Her death was announced by the Mo-
town Museumin Detroit.
In a statement on Monday, Berry
Gordy Jr., the founder of Motown Re-
cords, said that Mrs. Powell brought
something to Motown that no other re-
cord company had, adding of his
artists, She was tough, but when she
got through with them, they were
poised, professional and very thankful.
At Motown, Mrs. Powell presided
over what is believed to have been the
only finishing school at an American re-
cord label at any time. Her disciples
young, scrappy and untried included
many future titans of American popular
music, whom she polished with the fi-
nesse of a diamond cutter.
Mrs. Powell was always a lady of
grace, elegance and style, and we did
they were in Detroit. Her curriculum
covered deportment onstage and off:
how to speak impeccably and stand
erect, how to glide instead of merely
walking, how to sit in a limousine with
the ankles crossed just so.
There was also individualized in-
struction. Ms. Ross, for instance,
favored exorbitantly long false eye-
lashes. That did not sit well with Mrs.
Powell, who installed shorter ones.
Mr. Gaye liked to sing with his eyes
closed. That did not sit well with Mrs.
Powell either, and she insisted he keep
themopen.
She once came upon the Supremes
practicing a dance called the shake.
That emphatically did not sit well with
Mrs. Powell, as she recalled in a 1986 in-
terviewwith People magazine:
You are protruding the buttocks,
she admonished them. Whenever you
do a naughty step like the shake, add
some class to it. Instead of shaking and
acting tough, you should roll your but-
tocks under and keep smiling all the
time. Then I showed them. They were
shocked that I could do it and at how
much better it looked my way.
Though Mrs. Powell was barely more
than 5 feet, or 1.5 meters, tall, the world
seemed scarcely large enough to con-
tain her. By the time she arrived at Mo-
town, she had been a stage actress,
model and manicurist; a charm-school
director; and the founder of what is
widely described as Detroits first mod-
eling agency for African-Americans.
Maxine Blair was born on May 30,
1915, in Texarkana, Texas, and reared by
an aunt in Chicago. She began acting as
a teenager, eventually appearing with
the Negro Drama League, a black rep-
ertory company there.
After moving to Detroit in the 1940s,
Mrs. Powell founded the Maxine Powell
Finishing and Modeling School in 1951,
which placed the first black models in
campaigns for the citys major auto-
makers. One of Mrs. Powells models
was GwenGordy, Berrys sister. Shetold
her brother that Mrs. Powell was just the
person to groomhis young stars.
Mr. Gordy demurred at first, seeing
no need. But his sister prevailed, andbe-
fore long Mrs. Powell had closed her
agency and moved to Motown, where
she made herself indispensable.
One of the most noteworthy things
about Mrs. Powells tenure at Motown
was her prescience. One day, she re-
called in the interview with People, she
taught her students howto sit on stools.
The Supremes objected.
We dont go to bars, why should we
sit on a stool? they said.
Aladywithclass cansit ona garbage
pail and look good, Mrs. Powell
replied.
Shortly afterward, the Supremes ap-
peared on The Mike Douglas Show,
and lo and behold, there were stools
there.
The Supremes sat, and by Mrs. Pow-
ells lights, they sat well.
TONY DING/AP, 2009
Maxine Powells pupils included Diana
Ross, Stevie Wonder and Marvin Gaye.
OBI TUARY
Alan
Cowell
LETTER FROM EUROPE
LONDON After the lives lost and the
exhausted treasure, what was it all for?
That question is being asked here and
in Kabul as British troops, like their
more numerous American counterparts,
prepare to relinquish combat duties in
Afghanistan next year after a tenure
that appears to have achieved fewof the
goals set by their political masters.
In March 2002, Britain committed
1,700 soldiers to join American forces in
what was portrayed as little more than
rooting out the remnants of Taliban and
Qaeda forces after the American-led in-
vasion six months earlier. The logic was
that if the streets of Britain were to be
kept safe, then terrorisms distant
havens had to be dismantled. But that
brief early deployment did not shield
Britain fromthe more immediate men-
ace of homegrown terrorism. On July 7,
2005, four suicide bombers killed them-
selves and 52 travelers on the London
transit system. None
of themhad ties to
Afghanistan.
By 2009, the official
mantra was the
same, but the geo-
graphic reach had
been redefined. Mis-
sion creep had raised
the number of British
soldiers to 9,000. The
border areas be-
tween Afghanistan and Pakistan, said
Gordon Brown, the prime minister then,
were the crucible of global terrorism
threatening the streets of Britain.
In late 2013, a newstatistic has
entered the calculations of loss: 444 Brit-
ish military personnel dead the single
most potent figure fueling the outrage
expressed by many in Britain when
Hamid Karzai, the president of Afghan-
istan, told the BBC last week that the en-
tire NATOexercise had been pointless.
The years of combat caused Afghan-
istan a lot of suffering and a lot of loss of
life and no gains because the country is
not secure, he said, adding: I amnot
happy to say there is partial security
because that is not what were seeking.
What we wanted was absolute security
and a clear cut war against terrorism.
Cpl. Tom Neathway, a Briton who
lost both legs and his left arm to a
Taliban booby-trap five years ago, said
of Mr. Karzai: I think hes stupid to
say that. We may not be out there for
the right reasons. Who knows?
But comments like Mr. Karzais, the
corporal said, make a soldier just
wonder whose side he is fighting on.
The resentments draw on a long his-
tory of interventions and invasion that
left British imperial armies bloodied
from Kandahar, Afghanistan, the 19th
century to Kut, Iraq, in World War I.
But the precedents did not deter
Tony Blair as prime minister from join-
ing the United States as a junior part-
ner in fighting in both countries, only to
discover that history could not simply
be rewritten when the invaders tired of
the fray and wished to go home.
Iraq is now seized with some of its
bloodiest, sectarian violence since the
darkest days of the American-led occu-
pation. Afghanistan is threatened with
internecine bloodletting the moment
Western forces withdraw next year.
While politicians and generals con-
spire to declare the campaign a suc-
cess, the columnist Simon Tisdall wrote
in The Guardian, Karzais comments
are a salutary reminder that all is far
from well in Afghanistan and things
could turn very messy, very soon.
According to the Web site iCasual-
ties.org, 2,287 American troops have
been killed there since 2002. The coali-
tion losses amount to far fewer than
the thousands of civilian deaths tallied
by the United Nations, which blames
insurgents for three-quarters of non-
combatant fatalities. But, arguably the
most troubling legacy is that the
avowed target of the Afghan campaign
jihadism has simply dissipated to
re-form elsewhere, in Somalia, Yemen,
the desert hide-outs of North Africa
and the newest killing fields of Syria.
Most worrisome to the counter-
terrorismauthorities here, scores of
Britons who have joined the battle
against President Bashar al-Assad may
nowreturn home, even as the Afghan
war winds down without the clear-cut
outcome invoked by Mr. Karzai.
Some specialists depict the shift of
focus as the most ominous in a decade.
Syria is a very profound game
changer, said Charles Farr, who heads
the Office for Security and Counter Ter-
rorism, and the significance of it is
still emerging.
E-MAIL: pagetwo@nytimes.com
U.S. fiscal crisis resolved
As a foreigner, I find it really hard to
understand howthe U.S.A. and maybe
the world came so close to economic
disaster on this issue. President Obamas
proposed health care reforms appear to be
very modest by the standards of any
civilized country, in which it is usually a
given that every citizen has a right to
decent health care. Apart fromissues
relating to the rights of the individual, it is
not good for a country to have a significant
portion of its population in a poor state of
health think of all that underutilized
human capital. Good for Obama that he
faced those Republican crazies down.
SYDNEY RHODES, MELBOURNE
The elephant in the roomis of course
taxes; they need to be raised on top
earners as soon as possible, as well as on
investments. . . . This debacle has at least
proved we need real, radical changes to
howCongress is run. The Senate at least
didnt embarrass itself horribly. The House
needs a deep cleaning.
JI M SCHWARTZ, AL-HABEKI , JORDAN
Syrians, displaced and in despair
In recent months, Syrias chemical
weapons have taken center stage, while
the war rages on, unchecked. As long as
the O.P.C.W. inspectors are tasked with
destroying the chemical stockpiles in the
country, Assad is an indispensable partner
in this process, which will last until at least
mid-2014.
J. VON HETTLI NGEN, SWI TZERLAND
So, a nonwealthy working-class Sunni
family with eight children was afforded a
decent measure of comfort and even
happiness in Assads Syria. So remind me
for what purpose was that happiness
destroyed, that family separated and sent
into exile? Democracy, you say? Freedom?
Islamic State?
DAVI D, BRI SBANE, AUSTRALI A
Karzais
comments
are a salutary
reminder
that all
is far from
well in
Afghanistan.
Maxine Powell, 98, Motowns maven of style and charm
Britons ask
reasons for
Afghan war
FAYEZ NURELDINE/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
A journey of faith and duty
UNI TED I N WORSHI P Some of the hundreds
of thousands of Muslim pilgrims in Mina,
Saudi Arabia, above, before taking part in a
ritual of casting pebbles at pillars, top, to
symbolize the stoning of the devil. They
were among an estimated two million
AMR NABIL/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Muslims who joined the hajj, the annual pil-
grimage to Mecca. Muslims around the
world this week have been observing Id al-
Adha, or the Feast of Sacrifice, which com-
memorates the willingness of the prophet
Ibrahim, or Abraham, to sacrifice his son.
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 3 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
S o l d e x c l u s i v e l y i n L o u i s Vu i t t o n s t o r e s a n d o n l o u i s v u i t t o n . c o m .
INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 4 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
World News
europe
PARIS
BY ALISSA J. RUBIN
Shock over Frances recent expulsion of
a 19-year-old Armenian student and a
15-year-old Kosovar girl, who was taken
off a school bus by the police so that she
and her family could be sent back to
Kosovo, gathered momentumon Thurs-
day with protests by students con-
demning the expulsions and calling for
the resignation of the interior minister.
The minister, Manuel Valls, a member
of the Socialist government of President
Franois Hollande, has been a strong
proponent in particular of deporting the
Roma. But Mr. Valls has also removed
others who lacked proper immigration
papers, a policyalso followedbythe pre-
vious government, which was led by the
conservatives.
On Thursday, it appeared that the
government was questioning Mr.
Vallss judgment, at the least inallowing
the police to pull children out of school
to be deported. If theystoppeda school
bus to seize a child in front of her class-
mates, then its extremely shocking,
the governments official spokesman,
Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, said, referring
to the case of the Kosovar girl.
The circumstances of the Kosovar
girl, Leonarda Dibrani, who is also
Roma, were shadowed by the racial pol-
itics associated with the Roma minority,
while those of the Armenian student,
Khatchik Kachatryan, 19, appeared un-
related to the heated Roma debate.
With the Socialists leading the gov-
ernment, many had expected Mr. Hol-
lande to adopt a less confrontational ap-
proach to Frances troubles with the
Roma than the previous government,
which was led by Nicolas Sarkozy, but
there have been fewchanges.
The Roma, a minority of 20,000 in
France, mostly come fromBulgaria and
Romania and generally live on the out-
skirts of cities, often in makeshift camps
and sometimes traveling from place to
place. Theyare knownfor runningcrim-
inal gangs of young girls and even chil-
dren who prey on tourists especially in
Paris, Marseille and Lyon.
The Interior Ministry has begun an
investigation into the case of Ms.
Dibrani, who was expelledonOct. 9. The
outcome is expected on Friday, and the
government has promised to annul the
expulsion if there were irregularities.
Mr. Valls has been increasingly out-
spoken about the difficulties posed by
Roma immigrants. In September, his re-
mark that the majority must be re-
turned to the borders set off a wave of
criticism. In an interview with the
French television channel BFM at the
time, hesaidFrancedidnot haveanob-
ligation to welcome these populations.
He was quoted in another interview
as saying that the Roma had a way of
life that is different fromours, suggest-
ing that they could not be integrated.
His candor, more than the govern-
ments expulsion policy, shocked
people. In fact, polls showed that major-
ity of French people agreed with him
that the Roma should be expelled, and
Mr. Valls enjoys wide popularity.
While the image of the Roma as vag-
rants and petty criminals may be true in
a number of cases, it was not the situ-
ation of Ms. Dibrani, who was forced to
get off a school bus andtheninto a police
car in front of her classmates, leaving
some of them thinking that she had
committed a robbery or other crime,
said her teachers.
Ms. Dibrani had lived in France for
nearly five years and spoke perfect
French, according to her teachers, who
wrote an open letter of protest, which
was posted by the Network for Educa-
tion Without Borders, a group that de-
fends the right of immigrant children to
study in France.
We are profoundly shocked by the
methods used to send back the children
of the Roma minority to countries they
do not know and where they can not
speakthelanguage, wrotetheteachers,
from the Andr Malraux Junior High
School and the Toussaint Louverture
High School in the eastern town of Levi-
er, where Ms. Dibrani was a student.
Richard Moyon, who heads the Net-
work for Education Without Borders,
said its work had sharply reduced the
number of families with children in
school who were expelled from France.
But such expulsions, he said, are worri-
somedevelopments andirresponsible
on the part of government because it can
pave the way for an even more severe
policy on deportations if a more conser-
vative government came to power.
COURTESY OF J. H. MATTERNES
A rendering of how the Dmanisi hominid
may have looked 1.8 million years ago.
SKULL, FROM PAGE 1
BERLIN
BY ALISON SMALE
Exuding good will, Chancellor Angela
Merkels conservative bloc and its So-
cial Democratic rivals agreed on Thurs-
day to open formal negotiations next
week on reviving the grand coalition
that led Germany from 2005-9 and
which both sides suggested could now
steer the biggest European economy in-
to four more prosperous years.
After a third round of preliminary
talks, it is clear that the rivals will be
able to reach agreement on a significant
number of challenges facing Germany
in the coming four years, to successfully
govern our country, Ms. Merkels cam-
paign manager, Hermann Grhe, told
reporters.
The chairman of the Social Democrat-
ic Party, Sigmar Gabriel, also expressed
optimism. The first round of formal
talks is to take place on Wednesday, a
day after the newParliament convenes.
By the glacial pace of Germanys con-
sensus-driven politics, agreement fol-
lowed swiftly after the Greens Ms.
Merkels only other potential coalition
partners withdrewfromnegotiations
early on Wednesday, saying they could
not see how a stable government could
emerge with the conservatives.
Ms. Merkels Christian Democrats
and their sister party in Bavaria won
handily in the Sept. 22 elections. But the
victory a personal triumph for the
chancellor left them five seats short
of a majority, forcing the usual search
for partners in government.
Analysts expect it to take several
weeks to nail down a new coalition
agreement, which usually specifies in
great detail what the new government
wishes to achieve and howto do it.
The agreement on Thursday followed
an unexpected suggestion from Ms.
Merkels Bavarian partners that the
conservatives could agree to a key So-
cial Democratic demand for a minim-
um wage so long as the center-left
committed to no newtaxes.
For me, the absolute top priority is
no increase in taxes and no new debts,
Horst Seehofer, the leader of the Christi-
an Social Union in Bavaria, told the Mu-
nich-based Sddeutsche Zeitung.
The Social Democrats have insisted
on a nationwide minimum wage of
8.50, or $11.60, an hour. The conserva-
tives prefer negotiations between trade
unions and leaders in each sphere of
economic activity.
Some economists and the business
lobby have suggested that a nationwide
minimum wage would in fact lead
companies to cut jobs, particularly in
eastern Germany. Almost 24 years after
the BerlinWall came down, wages inthe
former Communist east are still lower
than in the west.
On Wednesday, the chancellor made
her first policy speech postelection and
also warned of the dangers that a min-
imum wage could pose for jobs. Ger-
many has an unemployment rate of 5.2
percent, according to Eurostat in Brus-
sels, compared with a 12 percent aver-
age in the 17-nation euro zone.
In her speech, Ms. Merkel gave little
hint of any change in policy toward
Europe, but she said that Europe
should emerge from its crisis stronger
than when it went in to it, as Germany
had, she said, after the 2008-9 financial
crisis.
The election was fought largely on do-
mestic issues, with the clearest differ-
ences between the two centrist groups
emerging over the minimum wage, the
definition of family in 21st-century Ger-
many and what that means for every-
one fromworking mothers to childrenof
kindergarten age or gays seeking to
adopt.
There is broad consensus that educa-
tion and the creaking infrastructure of
the Internet, roads, railways needatten-
tion, but differences persist on how to
pay for it all. Pensions and health care,
particularly care for the aged, are other
areas of difference that will now be
pored over in detail by both camps.
MOSCOW
BY ANDREW ROTH
AND STEPHEN CASTLE
The year 2013 was officially supposed to
be one of cultural exchange to highlight
the friendship between Russia and the
Netherlands. But lately, the most com-
mon exchanges between officials have
involved threats and legal actions amid
an intensifying quarrel over the arrest
and prosecution of Dutch citizens de-
tained by the Russian Coast Guard
aboard a Greenpeace ship flagged in the
Netherlands.
On Wednesday, Dutch officials de-
manded an investigation after the beat-
ingof a senior diplomat inhis apartment
here. Two men forced their way into the
apartment of the diplomat, Onno Elder-
enbosch, the Netherlands deputy am-
bassador to Russia, and attacked him
late Tuesday night, said Friso Wijnen, a
spokesman for the Dutch Foreign Min-
istry. Mr. Elderenboschhadminor injur-
ies, he said.
Russiannews outlets reportedthat Mr.
Elderenboschs attackers weredisguised
as electricians and taped his hands to-
gether before beating him. A news ser-
vice published photographs of damaged
furniture in the apartment and reported
that the two attackers had scrawled a
heart and the letters LGBT, for lesbian,
gay, bisexual and transgender, in pink
lipstick on a mirror before fleeing.
The Russian Foreign Ministry on
Wednesday tried to head off any politic-
al fallout from the attack on Mr. Elder-
enbosch, deploring the episode and
promising to take steps to detain the
two attackers. Russianlawenforcement
officials said a criminal investigation
had been opened.
In the Netherlands, officials also
sought to tread a delicate diplomatic
line, condemning the attack ontheir dip-
lomat while trying not to widen the rift
with the Russian government by accus-
ing it of complicity. The Dutch foreign
minister, Frans Timmermans, spoke
with his Russian counterpart, Sergey V.
Lavrov, and received assurances that
the episode was being investigated, the
Dutch government said.
There is a lot of speculation in the
media, but before an investigation has
come to a conclusion, I dont think there
is any reason to believe that this is sinis-
ter, said a spokesman with the Dutch
Foreign Ministry, who asked not to be
identified by name in line with what he
described as government policy.
But the confrontation with Russia has
been particularly embarrassing be-
cause of the countries official celebra-
tion of their cultural ties.
There is a string of events now that
certainly puts a cloud over our friend-
ship and affects our bilateral relation-
ship severely, said HantenBroeke, for-
eign affairs spokesman for the V.V.D.
party. Some of mycolleagues have said
on Twitter that the friendship year with
Russia should be suspended or that we
should cancel a visit by the king in No-
vember, but I wouldrather that Mr. Tim-
mermans does not have his hands tied.
The attack on Mr. Elderenbosch came
11 days after a Russian diplomat was ar-
rested and, Russian officials said,
beaten by the Dutch police at his home
in The Hague.
The Netherlands has been outspoken
inits criticismof a newRussianlawban-
ning the distribution of so-called gay
propaganda among minors. Several
thousand people protested the law in a
rally in Amsterdam in August, and the
mayor of Amsterdam refused to meet
with President Vladimir V. Putin during
a state visit in April.
Mr. Wijnen said the Foreign Ministry
would not speculate about a motive in
the attack, nor did it connect the episode
to the case of the Russian diplomat who
was arrestedonOct. 5 inTheHagueafter
neighbors expressed concerns of possi-
ble child abuse in the apartment, accord-
ingto Dutchnews reports. Mr. Putincrit-
icizedthe arrest as aflagrant violation
of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic
Relations, and the Dutch Foreign Min-
istry issued an apology this month.
Mr. Timmermans, the Dutch foreign
minister, summoned the Russian am-
bassador to meet on Wednesday. He
said in an online post that he would seek
clarification about the attack on Mr.
Elderenbosch.
This month, the Dutch government
began an appeal to the International
Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to re-
lease two Dutch citizens and 28 others
detained during a Greenpeace protest
in Arctic waters.
A Russian court in Murmansk has
charged the crew of the ship, the Arctic
Sunrise, with piracy for a protest in
which two activists tried to scale an oil
platformrun by the state natural gas gi-
ant Gazprom.
Russias food safety watchdog last
week responded with a threat to ban
Dutch imports, saying it was unhappy
with the quality of dairy and flower
bulbs fromthe country. Russia routinely
bans imports during diplomatic dis-
putes with other countries.
The Netherlands relies heavily on
Russian energy imports through its
port in Rotterdam, but it also exports
hundreds of millions of euros worth of
flower bulbs each year.
Stephen Castle reported fromLondon.
Assault sullies
a friendship year
KENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
French students demonstrating in Paris on Thursday in front of their high school to protest the governments expulsion a Roma Kosovar teenager and her family this month.
Expulsions cause furor in France
The cases of 2 students
have the government
questioning its actions
If they stopped a school bus
to seize a child in front
of her classmates, then
its extremely shocking.
Merkel and rivals aiming
for a newgrand coalition
Russia and Netherlands
trying to keep diplomatic
damage to a minimum
Intruders attacked a Dutch
envoy in his Moscowquarters.
Skull found in Georgia may rewrite evolutionary history
the size of a modern human being.
This confirmed that, contrary to some
conjecture, early hominids did not need
big brains to make their way out of
Africa.
The discovery of Skull 5 alongside the
remains of four other hominids at
Dmanisi, a site rich in material of the
earliest hominid travels into Eurasia,
gave the scientists an opportunity to
compare and contrast the physical
traits of ancestors that apparently lived
at the same location and about the same
time.
Dr. Lordkipanidze and his colleagues
said the differences between these
fossils were no more pronounced than
those between five modern humans or
five chimpanzees. They noted that they
were quite different from one another
but still members of one species.
Had the braincase and the face of
Skull 5 been found as separate fossils at
different sites inAfrica, they might have
ben attributed to different species, a
co-author of the journal report, Chris-
toph Zollikofer of the University of
Zurich, said in a statement.
Such was often the practice of re-
searchers, using variations in traits to
define newspecies.
Although the Dmanisi finds look quite
different from one another, Dr. Zol-
likofer said, theywere livingat the same
time and place and so could, in prin-
ciple, represent a single population of a
single species. He and his Zurich col-
league Marcia Ponce de Leon conduct-
ed the comparative analysis of the
Dmanisi specimens.
Since we see a similar pattern and
range of variation in the African fossil
record, Dr. Zollikofer continued, it is
sensible to assume that there was a
single Homo species at that time in
Africa. Moreover, he added, since the
Dmanisi hominids are so similar to the
African ones, we further assume that
they both represent the same species.
But what species? Some of team
members simply call their finds early
Homo. Others emphasized the strong
similarities to Homo erectus, which
lived two million to one million years
ago.
Tim D. White, a paleoanthropologist
at the University of California, Berkeley,
called it the most primitive H. erectus
yet known.
It is more similar than any other yet
found to early Homo from eastern
Africa, he said.
VISAR KRYEZIU/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Maria Dibrani, left, and her sister, Leonarda, in a shelter on Wednesday in Mitrovica,
Kosovo, after they and their family were deported from France.
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 5 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
europe middle east americas world news
Briefly
Europe
VATI CAN CI TY
Catholic hierarchy reviews
bishop who built luxury home
Pope Francis held talks on Thursday
on the fate of the bishop of Limburg,
Germany, who is under intense pres-
sure to resign for building a luxurious
residence.
The pope spoke with Archbishop
Robert Zollitsch, head of the German
bishops conference, about the bishop,
Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst. The bish-
op has apologized for any careless-
ness or misjudgment on my part but
denies wrongdoing in the building of
the home, which cost 31 million, or
about $42 million.
Archbishop Zollitsch, speaking to re-
porters outside a residence near the
Vatican, said an audit commission
would begin work on Friday to investi-
gate what has become a major embar-
rassment for the Roman Catholic
Church in Germany at a time when
Pope Francis is emphasizing humility
and austerity. (REUTERS)
MADRI D
Spain arrests 17 suspects
in 23 million watch heist
The Spanish police have arrested 17
people accused in the theft of 1,710
watches froma store in Madrid. Apo-
lice statement Thursday said the
thieves used sophisticated laser equip-
ment to break into the store in Decem-
ber 2012 and steal the watches, which
had a total value of 23 million, or about
$31 million, without setting off alarms.
The gang then made contact with
other criminal groups to offload the
watches on black markets in China. The
police said they had managed to recov-
er 300 watches. The arrests were car-
ried out in different phases over the
past fewmonths. (AP)
VALLETTA, MALTA
U.S. vessel comes to rescue
of dinghy with 120 Somalis
The San Antonio, the warship where a
Qaeda suspect, Nazih Abdul-Hamed al-
Ruqai, was interrogated after being
captured fromLibya by United States
special forces, has come to the rescue
of 120 Somali migrants.
Astatement Thursday fromthe
Maltese Army said it asked the vessel to
intervene Wednesday because it was
close to the migrants dinghy. The
Somalis were having trouble in rough
seas and high winds about 120 kilome-
ters, or 75 miles, south of Malta and were
taken to the Mediterranean island. (AP)
Report of leak to Iran adds
to Turkish-Israeli strains
JERUSALEM
BY ISABEL KERSHNER
Persistently strained relations between
Israel and Turkey have not been helped
by a report that last year Turkey re-
vealed to Iran the identities of up to 10
Iranians who had spied for Israel.
The Israeli government refused to
comment on Thursday, but Danny
Yatom, a former chief of the Israeli
Mossad intelligence agency, told Israel
Radio, Assuming that this is true, this
was an extraordinarily malicious thing
to do.
A column published on The Washing-
ton Posts Web site on Wednesday re-
ported that in early 2012, the Turkish
government made the disclosures about
Iranians who had been meeting Israeli
intelligence officers on Turkish soil.
The column, by the veteran reporter
David Ignatius, said that knowledge-
able sources called the episode a sig-
nificant loss of intelligence and an ef-
fort to slap at the Israelis, and that the
betrayal marred a 50-year intelligence
alliance between Turkey and Israel.
The Turkish foreign minister, Ahmet
Davutoglu, said the allegations were
without any foundation.
Mr. Yatom described the shift from
outstanding cooperation in earlier
years between Israel and Turkey, which
shares borders with Iran, Iraq and Syr-
ia, among other countries, and which he
said had served as a convenient place
for Israel to work to reach people from
hostile countries.
Now, he said, We are not open with
the Turks, as we were in the past,
adding, We are suspicious of the Turks
that they relay information to Iran that
could endanger us.
Turkey once ranked as Israels closest
ally in the Muslim world. In past years
theIsraeli, TurkishandAmericanNavies
carried out joint exercises in the Medi-
terranean and Israeli fighter jets trained
in Turkeys relatively vast airspace.
Relations began to sour over Israels
three-week deadly offensive against the
Hamas militant group controlling Gaza
in the winter of 2008-9. The strategic
partnership plummeted further in May
2010 when eight Turks and an American
of Turkish descent were killed after Is-
raeli commandos met resistance aboard
a vessel seeking to break the Israeli
naval blockade of Gaza. Turkey sharply
downgraded its diplomatic and military
ties with Israel in September 2011, ex-
pelling the Israeli ambassador after Is-
rael refused to apologize.
In December 2011, Israel canceled a
$141 million contract to supply Turkey
with an advanced aerial intelligence
system. An Israeli official said at the
time that, given Turkeys shifting allegi-
ances in a turbulent region, Israel
feared that the delicate technology
could end up in the hands of hostile gov-
ernments like Iran.
With Syria having descended into a
bloody civil war that underlined the en-
during interests shared by Israel and
Turkey, the United States urged the two
important American allies to restore co-
operation. President Obama brokered a
reconciliation agreement when he vis-
ited Israel in March.
As part of the deal, Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel officially
apologized for operational mistakes
that led to deaths in the raid and prom-
ised compensation and a further easing
of restrictions on Gaza. The sides were
then meant to agree on terms of com-
pensation, normalize ties and send en-
voys to each others nations.
Israeli and Turkish officials held
meetings in the spring and issued a joint
statement saying that a settlement was
near. But the contacts were frozen in
June when Turkey was convulsed by
weeks of protests. There have been no
newdevelopments since then.
A senior Israeli official, who spoke on
the condition of anonymity because of
the delicate diplomatic situation, said
that Israel very much wanted to renew
the relationship but that in public state-
ments Turkish officials had added more
and more conditions, like a demand that
Israel accept responsibility for the
deaths in the raid.
It is as if the apology never existed,
the Israeli official said. We believe
there are so many strategic interests
that bind Israel and Turkey, such as Syr-
ia and Iran and other regional issues,
and we should put this behind us. But
the Turks dont see it that way.
Zeev Elkin, the deputy foreign minis-
ter of Israel, said that Israels relations
with Turkey remained very complex.
Not because of us, we did not change
our approach to Turks, he told Israel
Radio. The Turks took a strategic de-
cision. Instead of moving in the direc-
tion of Europe, he said, they decided
to seek leadership of the Middle East
andthey chose the anti-Israel card as an
easy card to build up their leadership.
Still, Gallia Lindenstrauss, an expert
on Turkey at the Institute for National
Security Studies at Tel Aviv University,
said there had been a decrease in ten-
sionbetweenIsrael andTurkeysincethe
March apology and that private-sector
bilateral trade was continuing as usual.
Turkey had served as a
convenient place for Israel to
work to reach people from
hostile countries.
BRI EFLY
Americas
WASHI NGTON
NewJersey Senateraceis won
by Newarkmayor, aDemocrat
Cory A. Booker, the mayor of Newark,
has easily won NewJerseys special
Senate election to replace Frank R.
Lautenberg, a fellowDemocrat who
died in June.
Mr. Booker, who was elected on Wed-
nesday, will arrive in Washington
already one of the United States most
prominent Democrats and its best-
known black politician other than Pres-
ident Obama, who backed himaggres-
sively. Mr. Bookers fund-raising
prowess puts himon course to lead his
partys campaign efforts in the Senate,
and he has been mentioned as a possi-
ble vice-presidential choice for 2016.
With 99 percent of the precincts re-
porting, Mr. Booker had 55 percent of
the vote to 44 percent for the Republi-
can candidate Steve Lonegan, a Repub-
lican former mayor of Bogota, NewJer-
sey, according to The Associated Press.
Mr. Booker will be facing re-election in
November 2014.
MEXI CO CI TY
Report says garment makers
in Haiti underpay employees
Garment factories in Haiti, which have
been the backbone of efforts to revive
the countrys earthquake-shattered
economy, have shortchanged workers
of their wages to keep costs of their ex-
port goods low, according to a report by
a labor rights group.
The report, prepared by the Worker
Rights Consortiumand released on
Wednesday, focused on 5 of Haitis 24
garment factories. The majority of
Haitian garment workers, it said, are
being denied nearly a third of the
wages they are legally due as a result of
the factories theft of their income.
The factories deprive workers of
higher wages they are entitled to under
lawby setting difficult-to-meet produc-
tion quotas and by not paying overtime,
the group said. Offenders, it said, in-
clude the Caracol Industrial Park,
which the United States helped build
and has cited as a centerpiece of recon-
struction efforts, and factories that
make products for prominent retailers
like Gap, Target and Walmart.
Syrian says peace talks may resume soon
LOUBNA MRIE/REUTERS
Members of the Free Syrian Army in a cave near Idlib on Thursday. If the peace talks do proceed next month, a crucial unanswered question is which rebel factions will take part.
LONDON
BY ALAN COWELL
A Syrian government official said
Thursday that long-postponed peace
talks under international auspices
known in diplomatic shorthand as
Geneva II could be held in November,
raising speculation about who would at-
tend and who would represent the frac-
tured opposition seeking to topple Pres-
ident Bashar al-Assad.
The official, Qadri Jamil, a deputy
prime minister, said in Moscow that the
discussions could be held in Geneva on
Nov. 23, according to SANA, the official
Syrian news agency. Some reports from
Moscow quoted him as saying that the
talks could extend into Nov. 24.
It was the first public suggestion that a
date had been set and reflected the
heightenedpace of diplomacysince Mos-
cow and Washington brokered a deal in
September for the Syrian government to
dismantle its chemical weapons stocks.
The question of which countries and fac-
tions would attend remained largely un-
answered, and the fighting continues
withnoclear outcomeinsight. Therewas
no immediate confirmation of the date
fromother protagonists in the crisis.
Mr. Jamil was speaking after what
were called good and fruitful talks
with Russias Middle East envoy,
Mikhail Bogdanov, SANAsaid.
Mr. Jamil is one of two government
ministers fromofficially tolerated oppo-
sition parties who have been appointed
since Syrias crisis mushroomed from
civil unrest in March 2011 to a full-blown
civil war that has claimed at least
100,000 lives. While he is often seen as
having little or no authority over gov-
ernment policy, the fact that his re-
marks on Thursday were carried by the
state news agency suggested that they
had some kind of imprimatur.
In the first round of discussions in
GenevainJune2012, major worldpowers
failed to reach a consensus on the key is-
sue of calling for the ouster of Mr. Assad,
a demand advanced by opposition
groups in return for attending any peace
negotiations. Themeetingof ninenations
ended instead with a plan for a political
transition, with Russia and China block-
ing attempts by other participants to re-
quire Mr. Assads removal frompower.
Mr. Jamil said the Geneva II confer-
ence would aim to establish a govern-
ment that represents the basic sides of
the government and the opposition,
SANAreported. The international con-
ference onSyriameans stoppingforeign
interventionandviolence andlaunching
political work through dialogue and re-
conciliation, he said, accusing the Syri-
an opposition of delaying the gathering.
Groups that fail to attend will lose, he
was quoted as saying.
The United States and Russia have
been trying to convene the gathering
sinceMay. TheUnitedNations secretary
general, Ban Ki-moon, said last month
that he was hoping to convene a peace
conference in Geneva in mid-November.
Ahmad al-Jarba, president of the Syr-
ian opposition coalition, said at a news
conference in New York in late Septem-
ber that he was prepared to participate
in new peace talks but wanted assur-
ances of a clear timetable for achiev-
ing results, not an open-ended dia-
logue with the regime.
Mr. Jarbas coalition suffered a blow
last month when about a dozen rebel
groups inside Syria repudiated their
ties with it, saying that its members, liv-
ing in exile, were detached from the
fighting inside the country.
Progress for arms monitors
An official fromthe Organization for the
Prohibition of Chemical Weapons said
Thursday that inspectors in Syria were
approaching the halfway mark of the
first phase of their mission, which calls
for themto verify Syrias initial declara-
tion of its weapons program and render
production and chemical mixing facilit-
ies inoperable by Nov. 1, The Associated
Press reported fromThe Hague.
The official, MalikEllahi, saidthe team
had visited 11 locations since it started
work on Oct. 1 and carried out destruc-
tion work at 6 of them. In the first phase
of the disarmament plan, inspectors are
making production facilities inoperable
by smashing control panels on machines
and destroying empty munitions.
Cheap, quick and low-tech, nothing
fancy, said a spokesman for the
weapons group, Michael Luhan. Later
stages will be more complex, when
chemical weapons will be destroyed. Ne-
gotiations to determine how and where
that will happen are continuing.
INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 6 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
world news united states
leaking the N.S.A. documents to the
news media. In the interview, he said he
believed he was a whistle-blower who
was acting in the nations best interests
by revealing information about the
N.S.A.s surveillance dragnet and huge
collections of communications data, in-
cluding that of Americans.
He argued that he had helped Ameri-
can national security by prompting a
badly needed public debate about the
scope of the intelligence effort. The
secret continuance of these programs
represents a far greater danger than
their disclosure, Mr. Snowden said. He
added that he had been more concerned
that Americans had not been told about
the N.S.A.s reachthanhe was about any
specific surveillance operation.
So long as theres broad support
amongst a people, it can be argued
theres a level of legitimacy even to the
most invasive and morally wrong pro-
gram, as it was an informed and willing
decision, he said. However, programs
that are implemented in secret, out of
public oversight, lack that legitimacy,
and thats a problem. It also represents
a dangerous normalization of govern-
ing in the dark, where decisions with
enormous public impact occur without
any public input.
Mr. Snowden said he had never con-
sidered defecting while in Hong Kong,
nor inRussia, where he has beenpermit-
ted to stay for one year. He said he felt
confident that he had secured the docu-
ments from Chinese spies, and that the
N.S.A. knows he did so. His last target
while working as an agency contractor
was China, he said, adding that he had
access to every target, every active op-
eration, mounted by the N.S.A. against
the Chinese. Full lists of them.
If that was compromised, he went
on, N.S.A. would have set the table on
fire from slamming it so many times in
denouncing the damage it had caused.
Yet N.S.A. has not offered a single ex-
ample of damage from the leaks. They
havent said boo about it except we
think, maybe, have to assume
from anonymous and former officials.
Not China is going dark. Not the
Chinese military has shut us out.
Mr. Snowden said that his decision to
become a whistle-blower and to leak
N.S.A. documents developed gradually,
dating back at least to his time working
as a technician in the Geneva station of
the Central Intelligence Agency. His ex-
periences there, Mr. Snowden said, fed
doubts about the intelligence communi-
ty, while also convincing himthat work-
ing through the chain of command
would only lead to retribution.
He disputed an account in The New
York Times last week reporting that a
derogatory comment placed in his per-
sonnel evaluation while in Geneva was
the result of suspicions that he was try-
ing to break into classified files to which
he was not authorized to have access.
(The C.I.A. later took issue with that de-
scription and said he was not suspected
of security violations.) Mr. Snowden
said the comment was placed in his file
by a senior manager seeking to punish
himfor trying to warn the C.I.A. about a
computer vulnerability.
Mr. Snowden said that in 2008 and
2009, he was working in Geneva as a
TISO, a telecommunications informa-
tion systems officer, handling every-
thing fromITand computer networks to
maintenance of the heating and air con-
ditioning systems. He began pushing for
apromotion, but got intowhat hetermed
a petty e-mail spat in which he ques-
tioned a senior managers judgment.
Several months later, Mr. Snowden
said, he was writing his annual self-
evaluation, when he discovered flaws in
the software of the CIAs online person-
nel Web applications that would make
them vulnerable to hacking. He warned
his supervisor but his boss advised him
to drop the matter and not rock the boat,
he said. After a technical team also
brushed him off, Mr. Snowden said his
boss finally agreed to allow him to test
the systemto prove that it was flawed.
He did so by adding some code and
text, in a non-malicious manner, to
his evaluation document that showed
that the vulnerability existed, he said.
His immediate supervisor signed off on
it and sent it through the system, but a
more senior manager the man Mr.
Snowden had challenged earlier was
furious and filed a critical comment in
Mr. Snowdens personnel file, he said.
He said he considered filing a com-
plaint with the CIAs inspector general
about what he considered to be a repris-
al, adding that he cant recall whether
he did so or a supervisor talked him out
of it. A CIA spokesman declined to com-
ment on Mr. Snowdens account of the
episode or whether he filed a complaint.
But the episode convinced Mr.
Snowden that trying to work through
the system would only lead to punish-
ment. He said he knewof other potential
whistle-blowers who suffered reprisals,
including Thomas Drake, who was pros-
ecuted for disclosing N.S.A. contracting
abuses to the Baltimore Sun (He met
with Mr. Snowden in Moscow recently
to present an award for whistle-blow-
ing.) And he had heard about other
N.S.A. employees who got into trouble
over an embarrassing e-mail chain, in-
cluding a line referring to the Chinese
Army: Is this the P.L.A. or the
N.S.A.?
Mr. Snowden added that, inside the
spy agency, theres a lot of dissent
palpable with some, even. But he said
that people are kept in line through
fear and a false image of patriotism,
which he described as obedience to au-
thority.
He said he believed that if he tried to
question N.S.A.s surveillance opera-
tions as an insider, his efforts would
have beenburiedforever andhe would
have been discredited and ruined. He
added that the system does not work.
You have to report it to those most cap-
tured by it.
Mr. Snowden said he finally decided
to act when he discovered a copy of a
classified 2009 Inspector Generals re-
port on the history of the N.S.A.s war-
rantless wiretapping program during
the Bush Administration. He said he
found the document through a dirty
word search which he described as
an effort by a systems administrator to
check a computer systemfor things that
shouldnt be there in order to delete
themand sanitize the system.
It was too highly classified to be
where it was, he said of the I.G. report.
He opened the document to make cer-
tain that it didnt belong there, and then
curiosity prevailed, he said.
After reading about the program,
which skirted the existing surveillance
laws, he concluded that it had beenilleg-
al, he said. If the highest officials in
government can break the law without
fearing punishment or even any reper-
cussions at all, secret powers become
tremendously dangerous, he said.
Total cost
for gridlock
in U.S. is still
mounting
how well a battered Republican Party
would be able to overcome internal divi-
sions and allay deep public resentment
aimed largely at its members for the
shutdown.
Republicans conceded defeat in the
fiscal confrontation on Wednesday by
agreeing to finance the operations of
government until Jan. 15 and raise the
countrys debt limit through mid-Febru-
ary. Both sides agreed to complete talks
on a newbudget by mid-December. The
Senate passed the legislation first, and
the House followed late in the evening.
The standoff pitted a hard-driving
conservative core seeking cuts in the
new health-care program against a
moderate, pro-business group in the Re-
publican Party that saw no chance that
the president would abandon his signa-
ture achievement and no reason to flirt
with the first modern-era federal debt
default.
The question so crucial to the partys
viability now, heading into the 2014 Con-
gressional elections and beyond, is
whether it has been so stung by the
fallout that the conservatives who in-
sisted onleading this fight will shy away
in the months ahead when the govern-
ment runs out of money and exhausts
its borrowing authority yet again.
Senator John McCain, Republican of
Arizona, who had argued from the start
that the battle against the presidents
health lawwas a fools errand, said he
did not expect a repeat of the latest fis-
cal battles anytime soon because of the
deeply negative public response.
Weve got to assure the American
people that we are not going to do this
again, Mr. McCain said Thursday on
MSNBC. He said Republicans should
make sure they get a positive agenda
for the party so we can be for things
rather than against things, for opening
things rather than closing them.
Some Republicans were still shaking
their heads at what they sawas an enor-
mous lost opportunity. The intense me-
dia focus on the shutdown edged out
news coverage of the troubled start of
the health lawand helped steer national
conversation away fromthe presidents
handling of the Syria crisis.
We managed to divide ourselves on
something we were unified on, over a
goal that wasnt achievable, said Sena-
tor Roy Blunt, Republican of Missouri.
The president probably had the worst
August and early September any presi-
dent could have had. And we managed
to change the topic.
But other conservatives remainedun-
bowed, vowing to renew their fight for
cuts in spending and changes to the Af-
fordable Care Act, as the health law is
called. Some even expressed appreci-
ation for the efforts of Mr. Boehner, who
achieved fewof their goals but defended
them until his efforts collapsed this
week.
We knowhe tends not to want to pur-
sue tough battles, said Representative
John Fleming, Republican of Louisiana.
I think hes migrated more toward us.
We are appreciative of that.
Mr. McCain said he believed that Mr.
Boehners job was safe.
Tea Party conservatives insisted that
the fight that led to the shutdown was
not a wasted effort, even though they
were not able to defund or delay the
health care law.
We fought for fairness, Representa-
tive Mick Mulvaney, Republican of
South Carolina, said on CNN. If you
stand up for what you believe in, I think
you will always find yourself on the
right side of things.
WASHINGTON
BY ANNIE LOWREY,
NATHANIEL POPPER
AND NELSON D. SCHWARTZ
Containers of goods idling at ports. Re-
duced sales at sandwich shops in down-
town Washington. Canceled vacations
to national parks and to destinations
abroad. Reduced corporate earnings
forecasts. Higher interest payments on
short-termdebt.
Even with the shutdown of the United
States government and the threat of a
default over, a substantial cost has been
inflicted on the American economy,
dampening economic growth.
Standard & Poors estimates that the
shutdown will cut about 0.6 percent off
inflation-adjusted gross domestic
product equivalent to $24 billion.
Most analysts are predicting that
growth will remain subpar, at an annual
pace of 2 percent or less.
Moreover, this latest budget impasse
cameafter years of similar episodes, and
the economic ramifications have accu-
mulated over time, analysts say. A new
report from Macroeconomic Advisers,
prepared for the Peter G. Peterson
Foundation, estimates the costs of the
fiscal uncertainty of the last fewyears.
Its model suggests that uncertainty
since late 2009 has increasedcertaincor-
porate borrowing costs by 0.38 percent-
age point; lowered economic growth
over that period by 0.3 percent a year,
costing at least $150 billion in lost out-
put; and left this years unemployment
rate higher by0.6 percentage point. That
translates to 900,000 jobs lost.
The unusually rapid pace of deficit re-
duction, concentrated on goods and ser-
vices the government delivers, has had
a further damping effect on growth,
swamping the cost of the relatively brief
shutdown, economists said. Macroeco-
nomic Advisers estimated the impact at
about 0.7 percentage points of G.D.P. a
year, equivalent to over $300 billion in
lost output over the last three years. Ad-
ditional cuts would slow the economy
even more, economists say.
We are baffled by the idea that the
pace of deficit reduction needs to be in-
creased, givenhowrapidlythe picture is
improving already, Ian Shepherdson,
the chief economist of Pantheon Mac-
roeconomics, wrote in a note to clients.
The 16-day shutdown led to the
biggest plunge in consumer confidence
since 2008. Howard R. Levine, the chief
executive of Family Dollar Stores, said
his customers, most with modest in-
comes, had pulled back on spending this
month. The threat of the shutdown, the
uncertainty regarding some of the gov-
ernment assistance that our consumers
receive, the uncertainty around job
growth are very real to our customer
every day, Mr. Levine said.
From the charter-boat owner in the
Florida Everglades who lost customers,
totheowner of adiner onCapitol Hill who
saw his clientele vanish, to the Alaskan
crab fishermen who were unable to ob-
tain federal permits to fish, small busi-
nesses across the country suffered.
The gridlock had ripple effects on
many industries that do business with,
or are regulated by or partly financed
by, the federal government.
And residential real estate, which has
been one of the brightest points of the
recovery, suffered. An index of senti-
ment among home builders fell in Octo-
ber from a month earlier, according to
data released on Wednesday from the
National Association of Home Builders.
The decline was greater than analysts
had expected. One cause for the decline
is that the approval process for govern-
ment-backed mortgages has slowed
with the shutdown.
The damage to business has been in-
tensified by the timing of the shutdown.
Were in budget planning for 2014, so it
casts a pall, said John Selldorff, who
runs the American operations of Le-
grand, a global manufacturer of elec-
trical and data products based in
France. We are definitely pausing and
being more careful.
The impasse over the debt ceiling
raised the United States short-term
borrowing costs, with investors de-
manding triple the interest payments
they received just a few weeks ago, in
some cases. Concerns about the United
States as a borrower may have a much
longer and deeper effect than the shut-
down, analysts say.
Even with a deal to avoid a default,
the damage has been done by the fact
that we have had a debate questioning
whether the U.S. will pay back its debt,
Laurence D. Fink, the chief executive of
the money manager BlackRock, said
Wednesday morning.
While this fiscal impasse may be end-
ing , many on Wall Street fear that
Washington is not done.
Then we can come back sometime in
December, January and February, said
Brian Gardner of Keefe, Bruyette &
Woods, a New York investment bank,
and do this all over again.
Nathaniel Popper and Nelson D.
Schwartz reported fromNewYork.
We are definitely pausing
and being more careful.
Obama makes plea for more cooperation
CONGRESS, FROM PAGE 1
Mr. Snowden said he had
never considered defecting
while in Hong Kong, nor in
Russia.
Snowden says he shielded data fromRussians and Chinese
SNOWDEN, FROM PAGE 1
Mr. Obama, in his 20-minute state-
ment, did not name the Tea Party but
seemed clearly to be singling out its
members. He chided Republicans for
adopting a strategy of brinksman-
ship that had prevented efforts by both
parties in Congress to develop a com-
promise budget. He said the legislation
he signed to end the shutdown now re-
quired both sides to begin those discus-
sions.
The president did not offer any hints
about where he might be willing to com-
promise in those talks, but he suggested
that any serious effort would confront
the long-term challenges posed by enti-
tlement programs like Medicare andSo-
cial Security.
The debt problems we have noware
long term, he said.
Richard Fisher, the president of the
Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, told
Reuters that politicians needed to move
beyond short-term solutions and a cul-
ture of up-to-the-edge confrontation.
Kicking the can down the road for a
fewmonths will not solve the pathology
of fiscal misfeasance that undermines
our economy and threatens our future,
he said.
The Feds stimulus, Mr. Fisher said,
cannot offset the rot that is destroying
our fiscal house and the blight it spreads
over our economy.
The U.S. government slowly returned
to life on Thursday, with federal agen-
cies again delivering services, reopen-
ing public facilities and welcoming back
hundreds of thousands of furloughed
employees, who had been barred by law
fromtaking work home with them.
In Washington, subway trains were
once again packed with federal workers
streaming in from the suburbs, govern-
ment IDs dangling from lanyards
around their necks. At the Lincoln Me-
morial, tourists waited nearby as a park
ranger cut down the signs announcing
that the memorial was closed.
Robert Lagana said Thursday morn-
ing he was eager to get back to his job at
the International Trade Commission.
It beats climbing the walls, wonder-
ing where your next paycheck is going
to be andhowyoure goingto make your
bills, Mr. Lagana said as he made his
way to his office near LEnfant Plaza.
But he also expressed frustration
with lawmakers who held up the budget
over the new health care law. They
really need to come up with a lawwhere
this never happens again, he said,
adding later, You just feel like you
dont have a voice.
The Smithsonian Institution an-
nounced via Twitter that its museums
were reopening. And in a sure sign of a
return to normality, the Panda Cam
again begin broadcasting live streams
of the National Zoos newest panda cub,
which has grown noticeably chubbier
since the shutdown.
Jeremy W. Peters, Emmarie Huetteman
and Brian Knowlton contributed report-
ing.
It has encouraged our
enemies, its emboldened our
competitors and its depressed
our friends, the president said.
J. DAVID AKE/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Passengers filling subway cars in suburban Arlington, Virginia, on Thursday as workers
returned to their government jobs after a budget fight on Capitol Hill was resolved.
DOUG MILLS/THE NEW YORK TIMES
A National Park Service ranger on Thursday preparing the path to the Korean War Veter-
ans Memorial in Washington after the shutdown of the federal government drewto a close.
WIN MCNAMEE/GETTY IMAGES-AFP
Fromleft, Senator Jeff Sessions and Representative Paul Ryan, both Republicans, and Senator Patty Murray and Representative Chris Van Hollen, Democrats, at the Capitol on Thursday.
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 7 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
asia world news
CORRECTI ONS
An article on Thursday about the two
years that Vincent van Gogh spent in
Paris misspelled the name of the Lon-
don gallery showing the exhibition
Van Gogh in Paris. It is Eykyn
Maclean, not Ekykn Maclean.
The Letter from Washington on Mon-
day misstated the number of inquiries
the Massachusetts health care plan re-
ceived, on average, from a prospective
user before enrollment. The average
was 3 to 6 inquiries, not 18.
An article on Thursday about a rise in
Twitters revenue misstated the adver-
tising income fromits users. In the third
quarter, the companytookinanaverage
of 97 cents in revenue for every 1,000
times Twitter users visited the site,
conducted a search or refreshed the
screen in the third quarter. It did not
take in that much each time such activ-
ity occurred.
An obituary on Tuesday about the au-
thor Oscar Hijuelos misstated part of
the current name of the organization for
which Mr. Hijueloss wife, Lori Marie
Carlson, worked when it was known as
the Center for Inter-American Rela-
tions. It is the Americas Society, not the
Americas Center.
BRI EFLY
Asia
HONG KONG
Nanjings mayor is detained
for disciplinary violations
Communist Party investigators have
detained the mayor of Nanjing on alle-
gations of grave disciplinary viola-
tions, a termthat almost always
refers to corruption and abuses of
power, the state-run news media has
reported.
The report, on Wednesday by the
state news agency Xinhua, said the
mayor, Ji Jianye, was under organiza-
tional investigation but did not specify
what allegations he faces.
After becoming deputy mayor in 2009,
and mayor in 2010, Mr. Ji, 56, oversaw
sweeping building projects that aroused
public anger and created opportunities
for graft, according to a report on the
Web site of Peoples Daily, the main
newspaper of the Communist Party.
PAKSE, LAOS
No survivors in plane crash
Rescuers pulled bodies fromthe
Mekong River on Thursday as officials
in Laos said there were no survivors
froma plane that crashed a day earlier,
killing 49 people. Apassenger manifest
listed 44 travelers: 17 Lao, 7 French, 5
Australians, 5 Thais, 3 Koreans, 2 Viet-
namese and one each fromCanada,
China, Malaysia, Taiwan and the
United States. (AP)
TOKYO
BY MARTIN FACKLER
For a third time this year, Japans prime
minister, Shinzo Abe, on Thursday re-
fused supporters calls to visit a contro-
versial Tokyo war shrine, sending a cer-
emonial offering instead in an apparent
effort to avoid angering Asian neigh-
bors, including China.
Since taking office in December, the
hawkish Mr. Abe has been closely
watched to see whether he makes po-
tentially provocative displays of Japa-
nese nationalism that could isolate his
nation and undermine his efforts to re-
store Japans stature in a region in-
creasingly dominated by China. Before
becoming prime minister, Mr. Abe had
vowed to visit the shrine, Yasukuni, as a
show of what many analysts call his
deeplyheldbelief that Japanwas not the
aggressor during World War II.
As national leader, however, Mr. Abe
has carefully avoided saying or doing
anything that would inflame regional
passions or allow China to cast him as a
dangerous revisionist. Analysts say he
may also be responding to pressure
from the United States, which has
warned Japan, its largest Asian ally, not
to escalate an already tense standoff
with China over control of uninhabited
islands in the East China Sea.
ManyJapanese conservatives saythe
shrine visits should not be politicized
because they are simply meant to honor
the nations war dead.
Crime problem? Malaysia would prefer not to say
Contentious numbers
Violent crime Property crime
Source: Malaysian government
Critics of the Malaysian government question the accuracy of official data showing
a sharp decline in crime rates since 2009.
0
30
60
90
120
150
180,000
0
10
20
30
40,000
00 03 09 12 00 03 09 06 12
2009-12
CHANGE
26%
2009-12
CHANGE
29%
2000-09
CHANGE
+95%
2000-09
CHANGE
+15%
06
Japans premier
again shuns visit
to war shrine
KUALA LUMPUR
BY THOMAS FULLER
Malaysias population has tripled over
the past four decades, and its largest
city, Kuala Lumpur, a place once so
sparsely peopled that it looked like a
botanical garden, has exploded into a
cosmopolitan metropolis of shopping
malls, luxury hotels, sprawling suburbs
and traffic-clogged highways.
But with modernity and urbanization
has come an unwanted extra: a soaring
crime rate that has blighted what was
previously considered one of Asias
safest cities. It is hardto findsomeone in
Kuala Lumpur today who does not have
a story about a bag snatching, a burg-
lary or worse.
Whatever defense we put up is not
enough, said Chong Kon Wah, a Brit-
ish-trained engineer who was burglar-
ized twice at his home inthe Kuala Lum-
pur suburbs and robbed once while he
was inhis car, all inthe spanof 10 days in
August.
The number of reported cases of viol-
ent crime doubled from2000 to 2009, ac-
cording to government data. What has
happened since then is hotly disputed.
The data shows a sharp decline in
most crimes after 2009. The govern-
ment says it has achievedthis by adding
police officers on the streets, security
cameras and barriers along roads to de-
ter snatch thefts, as well as by studying
policing methods in New York, among
other places.
The opposition says the government
is manipulating the statistics. Critics
note that after years of providing the
public with data on murders, rapes,
thefts and other crimes, the govern-
ment now releases only general data
categorized by violent crime and prop-
erty crime. Tony Pua, an opposition
member of Parliament, said he had no
confidence at all that the figures were
accurate.
The Malaysian government has also
stoppedprovidingcrime statistics to the
United Nations, said Enrico Bisogno,
the official responsible for compiling
crime data at the U.N. Office on Drugs
and Crime. After 2006, we havent re-
ceived replies to our annual data collec-
tion on crime from Malaysia, Mr.
Bisogno said.
In response to a request from The
New York Times, the Malaysian police
provided detailed crime statistics that
show that the number of murders over
the past 12 years has remained relative-
ly unchanged at about 600 a year but
that reported rapes during the same
period more than doubled to 2,964 cases
last year.
The data also shows seemingly im-
probable swings in some categories of
crime, includingareductioninrobberies
using a firearm from 722 cases nation-
wide in 2000 to just 17 cases in 2012. An-
other category, gang robbery, fell froma
high of 1,809 in 2010 to 110 cases in 2012.
Everybody admits that the crime
rate could be higher than what is report-
ed, said Teh Yik Koon, a criminologist
at the National Defense University of
Malaysia. There are a lot of people not
reporting crimes because they feel
theres nothing the police can do.
In a country that has long relied on
foreignvisitors investors andtourists
for a good share of its economic
growth, Malaysias paternalistic gov-
ernment has consistently minimized
the crime problem.
If you try to make a fuss out of one or
two cases, it will only worsen the situ-
ation and create a picture that the coun-
try is not safe, Hishammuddin Hus-
sein, who was home minister at the
time, said last year.
In the months since Mr. Hishammud-
din made those comments, a string of
cases, some involving government per-
sonnel and their families, have brought
crime to the top of the political agenda.
Close relatives of the deputy prime
minister and the chief of police were
burglarized in separate episodes last
May. The former head of a local bank
was killed in July, and a top executive of
one of the countrys most successful
companies, AirAsia, was killed during a
robbery in August.
When the house of Khairy Jamalud-
din, a prominent politician and govern-
ment minister, was burglarized in June,
Malaysians got the straight talk from a
government official they had been
hankering for.
The burglary is a reminder to all of
us that crime is a serious problem in
Malaysia, Mr. Khairy wrote on his
Facebook page.
The government has taken high-pro-
file steps to try to showthat it is battling
crime.
The police have arrested more than
11,000 people suspected of being gang
members in a crackdown that began in
August. The suspects, most of whom
have been released, will be charged
with membership in an illegal organiza-
tion. This month, the government
passed laws to give the police the au-
thority to detain suspects without trial,
restoring powers that had been cur-
tailed under an earlier liberalization
program.
The home minister, Ahmad Zahid
Hamidi, said in a speech on Oct. 5 that
the government would no longer com-
promise with gangsters. There is no
need to give them any more warning,
he said, according to the news Web site
Malaysiakini.
Critics of the governments approach
say the roots of Malaysias crime prob-
lem are not being addressed, especially
a police force that is perceived as cor-
rupt and ineffectual, income inequality
and the alienation of the ethnic Indians,
who represent 7 percent of the countrys
population yet make up two-thirds of
gang members, according to the police.
Some suggest that the government
needs to modify the countrys seem-
ingly inviolable preferential policies for
the majority ethnic group, the Malays,
who receive scholarships, lower-cost
housing and government contracts as
part of a policy dating fromthe 1970s.
Ahmad Ghazali Abu Hassan, a profes-
sor at the National Defense University
of Malaysia and the co-author of a re-
cent article on crime, says special con-
sideration should be given to ethnic In-
dians, who are barred from receiving
assistance from the countrys pro-
Malay policies.
Why dont we extend it to the Indian
community? Mr. Ghazali said. I still
believe that poverty is the root cause of
this.
One factor in the higher crime rates
since 2000 may simply be demograph-
ics. The country has one of the youngest
populations in the region 46 percent
of Malaysias people are under the age
of 24, compared with 34 percent in Thai-
land and 33 percent in China. With start-
PHOTOGRAPHS BY GUILLEM VALLE FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
A security guard outside a restaurant in Kuala Lumpur last month. The owner decided to hire armed guards after several nearby restaurants had been robbed.
class neighborhoods have put up barri-
ers at the entrance to their streets, often
without permission from the local au-
thorities. But the barriers seem barely
effective. WhenMr. Chong, the engineer
who was burglarized twice, helped pay
for two security guards and installed a
guard booth, thieves stole the television
inside the booth while the guards were
on patrol.
We told the police, This is serious.
The thieves are everywhere. Something
has to be done, Mr. Chong said.
Last month, the U.S. Embassy in Ku-
ala Lumpur sent a warning to Ameri-
cans. Remember to carry your back-
pack or purse on the shoulder AWAY
from the road to prevent having it
snatched by motorbikers, the message
said.
One restaurant across from Kuala
Lumpurs domestic airport hired an
armed security guard in May to deter
would-be robbers after thieves raided
several other restaurants in the area.
A lot of people think its a gimmick,
said Terence Wong, the restaurants
manager. Its too expensive to be a
gimmick and my customers say they
feel more secure.
ing salaries typically well below$1,000 a
month, young people have trouble buy-
ing the latest smartphone or making the
payments on a vehicle, which is per-
ceived as a must-have in a country
where public transportation is limited.
We are in a very materialistic soci-
ety, said Teresa Kok, an opposition
member of Parliament representing a
suburb of Kuala Lumpur. And starting
salaries have not risen for a very long
time.
In an interview, Wira Ayub Yaakob,
the director of crime prevention at the
Royal Malaysia Police, said people per-
ceive more crime because they read
about it on Facebook and other social
media. The overall trend line for crime
is now down, he said, citing the official
statistics.
One measure of peoples fear in
Malaysia is the demand for security
guards, which has sharply increased.
The number of certifiedsecuritycompa-
nies has more than tripled over the past
decade from 200 to 712, according to the
Security Services Association of Malay-
sia, an organization that trains security
guards.
Residents of wealthy and middle-
Rate soared after 2000,
but many question a
recently reported drop
After 2006, we havent
received replies to our annual
data collection on crime from
Malaysia, a U.N. official said.
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INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 8 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
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Real Estate
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General
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HOUSE HUNTING
FROM GREAT HOMES AND DESTINATIONS
AT INYT.COM
In Northern Ireland,
a cottage with a farmyard
SALE PRICE
1.28 million, or $2.04 million
This four-bedroomcottage, built in 1963,
sits on six acres that are also home to
an 18th-century farmyard and the rem-
nants of a ringfort, or fortified settle-
ment, typically fromthe Iron Age.
The complex, known as The Fort, is a
working farm, but several of its build-
ings have been converted to living and
work quarters. Structures include the
cottage, a gatehouse, a coach house, a
Victorian folly and a contemporary
barn, among others. The property has
an additional 20 acres, or 8 hectares,
not included in the asking price but for
which a sale could be negotiated.
The single-story cottage has been
renovated and a bedroomwing was
added to create an L shape, adding an
extensive kitchen and dining area, a
drawing room, a conservatory, a mud-
roomand a sitting room.
The Fort is a half-hours drive from
the Belfast city center and an hour from
Belfast International Airport.
The property is listed as an agricul-
tural enterprise, so taxes are about
850 a year.
BUYING BASICS
There are no restrictions on foreign
buyers.
Apart fromthe lawyers fee, which
typically totals about 1,200, the stamp
duty, or transaction tax, on this prop-
erty would be about 5 percent of the
purchase price.
CONTACT
Michael Young, Templeton Robinson;
Templetonrobinson.co.uk
ALISONGREGOR
properties
Standing out while staying true to its history
PANAMA CITY
BY NICHOLAS GILL
Several Panama City neighborhoods
have turned into havens for the kind of
glass skyscrapers that fill Miami Beach
or Dubai, but not Casco Viejo, the oldest
inhabited part of the city.
A wave of gentrification in the neigh-
borhood, also known as Casco Antiguo
or just Casco, began in 1997 when it was
designated a Unesco World Heritage
site. The areas 16th-century to 18th-
century buildings built and rebuilt by
immigrants who came to the city during
various boomtimes andafter threelarge
fires noware used as cultural centers,
contemporary restaurants and trendy
newboutique hotels with rooftop bars.
Once deemed unsafe and avoided by
the citys wealthier residents, Casco has
blossomed into what many call one of
the most charming places to live in this
booming Central American metropolis.
Casco is rare and special in so many
ways, said K. C. Hardin, president of
Conservatorio, the local development
company behind the renovation of
many neighborhood buildings, includ-
ing the former American Trade Devel-
oping Co. headquarters. It is being
turned into a 50-room boutique hotel,
which is expected to open by the end of
this year and will be operated by the
U.S.-based Ace Hotel group.
Its one of the few real walking
neighborhoods in Panama and has a hu-
man scale of two- and three-story build-
ings that keeps it intimate, Mr. Hardin
continued. Its the only true mixed-in-
come urban district I know of in Latin
America, and it is truly international.
While most of the neighborhoods ren-
ovatedresidential buildingsweredivided
into apartments during the work, the 3.5-
bedroomCasa Vidal is an exception.
It is one of the few restored single
family homes in Casco Viejo, Mr.
Hardin said. It stands on First Street,
near the old citys original center, Plaza
Francia, and has a roof terrace with
views of the oceanandskyline, andeven
a small plunge pool up there.
The house, which dates to 1899, has
351 square meters, or 3,778 square feet,
of living space and is listed for $975,000.
The U.S. dollar is commonly used in
Panama, and all high-end real estate is
listed in the currency.
It features an unusual combination of
building materials stone walls on the
ground floor, wood on the upper and
now has a modern kitchen and bath-
rooms. Also, Mr. Hardin noted, the
ground-floor bedroom opens directly
onto the patio.
The first registered owner was a
widow named Teresa Arosemena de
Vidal, he said. There is a relief above
the door of a very distinctive womans
face, which we always imagined might
have been her when she was young.
The house had been abandoned for
nearly half a century when Conser-
vatorio bought it in 2006; concerted
work on renovation began in 2010. The
historic districts strict building code re-
quired that any rebuilt stone walls,
patios and staircases correspond to the
houses original layout.
We redesigned the interior to permit
more upstairs living spaces, also look-
ing down into a more modern and open
living area, said Hildegard Vsquez, a
local architect who worked on the proj-
ect. The kitchen became an integral
part of the living roomand the old brick
walls were incorporated to the interior
architecture. The wood wall details
were reused to create a new bedroom
door in the foyer.
According to Patrizia Pinzn, an
agent with Arco Properties, the local
real estate company marketing the
house, an effort was made to find build-
ing materials in the area that matched
the originals as closely as possible. So,
for example, Conservatorio found a
craftsman who could provide the same
kindof concrete floor tiles, calledpiso de
pasta, that were used when the house
was built.
Also, the tropical hardwood floors
were made from petrified timber re-
claimed from Lake Gatn, part of the
Panama Canal. These floors will age
and resist wear, said Ms. Pinzn, who
is married to Mr. Hardin. Youll be
dead and this wood will still be here.
According to Ms. Pinzn, prices have
risen steadily in Casco Viejo, even dur-
ing the global turndown. Current prices
average $2,996 to $3,210 per square me-
ter, or $280 to $300 per square foot.
But in Casco Viejo, each building is
unique. Buying anything in Casco is lit-
erally owning a piece of Panamas his-
tory, she said. I never have 20 of each
available. If you want a two bedroom, I
might have three to showyou, and none
of themare apples to apples.
What is great about Casco is that
people who buy here really dig it, she
said. Even if they are buying as invest-
ment, in the back of their minds they are
thinking of one day coming to retire
here. A large percentage of our buyers
are residents.
According to Ms. Pinzn there are no
restrictions for foreigners buying prop-
erty in Panama, though they must have
local bank accounts, which can be time
consuming to arrange. ROB DURSTON FOR THE NYT
Rare single-family home
was renovated to suit its
gentrifying neighborhood
PHOTOGRAPHS BY ELENA NATHANI
Casa Vidal was rebuilt with building materials that matched the originals as closely as possible, while the hardwood floors were made of petrified timber reclaimed from Lake Gatn, part of the Panama Canal.
The interior was redesigned to
create more space upstairs.
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 9 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
Culture
film art
AKSON STUDIO
WARSAW
BY ALISON SMALE
Arguably, three men helped make mod-
ern Poland: Karol Wojtyla, the Polish
pope whose visits home became rally-
ing points for millions; Lech Walesa, the
Gdansk shipyard electrician who fought
communismand went on to become the
leader of his homeland; and Andrzej
Wajda, the veteran filmmaker who has
etched his countrys history on the sil-
ver screen.
For one choking moment in Mr. Wa-
jdas new movie about Mr. Walesa, the
collectivepresenceof all threeis felt. Ina
scene showing Wojtylas 1979 return to
Poland, his first since becoming Pope
John Paul II in 1978, Mr. Wajda splices in
archival footage of the pope intoning to
an open-air mass his famous prayer that
the Spirit descend on Poland while
Mr. Walesas wife, Danuta, is shown
dropping to her knees as she watches
the blessing live on television.
In this proud nation, where history is
not past but present, this scene in Mr.
Wajdas Walesa: Man of Hope illus-
trates the ambition of the film. The
movie is a monument to Mr. Walesas
pluck and to his nations courage, and it
also seals Mr. Wajdas own place in Po-
lands history.
Walesa: Man of Hope recalls the
unity against communismand the path-
breaking nature of the Poles struggle,
and it rounds out Mr. Wajdas trilogy
(Man of Marble and Man of Iron
were made in 1977 and 1981, respective-
ly) on the Polish workers journey from
Stalinismto freedom.
The filmmaker, now 87, was too ill to
attend the official premiere in late
September (or to be interviewed for this
article). But his film, which opened in
Poland on Oct. 4 and, although shown at
festivals including Venice, Toronto, Rio
de Janeiro and London this autumn, is
not yet in worldwide release, drew the
second-biggest box office this year on
opening weekend in Poland. The film
has affirmed the directors stature and
ability over decades to give voice and
life to Polands tortured history.
Besides the trilogy on the Polish
workers, his 2007 film, Katyn, depict-
ed the Soviet massacre of the cream of
Polands military in 1940.
For the many who remember the days
of dread and wonder during the coura-
geous struggle of Poles against com-
munism, there was fear that Mr. Wajda
would show too many of the warts and
not enough of the bravery and sheer
stubbornness that propelledMr. Walesa,
a worker with limited formal education,
from a Gdansk shipyard to the Nobel
Peace Prize and Polands presidency.
Mr. Walesa founded the independent
trade union Solidarity in August 1980,
then guided millions through upheaval,
martial lawand finally ground-breaking
negotiations withthe Communists anda
sweep of free elections in June 1989.
By focusing on events between
December 1970, when workers in
Gdansk and security forces clashed vi-
olently, and Mr. Walesas triumphant
address to the U.S. Congress in Novem-
ber 1989, Mr. Wajda has tried to skirt the
controversy that has often surrounded
the former leader in the decades since.
He lost many former supporters with
his erratic behavior and conservative
views during his 1990-95 presidency and
beyond. Political foes, meanwhile,
stirred a scandal by alleging that he had
once signed on to collaborate with the
secret police a scene that Mr. Wajda
suggests happened in 1970 when Mr.
Walesa, in police custody and anxious to
get out to see his newborn first child,
barely understood what he was signing.
TODD HEISLER/THE NEW YORK TIMES
The artist Duke Riley holding one of his pigeons. Some of the birds that carried cigars were named after notorious smugglers.
NEW YORK
BY MELENA RYZIK
Pablo Escobar was loose. He darted
across a noisy warehouse, searching for
a corner to loomin.
Hes kind of a bully, said Duke Ri-
ley, the Brooklynartist who trainedhim,
watching Pablo flit around before land-
ing on a ledge near the ceiling. Pablo
Escobar is a homing pigeon, and an ac-
cessory or an accomplice to the
latest exhibition by Mr. Riley, whose
work often flouts both laws and com-
mon sense.
Generally, I do things that dont
really seem that feasible, Mr. Riley ex-
plained, and then they tend to work
out.
But even by his standards, the pigeon
project, Trading With the Enemy,
strained credulity. In utmost secret, Mr.
Riley trained a flock of homing pigeons
to fly one way from Havana to Key
West, Florida. Half the birds were flat-
out smugglers, running Cuban cigars to
the United States. The others were doc-
umentarians, outfitted with special
cameras to record their 100-mile, or 160-
kilometer, journey across the Straits of
Florida.
The idea was to highlight the long his-
tory of pirating on the southern border,
and also to thumb a nose, artistically, at
the cutting-edge spy devices that may
monitor the coast. Drones dont care
about pigeons.
I wanted to subvert this billions-of-
dollars high-tech system with things
that were being used in ancient
Sumeria, said Mr. Riley, who re-
searched pigeon history. In the early
20th century, they were regular mes-
sengers between coastal officials in
Cuba and Florida. They would let a pi-
geon go, he said, to signify safe arrival.
With objects and video and live
birds Trading is part of his solo
show, See You at the Finish Line,
opening at the Magnan Metz Gallery in
New York on Nov. 1. Hes been promot-
ing it by wheat-pasting posters around
town.
In his artist statement, Mr. Riley, 41,
calls himself a patriot, and he often sets
his work on the waterfront, exploring
the boundaries of institutions and the
authorities. In 2007, he was arrested
after he floated a homemade replica of a
Revolutionary War-era submarine too
close to the Queen Mary II. (Despite
the fact that they were pointing ma-
chine guns at me in the pictures, he
said of the New York harbor police,
they were actually very nice.) A 2009
performance in a reflecting pool in
Queens, a staged naval battle, ended in
a drunken, fiery melee.
This avian performance was riskier,
Mr. Riley said, and he was coy about his
methods. How those cigars end up on
the birds, I cant say, he said, carefully.
If a bird ends up in my pigeon lofts,
that happens to have a cigar fromCuba,
and there also happens to be a pigeon
that has a video camera onit, that shows
footage of birds flying from Havana to
Key West with cigars yeah, I cant
really say howthat happened.
With film, solidifying Polands legends
Even for people who are not big fans
of Lech Walesa, said Andrzej Friszke, a
historian who served as a consultant for
the movie, it is impossible to question
the authenticity of his battle against
communism.
The film, the first inPolandto focus on
the Solidarity hero, is a huge gift for
Lech Walesa, said Andrzej Celinski, a
Walesa critic and former spokesman for
him. And Borys Lankosz, a Polish film-
PIGEONS, PAGE 11
Andrzej Wajda tackles
story of Lech Walesas
fight against communism
Duke Rileys project
has pigeons tempting
fate and legal barriers
ANDREAS RENTZ/GETTY IMAGES-AFP (LEFT); AKSON STUDIO (CENTER); KACPER PEMPEL/REUTERS
Scenes from Walesa: Man of Hope, top and above center, with Robert Wieckiewicz. Lech Walesa, left, at the premiere in Venice in September. Right, the director Andrzej Wajda.
POLAND, PAGE 11
Avian artistry, with cameras and smuggled cigars
INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 10 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
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culture film books
Kill Your Darlings. Directed by John Krokidas.
BY A. O. SCOTT
Long before Allen Ginsberg became the
benevolent, bearded Buddha of the
counterculture and one of the most
beloved American poets he was a
skinny, anxious Columbia University
freshman who fell in with a group of lit-
erary rebels. John Krokidass debut
feature, Kill Your Darlings, is intent
on studying these not-yet-Beats in their
fledgling state, as they write the first
drafts of their own legends.
Young Allen, crossing the Hudson
during wartime to escape a none-too-
happy home in Paterson, NewJersey, is
played as a sensitive, studious boy by
Daniel Radcliffe, with glasses and col-
legiate attire that may remind you of
his most famous role. (David Cross
plays his father, Louis, a poet of modest
renown, and Jennifer Jason Leigh is his
needy, mentally unstable mother, Na-
omi.) But though Allen may be the
films protagonist, in his own eyes and
those of his peers he is more sidekick
than hero: the boy who watches and
wonders while more reckless and char-
ismatic friends claimcenter stage.
Some of themare also destined for
fame. WilliamBurroughs (Ben Foster),
heir to his familys adding-machine es-
tate and a Harvard man, is a natty
dresser with detached, almost scholarly
interests in pornography and drugs
that will blossom, eventually, into Na-
ked Lunch. Jack Kerouac (Jack Hus-
ton) is a randy, restless ex-jock with a
live-in girlfriend (Elizabeth Olsen),
whomhe cheats on, fights with and
takes for granted. (If you are looking
for critical perspective on the misogyny
of postwar Americas most famous lit-
erary radicals, you will not find it here.)
Unlike Mr. Radcliffe, who tries to
push past the established contours of
his characters public persona, Mr.
Foster and Mr. Huston are content with
celebrity impersonation. Mr. Fosters is
almost uncannily precise, Mr. Hustons
broad and loud and sentimental, but
they are both essentially Muppet Ba-
bies for fans of the midcentury New
York avant-garde.
This is undoubtedly part of the fun of
Mr. Krokidass film, which he wrote
with Austin Bunn. We are allowed a
peek at the genesis of a movement that
would become a matter of cultural con-
troversy and, eventually, academic
study. It is mildly thrilling to watch Al-
len spar with his English professor
(John Cullum) about rhyme and meter.
You feel a vicarious revolutionary fris-
son, even if the arguments sound a bit
simplistic. (The professor, not a com-
plete square, presciently refers to his
renegade student as Whitman Juni-
or.) And Mr. Krokidas deftly shows
howthe ambition to write is entangled
with other impulses. The emergence of
Allens poetic vocation is almost a sub-
plot in a story about guilt, lust, friend-
ship and murder.
That story is not only, or even
primarily, Allens. The center of his an-
tisocial social universe is less Bur-
roughs or Kerouac than Lucien Carr
(Dane DeHaan), an epicene preppy
who dazzles Allen with his casual erudi-
tion and his systematic contempt for
rules. Lu (as he is known) is a prank-
ster, a provocateur and something of a
muse. He lends Allen his copy of AVi-
sion, by WilliamButler Yeats, and
urges his newfriend to compose a
manifesto that will go even further than
Yeatss Ouija board mysticism.
For all his bravado, Lu is a troubled
young man, struggling with his sexual-
ity, his schoolwork and his attachment
to David Kammerer (Michael C. Hall),
an older man who is both mentor and
predator to him. David, a former teach-
er of Luciens, writes his college assign-
ments in exchange for sex, and hosts
Bohemian parties where he shows off
his young protg. When Lu tries to
pull away, David becomes increasingly
desperate and possessive, and their re-
lationship veers fromcreepy and sad to
violent and tragic.
This grimtale was unknown for
many years, a secret episode in the
lives of Ginsberg, Burroughs and Ker-
ouac. (Lucien Carr later broke with the
group and demanded that Ginsberg re-
move his name fromthe dedication of
Howl and Other Poems.) Telling it
now, posthumously, involves not only
the recovery of lost biographical infor-
mation but also the reimagining of a
chapter in recent gay history.
Kill Your Darlings is at once a lurid
true-crime chronicle and a coming-out
story. Its vision of the past is stereo-
scopic, affirming Allens erotic self-dis-
covery even as it explores the shadows
of the closet where he and his friends
must dwell. The idea that poetry can
give expression to hidden, dangerous
truths is given a specific content that
explains some of the intensity of their
commitment to it. The freedomto aban-
don rhyme and polite diction becomes
the vehicle and symbol for other kinds
of freedom. Luciens mantra, First
thought best thought (which is the op-
posite of the writerly wisdomevoked in
the films title), is an argument against
repression in all its forms, even though
Lucien himself cannot quite live by it.
Allens triumph seems like a foregone
conclusion: We knowwho he was, what
he became, and howthe world changed
around him. But in 1944, all of that was
far fromself-evident, and the risks
were enormous and terrifying. The
achievement of Kill Your Darlings is
to give a modern audience a taste of
that terror, and also of the thrill and in-
toxication that went along with it.
Longbourn. By Jo Baker. 332 pages.
Alfred A. Knopf. $25.95.
BY DIANE JOHNSON
Beloved books like Pride and Preju-
dice or Gone With the Wind, or
books left unfinished like The Mystery
of Edwin Drood, have always prompt-
ed efforts to imagine a continuing life
for their characters. We cling to themin
hopes that some of the qualities of Aus-
ten or Mitchell or Dickens can be recap-
tured, restoring our sense of delight,
maintaining the mysterious bond that
returns us to Mrs. Bennet declaring
that Netherfield Park is let at last or
Scarlett OHara deciding to wait until
tomorrowto think about her problems.
Alas, with fewexceptions, these efforts
rarely satisfy.
It should be said at once that Jo
Bakers Longbourn is an exception.
Neither a sequel nor a disappointment,
its an affecting look at the world of
Pride and Prejudice, but fromanother
point of viewthe servants hall, where
other lives are simultaneously lived with
very different concerns and dramas.
As we knowfromAustens master-
piece, the Bennet familys respectable
but rundown estate at Longbourn is un-
der threat, destined to pass out of the
family because Mr. Bennet has no sons.
Downstairs, the servants are worried,
too. The heir, Mr. Collins, would be
likely to bring in his own people and
turn out the present staff. Unlike the
downtrodden victims in Les Misr-
ables, the Longbourn servants are rel-
atively content with or at least
resigned to their lot. But their lives
are intertwined in ways one wouldnt
have learned fromreading Austen,
where servants are barely mentioned.
Emotions seethe downstairs as famil-
iar events unfold upstairs, notably the
arrival of the delightful (and marriage-
able) Mr. Bingley. Wickham, the sly vil-
lain of Pride and Prejudice, is even
more vile here, planning to seduce the
little scullery maid, Polly, even as hes
paying court to the feckless Lydia.
There are other intrigues. Asecret
long held between the housekeeper,
Mrs. Hill, and her employer, Mr. Bennet,
comes to light. The newfootman, James,
seems to have a secret too and then
he suddenly disappears. Here are some
ONLINE: BOOK REVIEWPODCAST
Listen to a discussion on the latest best
sellers. global.nytimes.com/books
LEIGH GULDIG
of the trappings of the Regency novel as
practiced by, say, Georgette Heyer, but
with a darker view. Ms. Baker adds
some newcharacters to the Austen pan-
theon, with considerable success.
Longbourn is delightfully auda-
cious. After all, Jane Austen is a very
tough act to follow. Pride and Preju-
dice has been read and reread by en-
chanted readers since its publication in
1813. George Henry Lewes, the Victori-
an critic and partner of George Eliot,
declared Austen to be the greatest
artist that has ever written, and Vir-
ginia Woolf called her the most per-
fect artist among women, the writer
whose books are immortal.
Today those judgments have reached
something close to cultish fervor. Yet
Austens great successor, Charlotte
Bront, was baffled by all this admira-
tion. For her, Austens work lacked
what throbs fast and full, though hid-
den, what the blood rushes through,
what is the unseen seat of life and sen-
tient target of death. Its one of literary
historys most famous misjudgments.
But if Charlotte Bront had taken up
the challenge of a sequel to Pride and
Prejudice, she might very well have
hit upon the sort of broader, more sym-
pathetic point of viewMs. Baker has
derived fromthe servants quarters.
Ms. Baker shares some of Bronts
qualities a power of description, a
feeling for the natural world, a regard
for emotional turbulence and she
shows a comfort with the past that al-
lows her to imagine it in a vivid way.
Ms. Baker also reminds us that of
course someone must have been up
very early in the morning to lay the fires
for the Bennets and must have spent all
day cooking their meals and must have
waited outside in the cold with the coach
and horses till the girls emerged froma
party. Of course, Longbourn must have
had someone to stable the horses,
sweep the rooms and change the sheets.
Seen more intimately, someone had to
rinse, boil and bleach the huge quantity
of rags required when the five Bennet
daughters got their menstrual periods.
(Probably all at the same time, as groups
of women often do.) And then there was
the washing out of perspiration stains
and the bleaching of petticoats dragged
in the mud. There were rips to be men-
ded and buttons to be sewn. There were
no indoor toilets, so there had to be
chamber pots and someone to empty
theminto the necessary, and it cer-
tainly wasnt the Bennets.
Remember howindignant Mrs. Ben-
net was when Mr. Collins wondered
which of the girls had cooked dinner?
She assured himwith some asperity
that they were very well able to keep a
good cook, and that her daughters had
nothing to do in the kitchen. However
constrained their financial situation,
the Bennets were in the upper middle
class, like Austen herself, a parsons
daughter, two of whose brothers were
admirals. Servants were servants.
With large imaginative sympathy
and a detailed knowledge of early-19th-
century housekeeping, Ms. Baker gives
us a sobering look at the underside
or the practical side of daily life circa
1812, where in a bourgeois household,
however hard up, a staff of people,
knowing their place, worked an 18-hour
day, every day, to achieve for their em-
ployers even the minimumof comfort.
In Ms. Bakers account, the Bennets
are employers more considerate than
many Elizabeth gives the house-
maid, Sarah, one of her dresses but
social distances are thoughtlessly taken
for granted. Certain lines are never
crossed, and certain others often are:
An upper-class young man was never
too grand to hang around downstairs in
hopes of ruining some servant girl.
Naturally, Austen knewabout these
particulars of daily life, as did George
Eliot and Virginia Woolf, not just from
books. Chamber pots were mentioned in
the work of Shakespeare and Chaucer,
and in the 18th-century novels Austen
had certainly read. But by her day such
mundane and sordid details of daily life
werent spoken of in polite novels.
Ms. Baker deploys themto good ef-
fect not only for their intrinsic interest
but as a moral corrective. She has also
fashioned a moving story about the ser-
vants at Longbourn: Sarah, the house-
maid; Mr. and Mrs. Hill, who take
charge of the stables and household;
James, the newfootman; and little
Polly, an orphan.
The orphan is another beloved liter-
ary tradition. The defenseless child at
the mercy of the world, unprotected by
family or funds, is a resonant metaphor
at any time. The orphan stands for the
frightened waif in all of us, and here
shes the central character, the novels
heroine.
Like Polly, Sarah, the housemaid, is a
foundling, taken in at Longbourn and
fostered by Mrs. Hill. Most of the action
is seen through Sarahs eyes as she
grows into self-awareness and proves
to have some of Jane Eyres spunky re-
silience. She plans to better herself:
She bobbed a curtsy, and took her
money up to her room, and put it away
in her wooden box, along with the pre-
vious quarters pay. If she could find it,
and it was writ in English, she would
borrowHeraclitus fromthe library.
If part of Ms. Bakers inspiration
could have come fromCharlotte Bront,
theres also an aside straight out of
Les Misrables. Thanks to James,
the footman, we learn something of the
conditions encountered by young boys
set adrift in the world, and the exploit-
ative realities of army life and domestic
service. But to mention these classics is
not to condemn as pastiche a work
thats both original and charming, even
gripping, in its own right.
Diane Johnsons most recent book, the
memoir Flyover Lives, will be pub-
lished in January.
Pride, prejudice and drudgery downstairs at the Bennets
BOOK REVI EW
Lives are intertwined in ways
one wouldnt have learned
from reading Austen, where
servants are barely mentioned.
MOVI E REVI EW
The watchful years, before the howling began
CLAY ENOS/SONY PICTURES CLASSICS
Fromleft, Ben Foster, Daniel Radcliffe and Dane DeHaan in Kill Your Darlings, which studies the not-yet-Beats in their fledgling state.
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 11 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
Where publishing is showing signs of growth
Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers
Publishers, authors and literary agents from more than 100 countries converged
last weekend in Frankfurt for the worlds biggest book fair, the Frankfurter
Buchmesse. Translation and licensing deals were hashed out, while industry
watchers surveyed the state of the $100 billion global book business. Over the next
five years, sales of books worldwide are expected to grow at annual rate of just 0.5
percent, according to a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers.
But publishing is booming in at least a few parts of the world. Thailand, for
example, is the world's fastest-growing book market, according to the report, with
robust independent publishing houses, a sizable expatriate literary scene, and an
expanding middle class that provides new readers. By 2017, Thai publishing
revenues are projected to almost double from 2008 levels to $1.5 billion.
The book market is also growing rapidly in Brazil, which was the guest of honor
at this year's book fair. The country sent 70 writers to promote Brazilian literary
culture, although Paulo Coelho, one of the countrys most famous writers, boycotted
the event. What annoys me most about it is that there is an exciting new literary
scene in Brazil, he told the German newspaper Die Welt. But many of the young
authors are not found on this list. STEPHEN HEYMAN
United States
Japan
China
Germany
Britain
3
2
1
2
6
% +

+
+
$27.6
12.4
9.8
8.9
4.2
Thailand
Venezuela
India
Brazil
Pakistan
30
26
22
22
17
% +
+
+
+
+
$1.2
0.1
2.2
2.2
0.1
PROJECTED GROWTH 2013-2017 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR 2013
Largest publishing markets
Publishing markets projected to grow the fastest
bil.
bil.
Note: Figures do not include sales of business-to-business books.
BY THE NUMBERS INTERNATIONAL CULTURE
TODD HEISLER/THE NEW YORK TIMESZ
Mr. Riley with a loft that houses the pigeons for his projects.
AKSON STUDIO
The actor Robert Wieckiewicz with a photograph of Lech Walesa. He joked that he was
playing a legend, directed by a legend, in a country with 38 million experts on Walesa.
PEOPLE
JOEL and ETHANCOEN were made Com-
manders of the Order of Arts and Let-
ters, Frances highest cultural honor, at
a ceremony in Paris on Wednesday, BBC
News reported. The brothers won three
Oscars in 2008 for No Country For Old
Men, and eight of their films have had
their premieres at the Cannes FilmFes-
tival, with Barton Fink winning the
Palme dOr in 1991. Their latest film, In-
side Llewyn Davis, starring CAREY MUL-
LIGAN and JUSTINTIMBERLAKE, won the
Grand Prize at the festival this year. Ac-
cepting the award, Joel said: This is
one of the most fortunate jokes I think
life has played on us.
TONI COLLETTE, MICHAEL C. HALL, TRACY
LETTS and MARISA TOMEI are set to star on
Broadway this spring in WILL ENOs dark
comedy The Realistic Joneses, the
producers announced on Wednesday.
The play, about a two suburban couples
who discover they have an unsettling
amount in common, drewstrong praise
fromcritics last year at Yale Repertory
Theater. The director SAMGOLD staged
that production, as he will on Broadway;
Mr. Letts, also a Pulitzer Prize-winning
author, is also returning fromthe Yale
run. The theater will be announced later.
MORRISSEY has used his autobio-
graphy, published Thursday, to criticize
the British legal systemand music busi-
ness; and revealed that his first relation-
ship was with a man when he was in his
30s, BBCNews reported. The singer de-
scribed one of the judges in his 1990s le-
gal battle with his former bandmate MIKE
JOYCE as the pride of the pipsqueakery.
THE SMITHS record label Rough Trade, he
said, had been brutally drab. And the
star, who is normally protective of his
private life, opened up about a relation-
ship with JAKE WALTERS that began in 1994.
ASHTONKUTCHER was the highest paid
actor on American television for the
second year in row, having earned an es-
timated $24 million for his role in Two
and a Half Men in 2012, according to
Forbes magazine. His co-star JONCRYER
was in second place. RAY ROMANO was in
third place, even though his show
Everybody Loves Raymond ended
eight years ago (most of the money
comes fromsyndication sales). The top
10 list also includes PATRICKDEMPSEY, MI-
CHAEL C. HALL and MARKHARMON. (REUTERS)
RONANFARROW, the 25-year-old son of
the actress MIA FARROW, will host a one-
hour weekday showstarting early next
year on MSNBC. The writer and human
rights lawyer will also contribute to the
channels Web site and NBC News. Mr.
Farrowwas thought to be the biological
son of WOODY ALLEN. But his mother cast
doubt on his paternity when she said
this month that her former husband,
FRANKSINATRA, could possibly be his
father. (REUTERS)
PHOTOGRAPHS: AP, AP, AP, EPA
art film culture
Wajda films Walesas epic fight for Polands freedom
maker who, now 40, was a child during
the battle against communism, added,
Its a brave title, and reminds us of the
moment when we were all together.
Mr. Celinski, like many others in their
50s and 60s today, recalled that in those
days people felt as if it was all us and
no them.
Like other former East bloc nations,
Poland after 1989 made huge strides,
joining the Western clubs of NATO and
the European Union. But they have all
since felt the decaying of the European
vision and become mired in petty poli-
tics or keenly felt divides. As a result,
Mr. Celinski said, the achievements of
Polands struggle became tarnished.
The gateway to paradise was sup-
posed to be Solidarity, he said. But
since there is no paradise, people dont
think highly of Solidarity any more.
Robert Wieckiewicz, a leading actor
with piercing blue eyes and more than a
trace of Sean Penn, shouldered the
tough role of Mr. Walesa. In an inter-
view, he joked that he was playing a le-
gend, directedbya legend, ina country
with 38 million experts on Walesa.
During six months of shooting and end-
less script and editing changes, he said,
he came to understand the importance
of looking back.
He was only 14 in 1980, growing up in
southern Poland, far from the strike in
the Baltic port of Gdansk. On a school
tripthefollowingyear toGdansk, hesaid
you could feel in the air that something
incredibly important was going on.
In Polish history, he added, there are
very fewmoments that one can really be
proudof. Besides emphasizingfor Poles
what Mr. Walesa did, the actor said, Mr.
Wajda wanted to remind the world that
this huge revolution the toppling of
communism throughout the Soviet bloc
started in Poland, that Poland was
first, before the fall of the Berlin Wall.
One of the more unexpected elements
of the movie is the role played by Mrs.
Walesa, themother of Mr. Walesas eight
children. As the movie was being made,
she emerged from her husbands shad-
ow with a memoir that exposed rifts in
their relationship and has become the
basis for a hit one-woman play.
Agnieszka Grochowska, who plays
Danuta in the movie, told the Polish
newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza that Mrs.
Walesa symbolizes women of her era,
standing in queues and washing
clothes by hand. But she also lived a
crazy mosaic of suffering and success
that turned her from workers wife to
first lady, meeting Pope John Paul II
and Queen Elizabeth II and having Joan
Baez sing in her living room.
In one memorable scene in the film,
Danuta Walesa is strip-searched at the
Warsaw airport upon returning from
Oslo, where she had collected the 1983
Nobel Peace Prize for her imprisoned
husband. Asked to remove even her un-
derpants, Mrs. Walesa complies, put-
ting thematop the Nobel medal.
Elzbieta Giedrojc, a 51-year-old sing-
er, was among the Poles who saw the
movie on its opening night in Poland.
The airport scene, she said, was unfor-
gettable because Mrs. Walesa was re-
turning from Norway, a country that
had dignity and everything to which
Poles aspired, to her homeland, where
those values then meant nothing.
Like many others, she expressed
hope that young Poles who did not live
through communism would see the
movie. They should be aware, she
added, that Poland was the country
where the revolution started.
The Treasury Department, which
oversees the trade embargo with Cuba,
was similarly flummoxed.
Oooookkkkkay, a spokeswoman re-
sponded, when told about the project by
a reporter. In a statement, she added
that importing or dealing in Cuban
goods is generally prohibited for per-
sons subject to the jurisdiction of the
United States.
Mr. Riley will say this: He started the
training in Florida last year with 50 pi-
geons; 23 went on the first mission, this
summer. Only 11 returned.
Thats par for the course with racing
birds, he said, as he gave a tour of the
colorful pigeon loft that once was com-
mand central in Key West. It had been
shipped back to Brooklyn and stored in
a friends metal shop in the Gowanus
neighborhood. The cigar-carrying birds
were named for notorious smugglers,
like Pierre Lafitte, of New Orleans, and
Minnie Burr, from Memphis, Tennes-
see, who transportedsupplies under her
skirts during the Civil War. The docu-
mentarians were named for directors
who had trouble with the law, like Ro-
man Polanski and Mel Gibson. Mr. Riley
painted portraits or, depending on
your perspective, mug shots of all 50,
detailing their efforts (Pierre completed
his mission; Minnie, alas, was lost at
sea) to display and sell at the gallery.
Also on view: the pigeons harnesses,
worthy of Etsy, fashioned from bright
bra straps with adorably embroidered
smuggling pockets; the half-dozen
Cohiba cigars they held, cast in resin;
and a split-screen birds-eye documen-
tation of the flight.
The pigeon-cam footage is shaky but
mesmerizing. Mr. Riley and his small
team labored for years to lighten the
cameras, doctoring themto record at in-
tervals from multiple angles. The birds
shot hours of video: takeoffs, landings,
ocean, and quite a fewstops in between.
I didnt know they were going to take
breaks, Mr. Riley said.
A well-trained pigeon could make the
flight in perhaps five hours. Some of his
took two weeks. At least one landed on a
Florida party boat, where it was quickly
spotted, withcameras rolling. Its wear-
ing a bomb! a woman says, as a Jimmy
Buffett song plays in the background.
Dara Metz, an owner of the gallery
and Mr. Rileys longtime dealer, said the
piece, four years in the making, quickly
appealedto her. It was, she said, concep-
tual, performative, political and funny
all hallmarks of a Rileywork. Not that
she knows how he does it. When it
comes to Dukes projects, hes always
candid about what his intentions are,
she said. He does not get into the de-
tails about howhe executes them.
She didnt feel Trading With the En-
emy needed the intervention of her
lawyers, who might have cast a cold
eye. It might be bordering on illegal
and pushing the envelope, but she said,
I dont think hes ever putting anybody
in jeopardy, besides himself.
One pair of smuggler birds is for sale,
for $100,000 apiece; the flock will be
shown at Magnan Metz in the loft he
built of wood salvaged fromshipwrecks.
Ms. Metz has enlisted interns and vol-
unteers to care for the pigeons. Im
hoping its as easy as he says, she said.
(What she had yet to consider: Pigeons
mate for life, breed in artificial light and
heat, and gestate for 17 to 19 days. The
gallery may soon be a hatchery.)
Mr. Riley, who makes a living as a tat-
too artist and has birds inked on his
body, was first entranced after he res-
cued a pigeon as a boy. I let it go and it
came back, he said. You feel sort of
connected to the animal after that.
He evenlivedwiththeminanattic loft
when he was a student at the Rhode Is-
land School of Design. (The arrange-
ment went over surprisingly well with
girlfriends, he said: You look like
maybe a diamond in the rough you
know, like a sensitive bird-lover guy
that just needs to be cleaned up a little
bit.) He keeps pigeons inBrooklyn, and
simply mailed some of their babies to
Key West, which is apparently allowed.
But even with his decades of experi-
ence, this mission involved a lot of trial
and error, said Kitty Joe Sainte-Marie,
Mr. Rileys studio and project manager.
The pigeons trained during hawk mi-
gration season and were prey. One of
themgot nailedright infront of me, Mr.
Riley said.
Others were felled by disease, faulty
doors in the coops and temperament.
You have to build up their confidence,
flying over water, very slowly, he said.
Some of the strongest still disappeared
on test runs. It definitely doesnt mean
that theyre dead, he said. They just
may not come back.
ONLINE: MOVIE NEWS AND REVIEWS
For filmreviews and news about the
industry, go to global.nytimes.com/film
Avian art, with smuggled cigars
PIGEONS, FROM PAGE 9
JOEL COEN, ETHANCOEN, TONI COLLETTE, ASHTONKUTCHER
POLAND, FROM PAGE 9
One of the more unexpected
elements of the movie is the
role played by Mrs. Walesa.
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Except MOSCOW
Opinion
Rana Mitter
OXFORD, ENGLAND At the same time
that China has stated its desire for
peace in Asia, the country has been
making assertive claims over waters in
the East and South China Seas. The
confrontational rhetoric suggests, to
many observers (and to Chinas uneasy
neighbors in the Pacific region), a
sense of pent-up entitlement, stemming
fromBeijings growing importance in
the world.
But another, little-remembered factor
is also at play: Chinas lingering resent-
ment that its contributions to the Allies
victory against Japan in World War II
were never fully recognized and have
yet to translate into political capital in
the region.
Chinas resistance to Japan is one of
the great untold stories of World War
II. Though China was the first Allied
power to fight the Axis, it has received
far less credit for its role in the Pacific
theater than the United States, Britain
or even the Soviet Union, which only
joined the war in Asia in August 1945.
The Chinese contribution was pushed
aside soon after the conflict, as an in-
convenient story in the neat ideological
narrative of the Cold War.
In the early 20th century Chinas
growing desire for national sovereignty
rubbed up against Japans rising imper-
ialismon the Asian mainland. War
broke out in earnest in July 1937, and
during the eight years that it lasted,
both the Nationalist forces of Chiang
Kai-shek and, to a lesser extent, the
Communist fighters answering to Mao
Zedong engaged in extraordinary feats
of resistance.
Though far weaker and poorer than
the mighty United States or the British
Empire, China played a major role in
the war. Some 40,000 Chinese soldiers
fought in Burma alongside American
and British troops in 1944, helping to se-
cure the Stilwell Road linking Lashio to
Assamin India. In China itself, they
held down some 800,000 Japanese sol-
diers.
The costs were great. At least 14 mil-
lion Chinese were killed and some 80
million became
refugees over the
course of the war.
The atrocities were
many: the Rape of
Nanking, in 1937, is
the most notorious,
but there were other,
equally searing but
less well-known,
massacres: the
bloody capture in
1938 of Xuzhou in the east, which
threatened Chiangs ability to control
central China; the 1939 carpet bombing
of Chongqing, the temporary capital,
which killed more than 4,000 people in
two days of air raids that a survivor de-
scribed as a sea of fire; and the
three alls campaign (Burn all, loot
all, kill all) of 1941, which devastated
the Communist-held areas in the north.
These strains placed immense pres-
sure on what by then was a weak and
isolated country. But some of the Chi-
ang governments policies made mat-
ters worse. Adecision to seize the peas-
ants grain to feed the army
Slawomir Sierakowski
CONTRIBUTING WRITER
WARSAW This year the Czech Republic
selected, as its Oscar candidate for Best
Foreign Language Film, a picture by
the Polish director Agnieszka Holland.
This was the first time the Czech Film
Academy had ever nominated a for-
eigner. Last week, however, the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and
Sciences disqualified the film, without
explaining its reasoning.
Ms. Holland has been nominated for
an Oscar several times in the past, and
she will no doubt be nominated again.
The interesting question is: What did a
Polish director do to deserve such an
honor fromthe Czechs?
The film, Burning Bush, tells the
story of Jan Palach, a student who set
himself on fire in January 1969, after the
Soviets suppressed the Prague Spring.
The films true focus is not Palach,
who dies in the first fewminutes, but
Czech society. Palachs self-immolation
was in protest not against the military
invasion, but against the passivity and
indifference of the people around him.
Up until now, the Czechs have been
unable to come to terms with this event
or even talk about it. They waited for a
prophet fromabroad.
In Palachs case, this had to be a Pole,
because Palach is a typically Polish he-
ro, romantic and suicidal. He is as dif-
ferent fromthe typical Czech hero as
Warsawis fromPrague the former
city is desperately heroic, which is why
it was completely destroyed during
World War II.
Ms. Hollands filmhas been received
as a kind of national purification. Vari-
ous Czech directors began to offer a
kind of public self-criticism, apologizing
for the fact that they have been unable
to make such a film. During this years
Czech filmawards, broadcast live on
television, the renowned director Jan
Hrebejk burst onstage, saying, Listen,
all that youve done this year amounts
to nothing. The only good thing is
Burning Bush.
This was not Ms. Hollands first trip
to the Czech Republic. Indeed, her life
itself could serve as the basis for a film
script. Her father was a well-known
Communist of a revisionist bent, who
died during an interrogation by the se-
curity services by falling (or jumping)
out of a window. Agnieszka, unable to
enroll in a Polish university, left for
Prague, where she joined the Prague
Spring movement and spent a month in
prison for attempting to forcibly de-
stroy the international systemof social-
ist countries.
She never met Palach, but she moved
in the same circles. When he left behind
a letter saying his was only the first of
many self-immolations, she was con-
vinced that one of her friends was next.
Upon returning to Poland, Ms. Hol-
land became a leading representative of
the politically active
Cinema of Moral
Anxiety, alongside
men like Andrzej Wa-
jda and Krzysztof
Kieslowski. She was
the least sentimental
of the bunch; she had
the fewest illusions
not only about the
evils of the system,
but about the weakness of society, hu-
man pettiness and the questionable
grandeur of historical events.
In the 1980s, Ms. Holland belonged to
a small group of filmmakers who found
success in both Europe (with her
Oscar-nominated films Angry Har-
vest and Europa Europa) and Hol-
lywood (with, for instance, Washing-
ton Square, a great adaptation of
Henry Jamess novel). She has even di-
rected episodes of American TVshows
like The Wire and Treme.
But her heart has remained political.
She is a kind of one-person opposition
party, criticizing the political class for
backwardness and hypocrisy.
I remember one instance, during a
celebration of the anniversary of the
fall of Communism, when Ms. Holland
was listening to a boring discussion
among famous former dissidents, all
men, including figures like AdamMich-
nik and Janos Kis. She sat in a rowof
women who had formed the core of the
Solidarity movement in the 1980s but
now, in free Poland, were relegated to
the roles of deputy chief, deputy direc-
tor, deputy president.
After two hours, Ms. Holland got up
and began to wonder aloud whether, if
the gentlemen ever took a basic course
on feminism, they would continue to ex-
change such predictable banalities,
which she could no longer bear to hear.
Ms. Holland was also nominated for
an Oscar last year, but as Polands can-
didate. Her In Darkness was one of
the rare films about the Holocaust
whose hero is not a representative of
the upper class, like Steven Spielbergs
Oskar Schindler or Roman Polanskis
WladyslawSzpilman. Hers is a sewer
worker fromLvov. In this way, she man-
aged to demonstrate the periods state
of mind more convincingly than through
a story about exceptional heroes. The
filmdrewlarge audiences in Poland and
played a significant role in the pro-
cessing of the countrys World War II-
era sins and failures toward its Jews.
NowMs. Holland has aided the
Czechs in confronting their own trau-
mas. It would be nice if the Czechs sent
us one of their many outstanding direc-
tors to tackle one of our traumas. The
question is, which one?
Howabout history? Poles are proud
of their history, perhaps too much so.
We believe we have a great history be-
cause everyone beat us down and be-
trayed us, and thus we deserve respect.
Whoever does not understand this logic
is simply confirming that he is our en-
emy, a traitor. The 1944 WarsawUpris-
ing against the Germans, as a result of
which the Polish capital was all but
wiped off the face of the earth, as told
by the Good Soldier Schweik, the paci-
fists favorite Czech hero, might not ap-
peal to our ever-bellicose youth.
Or maybe the secularized Czechs
could look under the cassocks of our
crude Catholic hierarchy. What if they
went about telling the story of Pope
John Paul II the way they did with the
muckraking Citizen Havel? Oh yes,
that would be quite the revolution!
I appeal to the Czech FilmAcademy.
Since there will be no Oscar for Holland
this year, youll have to repay us some
other way. We ask for the same type of
revolution weve given you. It doesnt
have to be historical, just cultural.
Were waiting for reciprocation.
SLAWOMIR SIERAKOWSKI is a sociologist, a
founder of the Krytyka Polityczna move-
ment and the director of the Institute for
Advanced Study in Warsaw. This article
was translated by Maria Blackwood
fromthe Polish.
exacerbated the 1942 famine in Henan
Province. You could exchange a child
for a fewsteamed rolls, one govern-
ment inspector recalled in his memoir.
Such missteps made the Nationalist
(Kuomintang) government seemcor-
rupt and inefficient, and an embarrass-
ing ally for the United States even
though the Nationalists did the vast
majority of the fighting against Japan,
far more than the Communists.
When the Allies won in 1945, Chinas
contribution to the victory was rewar-
ded with a permanent seat on the Secu-
rity Council of the newUnited Nations,
but little more. After a civil war, the Chi-
ang regime fell to the Communists in
1949, and Mao had little reason to recog-
nize its contributions to the defeat of Ja-
pan. Chinas wartime allies also did
little to remind their own people of its
role in their victory: The Nationalist re-
gime which fled to exile in Taiwan
was an embarrassing relic, and the new
Communist regime was a frightening
unknown. For the West, China had gone
fromwartime ally to threatening Com-
munist giant in just a fewyears.
One major consequence that remains
of great relevance today is that the old
enemies of Asia never struck a multilat-
eral settlement of the sort that took place
in the North Atlantic after 1945, with the
formation of NATOand what has be-
come the European Union. The United
States decision to put China on the side-
lines of the postwar world order it domi-
nated has meant that China and Japan
never signed a proper peace treaty. And
it has meant that for many years West-
ern historians treated Chinas role in
World War II as a sideshow.
But recently a newpolitical openness
within China itself has allowed a differ-
ent picture of the war years to emerge.
Chiang and Mao are long dead, and the
Chinese government has been trying to
claima greater international role by re-
minding the world of the benefits of its
past cooperation with the West.
Eager to eventually reunify the main-
land with Taiwan, Beijing has also
adopted a more favorable attitude to-
ward Chiangs legacy. Chinese film-
makers and academics nowhave li-
cense to talk more freely about the
Nationalists wartime contribution,
whether in television dramas or schol-
arly articles. Alengthy and sympathet-
ic biography of Chiang by Yang Tianshi,
a historian at the Chinese Academy of
Social Sciences, has been a big seller on
the mainland. Chiangs old wartime
villa outside Chongqing has even been
restored as a shrine of sorts, with pic-
tures and captions describing himas a
patriot who stood firmagainst the Jap-
anese a rehabilitation of Chiangs
reputation that would have been un-
imaginable under Mao.
This revision of history has signifi-
cant consequences for East Asia and
Southeast Asia today. If Americas lead-
ership in defeating Japan in 1945 contin-
ues to justify a U.S. presence around
the Pacific today, Chinese leaders feel,
why shouldnt Chinas contribution to
the same goal earn it some clout in the
region? Beijing is trying to cash in
today a geopolitical check Chiang Kai-
shek wrote nearly seven decades ago.
RANA MITTER, professor of the history and
politics of modern China at Oxford Uni-
versity, is the author of Forgotten Ally:
Chinas World War II.
The Republican Party slunk away on Wednesday fromits
failed, ruinous strategy to get its way through the use of
havoc. Hours away froman inevitable market crash, it
approved a deal that could have been achieved months ago
had a fewmore lawmakers set aside their animus. After
President Obama signed the bill, the government reopened
after more than two weeks of shutdown, and the threat of a
default was lifted.
The health care reformlawwill not be defunded or
delayed. No taxes will be cut, and the deal calls for no new
cuts to federal spending or limits to social welfare programs.
The only things Republicans achieved were billions of
dollars in damage to the economy, harmto the nations
reputation and a rock-bottompublic approval rating.
We fought the good fight. We just didnt win, Speaker
John Boehner said, utterly failing to grasp the destruction
his battle caused. It has hurt federal employees and needy
people dependent on government programs, and it
threatened to alter Washingtons balance permanently by
giving a fringe group outsize power over the executive
branch and the normal functions of government.
The deal, unfortunately, does include one minor health
care provision that requires the administration to certify
that procedures are in place to verify the incomes of those
seeking insurance subsidies. (By the middle of next year, an
inspector general will have to audit those procedures.) A
White House official said the provision was virtually
meaningless and would have no effect on the rollout of
insurance exchanges, but the requirement was unnecessary
and adds a tarnish to the presidents vownot to pay the
slightest bit of ransomto Republicans.
Nonetheless, the outcome vindicates the strong stance
taken by Mr. Obama and Senate Democrats against the
Republicans extortionate demands. Two years ago, when he
was first confronted with the Republican refusal to raise the
debt ceiling, Mr. Obama blinked and agreed to a budget
control lawthat severely slashed domestic spending and will
continue to do so for years through the sequester.
Determined not to give in this time, he refused all of the
most outrageous demands. The Republicans pushed the
nation to the brink of default, and pulled back at the last
minute when it was clear the White House would not
capitulate. But this doesnt mean the brinkmanship is over.
The continuing resolution that pays for the government to
reopen lasts only until Jan. 15. Democrats won a formal
budget negotiation that Republicans had resisted for months,
giving thema chance to relieve some of the sequester cuts.
Republicans have already vowed to use the budget
negotiations to keep up their attacks on the health law.
Then, on Feb. 7, the Treasury will again hit the debt ceiling.
That will be closer to the midtermpolitical season, and the
futility of trying to use default as a weapon should be a fresh
memory for Republicans. But many in the party remain
defiant, opposing this weeks deal and vowing to keep
waging their crusade. Those who refused to submit to
blackmail in Washington need to remain vigilant.
New rules
would re-
strict the
use of elec-
tronic ciga-
rettes and
eventually
ban flavors.
The European Parliament voted last week to toughen
regulations on the marketing and sale of tobacco. That puts
the Continent ahead of the United States in discouraging
smoking, particularly among children.
Tobacco companies lobbied lawmakers to dilute the new
rules, and won some minor changes. But the guidelines
represent a big improvement. Lawmakers will negotiate the
changes with national governments and the European
Commission before final rules are adopted next year.
Lawmakers voted to increase the size of the warning
labels on cigarette packs to 65 percent of the front and back
of packs, up from40 percent now. By contrast, warning
labels in the United States are small text boxes on the sides.
The European Parliament also voted to ban flavored
cigarettes three years after the rules are finalized and
menthol cigarettes after eight years. The 2009 American law
banned flavored cigarettes, but left a decision on menthol to
the F.D.A., which has not acted. Studies showthat flavored
cigarettes make smoking more appealing to kids and young
people and make it harder for addicted smokers to quit.
The most controversial part of the European rules
concerned electronic cigarettes, battery-powered devices
used to inhale nicotine vapors. These are safer than
conventional cigarettes, but nicotine in any formis highly
addictive and can be dangerous, especially to youngsters.
Under pressure frome-cigarette makers, European
lawmakers rejected a proposal to regulate themas drug-
delivery devices. But they did vote to confine their sale to
adults and applied the same marketing and advertising
rules to these products that apply to conventional cigarettes.
Only 23 American states have banned the sale of e-
cigarettes to minors. The F.D.A. has said it intends to
regulate themas tobacco products, but hasnt done so.
More than 700,000 Europeans and more than 440,000
Americans die fromsmoking-related illnesses every year.
Lawmakers in Europe have taken some important steps;
United States regulators should do the same.
THE REPUBLICAN SURRENDER
EUROPE CRACKS DOWN ON TOBACCO
After in-
flicting
enormous
damage,
the House
wins virtu-
ally noth-
ing and
gives up.
The conscience of a director
The worlds wartime debt to China
CRISTBAL SCHMAL
It took a Pol-
ish filmmaker
to force
Czechs to face
a dark mo-
ment in their
history.
Its forgotten
role in the
Allied victory
over the Axis
helps explain
its geopolitic-
al aspirations
today.
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 13 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
opinion
Nicholas D.
Kristof
Lead helps to guard your health.
That was the marketing line that the
former National Lead Company used
decades ago to sell lead-based house-
hold paints. Yet we nowknowthat lead
was poisoning millions of children and
permanently damaging their brains.
Tens of thousands of children died, and
countless millions were left mentally
impaired.
One boy, Sam, born in Milwaukee in
1990, thrived as a baby, according to
his medical record. But then, as a tod-
dler, he began to chewon lead paint or
suck on fingers with lead dust, and his
blood showed soaring lead levels.
Sams family moved homes, but it was
no use. At age 3, he was hospitalized for
five days because of lead poisoning, and
in kindergarten his teachers noticed that
he had speech problems. He struggled
through school, and doctors concluded
that he had permanent and irrevers-
ible deficiencies in brain function.
Sams story appears in Lead Wars,
a book by Gerald Markowitz and David
Rosner published this year that chron-
icles the monstrous irresponsibility of
companies in the lead industry over the
course of the 20th century. Eventually,
over industry protests, came regulation
and the removal of lead fromgasoline.
As a result, lead levels of American chil-
dren have declined 90 percent in the
last fewdecades, and scholars have es-
timated that, as a result, childrens
I.Q.s on average have risen at least two
points and perhaps more than four.
So what are the lessons fromthe hu-
man catastrophe of lead poisoning over
so many decades? To me, todays ver-
sion of the lead industry is the chemical
industry companies like Exxon Mo-
bil, DuPont, BASFand DowChemical
over the years churning out endocrine-
disruptor chemicals that mimic the
bodys hormones. Endocrine disruptors
are found in everything fromplastics to
pesticides, toys to cosmetics, and there
are growing concerns about their safety.
The Endocrine Society, the Pediatric
Endocrine Society, the European Soci-
ety of Pediatric Endocrinology and the
Presidents Cancer Panel have all
warned about endocrine disruptors
also referred to as E.D.C.s, for endo-
crine disrupting chemicals. The World
Health Organization and United Na-
tions this year concluded: Exposure to
E.D.C.s during fetal development and
puberty plays a role in the increased in-
cidences of reproductive diseases, en-
docrine-related cancers, behavioral and
learning problems, including A.D.H.D.,
infections, asthma, and perhaps obesity
and diabetes in humans.
Alarmabout endocrine disruptors
once was a fringe scientific concern but
increasingly has moved mainstream.
There is still uncertainty and debate
about the risk posed by individual chem-
icals, but there is growing concern about
the risk of endocrine disruptors in gen-
eral particularly to fetuses and chil-
dren. There is less concern about adults.
Scientists are also debating whether
the old toxicological models are appro-
priate for chemicals that mimic hor-
mones and may trigger bodily changes,
especially in fetuses and children.
These are the kinds of threats that we
in journalismare not very good at cover-
ing. We did a wretched job covering risks
fromlead and tobacco in the early years;
instead of watchdogs, we were lap dogs.
One common thread is industrys
greed, duplicity and powerful lobbying
in Washington and around the country.
The chemical industry spent $55 million
lobbying last year, twice the figure a de-
cade earlier, according to the Center for
Responsive Politics.
The Chicago Tribune last year docu-
mented howthe chemical industry cre-
ated a fake movement for flame retard-
ants in furniture, supposedly to prevent
fires; in fact, flame retardants dont re-
duce fires but do contain endocrine dis-
ruptors that may be harmful to children.
This summer 18 scientists wrote a
scathing letter railing against European
Union regulations of endocrine dis-
ruptors. That underscored the genuine
scientific uncertainty about risks un-
til Environmental Health News showed
that 17 of the 18 have conflicts of interest,
such as receiving money fromthe chem-
ical industry. Meanwhile, more than 140
other scientists followed up with their
own open letters denouncing the origi-
nal 18 and warning
that endocrine dis-
ruptors do indeed
constitute a risk.
Andrea C. Gore, the
editor of Endocrino-
logy, published an ed-
itorial asserting that
corporate interests
are abusing science today with endo-
crine disruptors the way they once did
with lead: for the production of uncer-
tainty. She added that the evidence is
undeniable: that endocrine-disrupting
chemicals pose a threat to human
health.
When scientists feud, its hard for the
rest of us to knowwhat to do. But Im
struck that many experts in endocrino-
logy, toxicology or pediatrics arent wait-
ing for regulatory changes. They dont
heat food in plastic containers, they re-
duce their use of plastic water bottles,
and they try to give their kids organic
food to reduce exposure to pesticides.
So a question for big chemical compa-
nies: Are you really going to followthe
model of tobacco and lead and fight reg-
ulation every step of the way, once
more risking our childrens futures?
Roger
Cohen
LONDON It is possible to imagine a
scenario more favorable to Israel than
the current one, but it is not easy.
Syria is giving up its chemical
weapons. In the civil war there, Hezbol-
lah and Iran are bleeding. The Egyp-
tian Army has ousted the Muslim
Brotherhood, restored a trusted inter-
locutor for Israel, and embarked on a
squeeze of Hamas in Gaza. In Turkey,
Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the prime min-
ister, has overstretched; the glowis off
his aggressive stand for Palestine.
Saudi Arabia is furious with Presi-
dent Obama over his policies toward
Egypt, Syria and Iran. It has scant an-
ger left for Israel. Sunni-Shiite enmity,
played out in a Syrian conflict that
could make the 30-year religious war in
Europe seemshort, feels more venom-
ous today than the old story of Arabs
and Jews. The power and prosperity of
Israel have seldom, if ever, looked more
sustainable in its 65-year history.
Of course things can change in the
Middle East of late very fast but if
Benjamin Netanyahu, the Israeli prime
minister, is inclined to take risks from
strength, the present looks propitious.
As he wrote in an open letter to Israelis
in July, We have built a wonderful
country and turned it into one of the
worlds most prosperous, advanced
and powerful countries.
This is true. Israel is a miracle of in-
novation and development. Tel Aviv, at
once sensual and vibrant, is a boom
town. Go there and smile.
For almost three months nowIsraelis
and Palestinians have been negotiating
peace in U.S.-brokered talks. They have
been doing so in such quiet that the pre-
vious sentence may seemstartling.
Nobody is leaking. Because expecta-
tions are low, spoilers are quiescent.
There is a feeling nobody opposed to a
resolution need lift a finger because the
talks will fail all on their own. This is
good. Absent discretion, diplomacy dies.
Ample cause exists for skepticism.
The Palestinian leader, Mahmoud Ab-
bas, insists that not one Israeli soldier
will be allowed in Palestine; Netanyahu
wants Israeli troops
in the Jordan Valley
for decades. There
are hundreds of thou-
sands of Israeli set-
tlers in the West
Bank with no plans to
go anywhere. Sever-
al members of the Is-
raeli government
scoff at the notion of Palestine; Netan-
yahu has become a liberal Likudnik, of
all things. The Palestinian national
movement is split, incitement against
Israel continues, and the idea of a two-
state outcome is losing favor. All this
before Jerusalemand the Palestinian
right of return are even broached.
Still, with scarcely a murmur, the
talks continue. They are almost a third
of the way into the allotted nine months.
Well before that time is up, the two
sides final positions will have become
clear. There will be gaps. That will be
the moment for the United States to
step forward with its take-it-or-leave-it
bridging proposal. That will be the time
of the leaders Netanyahu, Abbas and
Obama and the test of their readi-
ness for risk in the name of a peace that
can only come with painful concessions.
Israel is strong today for many rea-
sons. Acore one is the resilience and
stability of its democratic institutions.
There is, however, a risk to this: No de-
mocracy can be immune to running an
undemocratic systemof oppression in
territory under its control.
To have citizens on one side of an in-
visible line and disenfranchised sub-
jects without rights on the other side
does not work. It is corrosive. Ademoc-
racy needs borders. It cannot slither in-
to military rule for Palestinians in occu-
pied West Bank areas where state-
subsidized settler Jews have the right
to vote as if within Israel. If Israel is to
remain a Jewish and democratic state
and it must something has to give.
Netanyahu knows this.
Palestinians must also make painful
choices. They are weak, Israel is strong
and getting stronger. The world is
never going back to 1948.
In Jerusalems Old City I was walking
this year down fromthe Damascus Gate.
Crowds of Palestinians were pouring out
of a Friday service at the Al Aqsa
Mosque. Alarge group of Orthodox Jews
was moving in the opposite direction, to-
ward the Western Wall. Into this
Muslim-Jewish melee, out of the Via Dol-
orosa, a cluster of Christians emerged
carrying a large wooden cross they tried
to navigate through the crowd. It was a
scene of despair for anyone convinced
faiths and peoples can be disentangled in
the Holy Land. Looked at another way it
was a scene of hope, even mirth.
Netanyahu has recently taken to
quoting Hillel: If I amnot for myself,
who will be for me? Of course it was
Hillel who said: That which is hateful
to yourself, do not do to your fellow.
That is the whole Torah, the rest is just
commentary.
And Netanyahus chosen quote, in this
time of strength, ends with four words
he has omitted: If not now, when?
Ola Orekunrin
LAGOS It was dusk and I was on my
way home fromAbeokuta, a vibrant
city in southwest Nigeria. My driver
had switched off the cars air-condition-
ing so I could open the windows and
feel the breeze. He was weaving be-
tween potholes in the road when sud-
denly, the scene ahead changed.
Alarge truck had pulled out care-
lessly onto the road, knocking a car
straight into the median.
That stretch of road is notoriously
dangerous, not just because of traffic
accidents but also because of armed
robbers. Its for that reason that I sup-
pressed my natural instinct to stop and
help.
I was filled with guilt as we passed
the wrecked car, because I knewthat if
the young man at the wheel had been
badly injured, there was only a small
chance that he would get the emer-
gency treatment he needed.
I knewthis because I ama trauma
doctor and the founder of West Africas
first indigenous air ambulance service.
Nigeria, a country of more than 170 mil-
lion people, has no organized trauma
response systemand no formal train-
ing for paramedics. Injured people are
often taken to the hospital in a car or
minibus or draped across the motor-
cycle of a good Samaritan, sometimes
several hours after the accident has oc-
curred.
Even if the patient does reach a local
hospital, it may not have the skilled
staff or equipment needed. (There are
only a fewthat do, and there are huge
distances between them.) Most of those
who are seriously injured probably
bleed to death.
So I couldnt help it when, a fewmo-
ments later, I said Stop the car,
please.
I grabbed one of our emergency re-
sponse bags frommy trunk and walked
back. I tried to concentrate on the types
of injuries the driver might have rather
than howunsafe it was walking on that
stretch of road, particularly in the even-
ing. Was he bleeding? Was he con-
scious?
The crash scene had quickly attrac-
ted some of the people who typically
gather around accidents in Nigeria.
Bystanders were pulling the driver out
of the car. Before long they were joined
by a barefoot prophet in a white
robe. No Nigerian accident scene is
complete without a prophet who com-
mands everyone to stand by while he
loudly predicts that the patient will stop
bleeding. The patient is often drained of
blood by the time the prophecy is com-
plete.
Sadly, these prophets are the best
hope that many Nigerians have.
Trauma has become a silent epidemic
in Africa, an epidemic that will only
spread as the economy grows. More
and more Africans are buying cars and
working in heavy and dangerous indus-
tries. At the same time, infrastructure
is poor, safety laws lax, and cars badly
maintained.
Sub-Saharan
Africa has the
worlds fewest num-
ber of motorized ve-
hicles but the highest
rate of road traffic
fatalities, with Nige-
ria and South Africa
leading the pack.
The World Bank
predicts that in the
next two years, road
accidents could be the biggest killer of
African children between 5 and 15. By
2030, according to the Global Burden of
Disease study, road accidents will be
the fifth leading cause of death in the
developing world, ahead of malaria,
tuberculosis and H.I.V.
If you add to these numbers the injur-
ies caused by violent crime and com-
munal conflict, then you have all the in-
gredients for a public health
emergency.
And yet, trauma receives only a tiny
fraction of the attention and money giv-
en to these three infectious diseases.
Every health care conference I attend
focuses on vaccines, treatment and
training to combat the infamous triple
epidemic.
Over the last decade, billions of dol-
lars have poured into Africa with the
laudable aimof defeating these killer
diseases. But that most basic killer, in-
jury, remains neglected.
Part of the problemis that the solu-
tions are so complex. Its easy to
quantify interventions like the number
of AIDS-fighting anti-retrovirals or
mosquito nets distributed. Pills can be
counted, flown in on cargo planes and
delivered to large numbers of people in
a short time period. But a pill would do
very little for someone on a rural road
in Nigeria with a head injury and a col-
lapsed lung.
We need to put in place systems to
provide lifesaving care for accident vic-
tims. They need to be moved to a fully
equipped hospital one with X-ray
machines, CT scanners, a burn unit
within the space of 45 minutes. We need
at least 10 of these proper hospitals. We
need to improve our roads, and we need
a high-quality ambulance systemto
drive on them. And we need paramedic
schools like the one my company is
helping to open, the first of its kind in
Nigeria.
Some countries in other parts of the
world have come up with proactive
solutions. In Israel, a group called
United Hatzalah helps volunteer emer-
gency workers get quickly to accident
sites, by ambucycle or on foot, if nec-
essary. But Africas challenge will re-
quire an African response and inter-
national support.
On the road that night, I quickly as-
sessed that the young man needed ur-
gent medical attention. I gave himoxy-
gen and inserted a makeshift airway. I
noted that he probably had internal
bleeding and did my best to stem
whatever external bleeding I could de-
tect.
Apassing taxi then transported him
to the nearest hospital. He had a fight-
ing chance. But too many injured Nige-
rians, forgotten on the side of the road,
do not. Its time the global public-health
community paid attention to Africas
urgent need for emergency medical
care.
OLA OREKUNRIN is a trauma doctor and the
managing director of Flying Doctors Ni-
geria, an air ambulance service.
If not now, when?
Africas trauma epidemic
This is your brain on toxins
If Netanyahu
is inclined
to take
risks from
strength, the
time is now.
Billions of
dollars have
poured into
the continent
to fight killer
diseases. But
the most basic
killer, injury,
is neglected.
ONLINE: LATITUDE
The death of Rabbi Ovadia
Yosef, the revered Israeli
spiritual and political giant,
reveals an almost perfect
divide in Israeli society,
Shmuel Rosner writes.
inyt.com/opinion
Why do big
chemical
firms fight
regulation at
every step?
INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 14 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
Sports
baseball soccer tennis
MATT SLOCUM/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Jose Iglesias of Detroit sliding across home plate for a second-inning run in the Tigers 7-3 victory over the Red Sox in Game 4 of the American League Championship Series.
SOCCER LONDON
REUTERS
With a squad that was derided as short
on quality by frustrated fans in the pre-
season, Arsenal, which will be host to
Norwich City on Saturday, has sur-
prised many by surging to the top of the
Premier League table.
The foundation on which the clubs
strong start has been built is its bur-
geoning midfield, lifted by the arrival of
Mesut Ozil fromReal Madrid and Math-
ieu Flamini, who rejoined the club after
leaving A.C. Milan at the end of his con-
tract.
These two have joinedAaronRamsey,
who is fulfilling the promise he showed
before breaking his leg in 2010, the
classy playmaker Santi Cazorla, Jack
Wilshere and Tomas Rosicky in battling
for limited starting places.
When you look at teams like Bar-
celona, their midfield has always been
the most important part of their game,
so hopefully Arsenal will be very simil-
ar, the former Arsenal midfielder Ray
Parlour, who wonthree Premier League
titles with the club, was quoted as say-
ing on Arsenals Web site.
Its looking very strong, no matter
who starts, he said. There is so much
depth in the midfield with Mikel Arteta,
Mathieu who has been a great sign-
ing Ozil, Jack Wilshere, Oxlade-
Chamberlain and Cazorla, so its a real
headache for the manager.
Aaron Ramseys been the player of
theseasonsofar, hewent on. Hes been
superb withthe goals hes scored, but the
whole midfield are very adaptive now.
After losing its opening league match,
3-1, at home to Aston Villa, Arsenal was
revitalized by the signing of Ozil on
deadline day, and the team is unbeaten
in the 11 matches it has played since.
The German, who joined from Real
Madrid for a club record 42 million, or
$67 million, in a rare show of financial
muscle from the naturally cautious
manager Arsne Wenger, has handed
the North London club a huge psycho-
logical boost.
Assists lead to success, and Im the
sort of player that likes to create goals,
Ozil said.
I think a lot of my teammates know
measaplayer whoisnot selfish, hesaid.
It makes me very happy when I create
goals or score goals myself. But the most
important thing is that the team reaches
its goal and plays positive football.
Arsenal sits at the top of the Premier
League on goal differential over Liver-
pool, which travels to Newcastle United
on Saturday a match Liverpool won,
6-0, last season.
The Merseysiders are starting to see
a fruitful partnership developing be-
tween strikers Daniel Sturridge and Lu-
is Surez after Surez returned from a
10-game suspension.
They have scored five goals between
them in the last two matches, and the
club record scorer, Ian Rush, said he felt
Surezs game brings out the best in his
forward partner. I think Sturridge may
get a fewmore goals because of the way
Surez plays, Rush said.
They are both great players, world-
class players, and world-class players
can play with anyone, Rush said. I like
thewaySurez does it helooks at Stur-
ridge and plays off himand around him.
Manchester United is six points adrift
of the Premier League leaders, having
lost three of its opening seven matches,
but a win over Sunderland before the in-
ternational break handed manager Dav-
id Moyes breathing space. United now
has the perfect opportunity to build mo-
mentum, with four successive home
games indifferent competitions, starting
at home to Southampton on Saturday.
While strikers Wayne Rooney and
Robin van Persie will hope to continue
the goal-scoring form they showed on
the international break for England and
the Netherlands, it is at the back where
United has looked vulnerable this sea-
son. After conceding nine goals in the
league, they face a tricky task in shut-
ting out Southampton, a team that has
stunned many by rising to fourth place,
two points off the lead, after three victo-
ries in a row.
Chelsea, in third, will be host to
Cardiff City on Saturday; Everton en-
tertains Hull City; and Manchester City
travels to West Ham United. Stoke City
will be host to West Bromwich Albion,
and Swansea City plays the last-place
Sunderland. Tottenham, in sixth place,
will try to rebound from its disappoint-
ing3-0 defeat to West Hamwhenit plays
at Aston Villa on Sunday. Crystal Palace
will be host to Fulhamon Monday.
BASEBALL DETROIT
BY TYLER KEPNER
With the Detroit Tigers leading by sev-
en runs in the sixth inning of Game 4 of
the American League Championship
Series, a fan in a Justin Verlander jersey
tried to start a wave in the center-field
stands. It petered out within two or
three sections, and after several at-
tempts, the fan sat down.
But it was a bold idea, anyway, as if to
symbolize that the Tigers were so much
better thanthe BostonRedSoxthat fans
did not need to concentrate on the ac-
tion in a playoff game. This city has
some ownership over the wave, pop-
ularizing it in 1984 at Tiger Stadium, the
enclosed, double-decker bandbox that
was razed a fewyears ago.
Hopefully they can do something
and make it a beautiful site there and
keep the memories going, said Lou
Whitaker, the old second baseman, who
threw out the first pitch at Comerica
Park on Wednesday. This is a beautiful
stadiumhere.
So it is, and the fans fill it every sea-
son, three million strong. These are
glory days for the Tigers, with healthy
superstars in their prime and another
shot at the World Series. The Tigers
pulled even with Boston in this Ameri-
can League Championship Series, two
games apiece, with their 7-3 Game 4
romp.
But it will not be like this forever. The
Tigers needto winit all, andsoon, to val-
idate their successful run and satisfy a
fan base starving for a title since Whi-
takers 1984 champions. If not, these Ti-
gers will be regarded with teams like
the Cleveland Indians and the Seattle
Mariners of the 1990s, which were full of
elite players who could not win the big
one.
Manager Jim Leyland understands
the urgency of the moment. Trailing by
two games to one, he shuffled his lineup
for Game 4, moving Torii Hunter to the
leadoff spot, Miguel Cabrera to second
and Prince Fielder to third.
I think it makes a lot of sense, Ley-
land said. I really do. I mean, we
scored one run and no runs in two of the
games. It certainly cant hurt. Were go-
ing to take a shot.
If nothing else, when guys look at
the lineup card, they kind of look at it a
little bit, and maybe it wakes you up a
little bit, he said. Not that theyve
been sleeping; theyve been great
games. Just a little something to, you
know, churn up the butter a little bit.
The Red Sox had not hit much either,
with a .133 average across the first three
games. But Bostons top sluggers, Dav-
id Ortiz and Mike Napoli, had pivotal
home runs Ortiz a grand slam to tie
Game 2, Napoli a homer for the only run
of Game 3. The Tigers needed compara-
ble game-changing blows from their
best run producers.
Cabrera, dealing with an abdominal
injury, was hitting .226 this postseason,
with two extra-base hits (both home
runs, including a big one in the first-
round clincher). Fielder was hitting
.276, with one extra-base hit, a double,
and he had not driven in a run in the
postseason since the first game of last
years A.L.C.S. at Yankee Stadium.
Its frustrating, Fielder said after
Game 3. But our team has done it to
people. It can happen to us, too. Just got
to shake it off.
Fielder went 0 for 4 in Game 4, and he
still does not have a postseason run bat-
tedinsince the opener of that A.L.C.S. at
the Stadium. But his continuing futility
did not matter, because every other
starter reached base, and the Red Sox
made fundamental mistakes.
Jake Peavy walked three in the
second inning, the last to force in a run.
With Boston trailing by 1-0, Dustin
Pedroia mishandled a double-play ball
that would have ended the inning; four
more runs scored.
Cabrera, Hunter and Austin Jackson
each drove in two runs. Jackson, who
was 3 for 33 with 18 strikeouts this
monthbefore Game 4, thrivedinhis first
career game batting eighth.
Hes kind of upset about it, Hunter
said before the game. All you can do is
just talk positive and be positive to him
and encourage him. This guy has all the
athletic abilityinworld. Godhas blessed
himtremendously, and all he has to do is
trust it.
Jackson has never become a top base
stealer he had just eight steals this
season, but added another in Game 4
yet he has hit .278 over four years in De-
troit, while reducing his strikeout rate.
His acquisition from the Yankees in
December 2009, with Max Scherzer and
Phil Coke in a three-way deal, was a cru-
cial trade that has helped the Tigers
reach this round three years in a row.
They lost to the Texas Rangers in six
games in 2011. They swept the Yankees
last fall before losing the World Series,
four games in a row, to the San Fran-
cisco Giants. If they are going to make a
return trip, they will have to get it done
this weekendat FenwayPark. Their leg-
acy as a teamis on the line.
As players age, their productiontends
to decline, and in the case of the Tigers,
their salaries rise. Fielder, who made
$23 million this season while posting the
lowest full-season OPS of his career
(.819), will earn $24 million in each of the
next five years. Verlander makes $20
million this year and next, and $28 mil-
lion in each of the four years after that.
Scherzer, the likely A.L. Cy Young
Award winner, is eligible for free agency
after the 2014 season. Cabrera, the likely
A.L. most valuable player, is up after
2015.
The Tigers will face hard decisions
and sobering realities soon enough.
They need to cash in with a champion-
ship before then, and on Wednesday,
their manager gave them their best
shot.
will simply be too fresh, too fast and too
hungry for an aging Federer, who
already has a record 17 Grand Slam
singles titles and 302 weeks at No. 1 to
keep him warm.
That remains the most likely out-
come, but Annacone, even on the out-
side looking in, still favors the genius
theory the one that says extreme tal-
ent with sharply defined goals will
eventually find a way (again).
It worked for Pete Sampras, An-
nacones former employer, who rehired
Annacone after dismissing him and
went on to win his 14th major title at
the 2002 U.S. Open in what, at age 31,
turned out to be his last match on tour.
Being Federer means being a hus-
band and the father of 4-year-old twin
daughters who travel with him and his
wife, Mirka, to nearly every tourna-
ment. It means juggling a portfolio of
lucrative, long-term sponsorships, as
well as keeping tabs on his foundation
and managing the consistently heavy
demands from tournament directors
and the news media (in the four lan-
guages he speaks). It also means
serving as president of the ATP Play-
ers Council, a post he has held since
2008 and a bully pulpit from which he
led the taxing and ultimately success-
ful push for this years big pay raise
from the Grand Slam tournaments.
No other top player, perhaps no oth-
er top athlete, carries so wide a load,
and it would seem that something has
to give if Federer is going to try to
make another surge.
If he wants no regrets, it is stream-
lining time, and he is leaning in that di-
rection. Last year in the off-season, he
made a six-match exhibition tour of
South America that earned him a re-
ported $2 million per match. The de-
mand and money were there for an en-
core in 2013, but he has declined, and
according to his agent, Tony Godsick,
he has no exhibitions scheduled in No-
vember and December and will focus
on returning to the tour in Brisbane,
Australia, in January.
This is not yet a man resigned to his
tennis fate. He is still adjusting, still
searching, still taking risks, as this sea-
sons unsuccessful experiment with a
bigger-headed racket made plain. Now
comes a coaching change, one that An-
nacone said had been made in part be-
cause both men felt that Annacone had
said what he wanted to say and sug-
gested what he wanted to suggest.
Roger is open to new ideas, An-
nacone said. When you prove some-
thing to him, hell go, God, youre
right, and hell adapt, and thats not al-
ways common with great players or
great athletes because they tend to be
unbelievably stubborn. Sometimes it
will be 12 oclock, and it will be sunny
and 80 degrees, and if you tell them,
theyll say, No, its dark outside. Great
athletes tend to be really strong, and
thats one of his biggest assets that
he does listen and he does communic-
ate and he does debate.
He could help his cause further at
this stage by stepping down from the
players council with the heavy lifting
now done (his latest term ends next
summer) and by reducing his nonfam-
ily commitments significantly.
That is all easier written than done
for a gregarious champion who enjoys
his life and his role as a tennis states-
man, but if Federer truly wants more
big victories, it seems to be the right
time to save his energy for the essen-
tial in an era when his main rivals are
at least five years younger.
The consensus is that he should play
more, not less, in 2014 to regain his tim-
ing under pressure. All of this is, of
course, predicated on the chronic back
problems which ruined part of this
season remaining under control and
on his love of the game remaining intact
if he continues to take blows to the aura.
Federers greatest tennis years are
clearly behind him, but Annacone is
convinced that, despite the odds and
plenty of recent evidence, greatness is
not.
What will be the catalyst? An-
nacone said. Will it be a new voice?
Will it be a streamlined team without
me? Will it be a change of his life? I
dont know, but when I look at the skill
sets and the talent level and the way he
goes about things, I find it really hard
to believe hes not going to be contend-
ing for major titles.
SPORTS
Roundup
SOCCER
Switzerland edges out Italy
for right to World Cup seed
Switzerland will be among the eight
seeded teams at the World Cup drawin
December after they leaped to seventh
in the latest FIFArankings announced
on Thursday, while Italy was edged out.
Spain, Argentina, Germany, Colombia,
Belgiumand the host, Brazil, will also be
seeded, as will Uruguay, if it beats
Jordan in a two-leg playoff next month.
If Uruguay does not qualify, the Neth-
erlands, tied for eighth with Italy in the
rankings, will take its place among the
seeds. FIFApreviously ruled that
Brazil, which is 11th in the just-released
rankings, plus the top seven ranked
teams would be seeded for the drawon
Dec. 6. England was in 10th and the
United States 13th in the latest rank-
ings. (REUTERS)
Egyptian soccer authorities
to meet over Bradleys future
The Egyptian Football Association says
its board will meet on Monday to dis-
cuss the 6-1 loss to Ghana in the first
leg of their World Cup playoff, a sur-
prisingly one-sided defeat that has put
the future of the American coach, Bob
Bradley, in doubt.
The association is unlikely to make a
formal decision over Bradley's immedi-
ate role for the second leg on Nov. 19 un-
til the Monday meeting, despite reports
that he had been asked to step aside for
the game. Much of Egypts progress
under Bradley over the past two years
was undone in Tuesdays hammering in
Kumasi, which left Egypt on the brink
of extending its World Cup drought to
24 years. (AP)
N. F. L.
Litany of fines continues
for Lions defensive tackle
Ndamukong Suh has been fined by the
N.F.L.
Again.
The Detroit Lions defensive tackle
was docked $31,500 by the league for a
hit on Cleveland Browns quarterback
Brandon Weeden, a person familiar
with the decision said. The person
spoke Wednesday on condition of an-
onymity because the fine had not been
announced.
Since Detroit selected Suh No. 2 over
all in 2010, he has been fined seven
times for more than $200,000. He lost
$165,294 in pay during a two-game sus-
pension in his second season for stomp-
ing on the right armof Green Bays
Evan Dietrich-Smith. Earlier this sea-
son, Suh was docked $100,000 for an il-
legal block on Minnesota center John
Sullivan in Week 1. (AP)
GOLF
Scott sets course record
to win Grand Slamof Golf
Masters champion AdamScott broke
the course record at Port Royal with a
7-under 64 to win the P.G.A. Grand Slam
of Golf, in Southampton, Bermuda, by
two shots over the U.S. Open champion,
Justin Rose.
Trailing by four shots with 10 holes to
play, Scott pulled ahead of his good
friend for the first time with a 6-iron
that settled inches fromthe cup on the
par-5 17th for a tap-in eagle. Rose pulled
his approach and had to settle for par.
Rose, who opened with a 67, had a 69 in
the 36-hole exhibition for the four major
champions of the year. (AP)
Clock winding down for Detroit
DANNY MOLOSHOK/REUTERS
Roger Federer with Paul Annacone at a tournament earlier this year. Under the coaching of
Annacone, Federer had his worst season, winning just one title in a minor tournament.
With fan base starving
for title, Tigers looks to
capitalize on aging talent
These are glory days for the
Tigers, with healthy superstars
in their prime and another
shot at the World Series.
Arsenal sees
foundation
for success
in midfield
Premier League leaders
counting on depth and
flexibility to continue rise
The most important thing
is that the team reaches
its goal and plays positive
football.
Former coach says newvoice could be key for Federer
Christopher
Clarey
I N THE ARENA
If Paul Annacone is bitter about losing
his roster spot on Team Roger Federer
last week, he is doing an Oscar-worthy
job of hiding it.
It could be an opportune time for him
to hear a newvoice; it really could be,
Annacone said of Federer this week.
However smooth the breakup ap-
pears to have been after three and a
half years, the prickly tennis questions
remain.
While Federer is likely to hear that
new voice by hiring another coach to
join forces with his longtime confidant
Severin Lthi, it seems clear that he
will need to change more than his pit
crew. Federer is 32 and nearing the end
of his worst season as a tennis super-
star. His only tournament victory came
on grass in Halle, Germany an event
that, as a World Tour 250, is on the low-
est rung of the ATP tournament ladder.
So where does he where can he
go from here?
One school of thought is that his big-
game hunting days are over, that Ra-
fael Nadal and Novak Djokovic and
Andy Murray and new waves to come
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 15 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
NON SEQUITUR PEANUTS DOONESBURY FLASHBACK
GARFIELD CALVIN AND HOBBES
WIZARD of ID DILBERT
Across
1 1999 rap hit
featuring
Snoop Dogg
9 Sin City actress
13 Classic TV family
15 Represent
16 45, for 1
18 Wild things?
19 Puts on eBay again
20 Cuban province
where Castro
was born
22 Zoological groups
23 Diamond deal
24 Software plug-in
25 Mode of
transportation in
a 1969 #1 hit
26 Filmdom family
name
27 Israels Sea of ___
28 Silence fillers
29 Informal name of
the 45th state
30 Softball question
33 Clean, now
34 Songbird Mitchell
35 Turkey ___, baseball
Hall-of-Famer from
the Negro leagues
37 Breaks
38 They get tested
39 ___ system, part
of the brain that
regulates emotion,
behavior and
long-term memory
40 2000s CBS sitcom
41 Sextet at Woodstock
42 El Condor ___
(1970 Simon &
Garfunkel hit)
43 Golda Meir and
Yitzhak Rabin led it
45 Division dune carte
46 Place of outdoor
meditation
47 Mock words of
understanding
48 Price of an opera?
Down
1 Gangster nickname
2 Carmen figure
3 Covers
4 Share a secret with
5 From the Forbidden
City
6 Bad impressions?
7 Poverty,
metaphorically
8 Dutch city ESE
of Amsterdam
9 Shape shifters?
10 Try to hear better,
maybe
11 Knock-down-drag-out
12 First name in
shooting
14 Winter set
17 Didnt make it
home, say
21 Arm
23 E-mail ancestors
25 Wordplay vocalist,
2005
27 In your dreams!
29 Mary___(doomed ship)
30 Italian region thats
home to Milan
31 Chances that a
year ends with any
particular digit
32 Floridas Keyh ___
33 Musician who
arranged the
theme for 2001
34 Fruit-filled pastry
35 Where to bury
the hatchet?
36 Olympic ice
dancing gold
medalist Virtue
and others
37 ___ Alley
38 Hypercompetitive
39 About 40-60 beats
per minute
41 Volume measure
44 Volume measure
CROSSWORD | Edited by Will Shortz
Solution to October 17 puzzle
PUZZLE BY DAVID STEINBERG THE NEW YORK TIMES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15
16 17 18
19 20 21
22 23
24 25
26 27
28 29 30 31 32
33 34
35 36 37
38 39
40 41
42 43 44
45 46
47 48
B M W N A M A T H L S A T
B A H I S I D R O S T L O
S C O T L A N D Y A R D A G E
B S A S U T R A G I S
N E W Y O R K P O S T A G E
A T H E N A E A G E R
T H O K S T A R E R S
A P P E N D A G E
O M B K O A L A J E D
B Y E A R F R I E N D
E S T R E E T B A N D A G E
O R T C A N O E E N A
C L A S S I F I E D A D A G E
T I R E M I L N E R R E S
A N S A S N E E R S P D Q
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SUDOKU No. 1810
Fill the grid so that
every row, column
3x3 box and
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1 to 9 exactly once.
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3
1
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6
7
9
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7
9
2
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6
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6
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9
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8
BRIDGE | Frank Stewart
Todays South was Tom Webb, known to
all as Tangle because he encounters
more blocked suits and entry woes than
anyone in my club.
Tangles six-spade contract looked like a
favorite. He took the ace of diamonds,
ruffed a diamond, led a heart to his king
and ruffed his last diamond. He cashed
the ace of trumps, ruffed a club and led
the jack of trumps. East won and led an-
other club, and Tangle ruffed again and
drew trumps, leaving him with none. He
took the A-Q of hearts but lost the last
two tricks: West had the ace of clubs and
a good diamond.
Could you get untangled and make the
slam?
Unblock
South succeeds by unblocking the trump
suit. He ruffs a diamond with the ace of
trumps, ruffs a club and ruffs his last dia-
mond with the king.
South then leads the ten of trumps, over-
taking with his jack. He can force out the
queen of trumps, ruff the club return,
drawtrumps and run the hearts to land the contract.
Yes, a trump opening lead would beat six spades.
Daily Question: You hold: Q 6 3; 8 3; K 9 6 5 2; 7 6 3. The dealer, at your left,
opens one club. Your partner doubles, you respond one diamond and he bids one
spade. What do you say?
Answer: Partner doubled before bidding his suit, hence he has substantial strength.
His hand is worth 17 points or more, and you have three good spades, a possible ruff-
ingfeature anda workingking. Raise to two spades. Partner mayholdAKJ 104, A
Q 6 2, A 4, 9 2.
Tribune Content Agency
North Dealer
Neither side vulnerable
North
A K 10
A Q 4
4
K Q 10 9 5 2
West
5 2
J 9 2
Q J 10 8
A J 8 4
East
Q 6 3
8 3
K 9 6 5 2
7 6 3
South
J 9 8 7 4
K 10 7 6 5
A 7 3
None
North East South West
1 Pass 1 Pass
2 Pass 4 Pass
4 Pass 5 Pass
6 All Pass
Opening lead - Q
basketball sports
BASKETBALL
BY ZACH SCHONBRUN
The first-grade students at Public
School 80 entered Room108 single file at
8:10 on a clear and blustery morning on
Staten Island, placed their book bags in
cubbyholes and waited. It was time for
Bashir Mason to check their homework.
Sunlight still angled in through the
windows, the voices were low and the
announcements had not yet been read
over the speaker system. Look, a stu-
dent said, look at my newpencil case.
Mason smiled. He had been awake
since 6, and he never drinks caffeine,
but a long day beckoned.
He is a student teacher, in the final
semester of a masters program in edu-
cation, but in a couple of hours he would
resume his more celebrated role as the
mens basketball coach at Wagner Col-
lege, a five-minute uphill drive away.
Practices have been under way for
more than two weeks to prepare for a
menacing Northeast Conference sched-
ule. The Seahawks expect to compete
this season, maybe even win their con-
ference, maybe even clinch a berth in
the N.C.A.A. tournament.
But first, their coachneeded to read to
the children. The classroom was decor-
ated with apples made of construction
paper. Two dozen students crawled onto
a rug with a zoo theme, taking their
spots upon designated animals. Mason
folded his 6-foot, or 1.83-meter, frame in-
to a rocking chair. He spread the pages
of the book wide so the children could
see the pictures.
Frog and Toad were reading a book
together, Mason began.
It takes Mason15 minutes to make the
switch from a student teacher to a Divi-
sion I coach. That is all the time he is af-
forded.
On one morning in early October,
practice began at 10 a.m. At 9:55, Mason
had changed from a gray sweater and
blue slacks into a long-sleeve black
T-shirt and cutoff sweats. He gathered
his players in a huddle in the corner of
the gymand engaged themin an explet-
ive-laced tirade, displeased by their ef-
fort and focus the past fewdays.
It was an abrupt U-turn from the
whispering Mr. Mason persona he had
working as an assistant football coach at
SUNYAlbany.
Mason insisted that his pursuit of a
graduate degree did not mean he was
wavering on his desire to coach, as Hur-
ley once thought. Instead, Mason be-
lieves he is taking initiative for his ca-
reer.
Imnot viewing it as a backup, Ma-
son said. I view this as making myself
more marketable. Taking that extra
step to get the masters, I dont think
theres a lot of head coaches with that.
He was the first personinhis familyto
graduate from college, and the diploma
from Drexel is framed and hanging in
the foyer of his apartment, a short walk
fromcampus.
Mason was raised in Jersey City, New
Jersey, by a single mother, Kathy, who
worked three jobs to care for Mason, his
two sisters and an aunt, Edna, who lived
in their basement.
Kathy Mason sent her son to Marist
High School in Bayonne, New Jersey,
and St. Benedicts Preparatory School
in Newark, where he played for Hurley.
After a four-year career at Drexel, Ma-
son joined Hurley on the sideline, first
as an assistant at St. Benedicts and
then at Wagner in 2010.
He never could have imagined that
only five years after his playing career
ended, he would take the reins of a Divi-
sion I program.
He wondered, Do I really need to fin-
ish school now? And can I handle this
workload? He dismissed the doubts,
thinking about his mother.
I cant be lazy; Ive got no choice,
Mason said. My mom worked three
jobs so I couldgo to private school grow-
ing up. Howdo I wake up and say going
to teach for two hours and coming here
to coach is hard?
In his first season as coach, Mason
drew from the techniques he learned
from Hurley and Drexel Coach Bruiser
Flint and augmented them with a lot of
yelling. Practices were rawand chaotic,
he conceded.
At this time last year, I hadno voice,
Mason said. I was running around the
gym like a maniac, thinking I was a
player. I was in a full sweat every day.
Experience has helped him reshape
his approach, and so has teaching.
Walking to his car after class, Mason,
still speaking barely above a whisper,
said it was helping himgrasp howto get
through to people with different levels
of comprehension.
This whole thing has just been a
learning process, Mason said. Its al-
most like coaching you learn as you
go.
Im real fragile with those kids in
there, but, youll see, theres no holding
back, he added, referring to the switch
he makes for practice, which was just
about to begin.
Masons practices are a rush of noise,
energy, wind sprints and cursing. Last
week, he barred his players from the
locker room and prohibited them from
wearing team-issued gear at practice,
angered by their nonchalance.
He transforms, the senior guard
Latif Rivers said, holding back a smile.
Hes still a teacher on the court, but he
just goes into coaching mode.
After practice, Mason gathered his
team in another huddle, this time in a
different corner of the gym. His tone
had changed, and so had his message.
Those were the two best practices of
the year, he said.
His players had learned his lesson.
Wagner College coach
faces big expectations on
court and in classroom
Aiming for tourney, but first, Frog and Toad
assumed in the classroom about a half-
hour earlier. But in a sense, it served as
a reminder: playtime was over.
I needed to recharge their batter-
ies, he said later.
At 29, Mason is the youngest Division
I mens basketball head coach, and his
staff and administrators believe he is
the only one actively assuming a dual
role as an elementary schoolteacher.
It was not what Masonhadenvisioned.
But two years ago he enrolled in a mas-
ters program in education on campus,
and he plans to finish it in December.
When Wagner promoted himfromas-
sistant to head coach in March 2012,
after Dan Hurley left to coach Rhode Is-
land, Mason had only a few credits re-
maining. But the last requirement 220
hours of hands-onclassroomexperience
has required unusual commitment.
Five mornings a week, Mason works
with Maria Premus at the Michael J.
Petrides School for about two hours, al-
ways before basketball practice. On Fri-
days, Mason teaches, coaches and then
attends class on campus for three hours
in the afternoon.
When you see a guy leading the ship
like that, the assistant Mike Babul said,
you tend to follow.
Coaches and classrooms, even at the
highest athletic level, have never been
mutually exclusive. The former Ohio
State football coach Jim Tressel used to
teach class twice a week on campus, fol-
lowing in the footsteps of Woody Hayes,
who lectured on World War II history.
For years, the basketball coach Fran
Dunphy has co-taught an honors busi-
ness course at Temple. La Salle Coach
John Giannini has a doctorate in kinesi-
ology from Illinois that he earned while
working as an assistant there in the
1980s.
Even Walt Hameline, Wagners athlet-
ic director and football coach, taught
kindergarten for extra money while
KIRSTEN LUCE FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Bashir Mason reading to his primary school students. He is in the final semester of a masters degree program in education.
SCOREBOARD
N.H.L.
EASTERN CONFERENCE
ATLANTIC DIVISION GP W L OT Pts GF GA
Toronto 7 6 1 0 12 27 16
Detroit 7 5 2 0 10 18 16
Montreal 6 4 2 0 8 20 10
Tampa Bay 6 4 2 0 8 23 15
Boston 5 3 2 0 6 12 8
Ottawa 6 2 2 2 6 15 19
Florida 7 2 5 0 4 16 28
Buffalo 8 1 6 1 3 11 21
GPWLOTPtsGFGA
Pittsburgh 6 5 1 0 10 23 15
Carolina 7 2 2 3 7 15 21
N.Y. Islanders 6 2 2 2 6 19 17
Columbus 5 2 3 0 4 12 12
N.Y. Rangers 6 2 4 0 4 11 25
Washington 7 2 5 0 4 17 24
New Jersey 6 0 3 3 3 11 21
Philadelphia 7 1 6 0 2 10 20
WESTERN CONFERENCE
CENTRAL DIVISION GP W L OT Pts GF GA
Colorado 6 6 0 0 12 21 6
Chicago 6 4 1 1 9 18 15
St. Louis 5 4 1 0 8 21 13
Minnesota 7 3 2 2 8 17 17
Nashville 6 3 3 0 6 13 18
Winnipeg 7 3 4 0 6 17 19
Dallas 5 2 3 0 4 11 14
PACIFIC GP W L OT Pts GF GA
San Jose 6 6 0 0 12 30 9
Phoenix 7 4 2 1 9 20 21
Anaheim 5 4 1 0 8 18 12
Calgary 5 3 0 2 8 18 17
Vancouver 7 4 3 0 8 20 22
Los Angeles 7 4 3 0 8 17 19
Edmonton 7 1 5 1 3 21 32
NOTE: Two points for a win, one point for overtime loss.
WEDNESDAY
N.Y. Rangers 2, Washington 0 (AP)
BASEBALL
SOCCER
TENNIS
Major League Soccer
EASTERN CONFERENCE W L T Pts GF GA
x-New York 15 9 8 53 50 39
x-Sporting Kansas City 15 10 7 52 44 29
Houston 13 10 9 48 39 37
Montreal 13 12 7 46 48 47
Chicago 13 12 7 46 44 47
Philadelphia 12 10 10 46 40 40
New England 12 11 9 45 45 36
Columbus 12 15 5 41 40 42
Toronto FC 5 16 11 26 29 46
D.C. 3 22 7 16 21 56
WESTERN CONFERENCE W L T Pts GF GA
Portland 13 5 14 53 49 33
Real Salt Lake 15 10 7 52 55 40
Los Angeles 15 11 6 51 52 37
Seattle 15 11 6 51 41 39
Colorado 13 10 9 48 42 33
San Jose 13 11 8 47 33 41
Vancouver 12 11 9 45 48 42
FC Dallas 10 11 11 41 45 50
Chivas USA 6 18 8 26 29 60
x- clinched playoff berth
WEDNESDAY
Los Angeles 1, Montreal 0 (AP)
Kremlin Cup, Moscow
Mens Singles, Wednesday
Second Round
Andreas Seppi (2), Italy, def. Paolo Lorenzi, Italy, 6-3, 6-2.
Karen Khachanov, Russia, def. Janko Tipsarevic (3), Serbia, 6-4,
6-4.
Andrey Golubev, Kazakhstan, def. Horacio Zeballos (6),
Argentina, 6-3, 6-4.
Edouard Roger-Vasselin, France, def. Sergiy Stakhovsky,
Ukraine, 7-5, 7-5.
First Round
Denis Istomin (5), Uzbekistan, def. Andrey Kuznetsov, Russia, 6-
0, 2-6, 6-1.
Womens Singles
Second Round
Roberta Vinci (2), Italy, def. Elena Vesnina, Russia, 2-6, 6-1, 6-4.
Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova, Russia, def. Maria Kirilenko (3),
Russia, 6-3, 6-3.
Alisa Kleybanova, Russia, def. Carla Suarez Navarro (6), Spain,
7-6 (2), 6-4.
Svetlana Kuznetsova (8), Russia, def. Sofia Arvidsson, Sweden,
6-2, 7-5. (AP)
INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 16 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
E.U. moves
to shore up
protection of
online data
BRUSSELS
BY JAMES KANTER
Aimingtobuffer the digital lives of Euro-
pean citizens fromU.S. lawenforcement
agencies, lawmakers here have intro-
duced a measure that could require
American companies like Google and
Yahoo to seek clearance from European
officials before complying withU.S. war-
rants seeking private data.
The measure, tobe votedonas soonas
Monday by a key committee of the Euro-
pean Union, represents one of the
strongest responses yet to the secret
spying program called Prism led by the
U.S. National SecurityAgencythat came
tolight inJune. Therevelationprompted
an outcry among Europeans about how
some of the biggest American Internet
companies, many of whose users live in
Europe, were required by the U.S. au-
thorities to share information in e-mail,
Web searches and other online data.
The American government success-
fully lobbied against a similar move by
European officials two years ago. But
the N.S.A. revelations have given Euro-
pean privacy-rights proponents new in-
centives to pursue the matter again.
The measure is an amendment to a
broader piece of electronic privacy leg-
islation now pending in the European
Parliament.
Jan Philipp Albrecht, the German
member who is responsible for steering
the legislation through the European
Parliament, briefed reporters on the
new amendment on Thursday, saying it
was meant to enda systeminwhichE.U.
citizens have scant data protection from
American law enforcement agencies.
What happens today is that companies
transfer personal data fromEurope to a
thirdstate like the UnitedStates without
having a legal base in European Union
law, he said. If the measure becomes
law, Mr. Albrecht said, companies will
be forbidden to do that.
A spokesman for the U.S. Mission to
the European Union declined to com-
ment Thursday. Messages seeking com-
ment from Yahoo received no response.
Google declined to comment.
If it becomes part of Europes data
privacy law, the amendment would
oblige companies not based in the Euro-
pean Union to comply with European
data protection rules if they operate in
the European market. Violators could
face fines of up to 5 percent of a com-
panys global annual revenue.
Theamendment wouldrequirecompa-
nies to seek approval froma superviso-
ry authority in an E.U. country before
transferring data on a persons individu-
al electronic communications whether
phone calls, e-mails, Web searches or so-
cial media interactions before that in-
formation could be transferred outside
the European Union at the request of a
foreign government or court.
The European rules are part of pri-
vacy legislation that has been debated
for more thantwo years. It could take an
important step on Monday if it wins ap-
proval at the Parliaments committee
for Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Af-
fairs. Mr. Albrecht said approval was
likely on Monday after he brokered a
deal on Wednesday among the various
members of the committee. This arti-
cle has now been included in the com-
promises accepted by all political
groups, Mr. Albrecht said.
Mr. Albrechts office later clarifiedthat
voting on the amendment might not take
place until three days later, on Thursday.
An E.U. official, who spoke on condi-
tion of anonymity because of the sensi-
tivity of the matter, said the vote could
be further delayed if the United States
intervened or if there was heavy lobby-
ing by industry groups.
The vote will be important because it
might enable the Parliament to begin
negotiations with individual E.U. gov-
ernments, which are discussing their
ownversionof newprivacyrules, onafi-
nal draft of the legislationbefore the cur-
rent parliamentary term expires next
spring. Mr. Albrecht said he would like
the legislation to be approved by spring
and to go into effect two years later.
But because of intense lobbying
already under way by Silicon Valley
companies and by other powerful
groups in Brussels and because of
sparring among European govern-
ments about how far to go in protecting
privacy the wrangling over the law
could face further delays.
Ireland, Britain and other countries
are concerned that the European Union
is failing to take advantage of growth
opportunities from Internet businesses
that might help revive the economy.
Proposals seen as riposte
to revelations of spying
by U.S. security agencies
Silver lining
to the rout of
Republicans
Anatole
Kaletsky
ECONOCLAST
LONDON The U.S. budget battle was
always likely to end in a Republican de-
feat and a rout for Tea Party
firebrands, but the outcome has turned
out to be even more dramatic: an un-
conditional surrender, instead of a ne-
gotiated cease-fire. Trying to spot his-
toric turning points in real time is
always risky, but the scale of this de-
bacle suggests that U.S. politics and
economic policy really will be trans-
formed in at least four important ways.
First, the shift in the balance of
power between President Obama and
the Republicans has been spectacularly
confirmed. It is too early to guess
whether the G.O.P.s slumping popular-
ity will give the Democrats a chance to
regain control of the House of Repre-
sentatives in November 2014. The
Democrats would be very likely to
achieve this if they could hold on to
their present lead of 5.5 percentage
points in the Real Clear Politics aver-
age of congressional polling, because
this should represent enough of a swing
in favor of the Democrats to suffice to
win the extra 17 seats they would need
for control.
Conventional wisdomin Washington
contends that a Democratic victory next
year is almost impossible because of a
historic tendency of presidential parties
to lose votes in midtermelections, but
this history has little statistical signifi-
cance and is counter-
balanced by the vot-
ing figures fromthe
three occasions since
1945 when parties
that lost the popular
vote kept control of
the House.
In all these cases
the majority party in
the House lost the
popular vote by tiny margins in 1952,
by 0.5 percent, in 1996 by 0.7 percent
and in 2012 by 1.2 percent. So an elec-
tion in which the Republicans lost the
popular vote by 5.5 percent, as indicat-
ed by recent polling, but kept control
would be unprecedented. In any case,
speculation about the election next
year is pointless because the polls are
likely to shift abruptly for reasons we
cannot even imagine today.
What is clear, however, is that the
Republicans face deep unpopularity in
the short term, and this will transform
the outlook for economic policy in the
next few months.
Republicans now lack the confidence,
the unity and the public support to risk
another major battle over budgets in
December or debt limits in February.
An army in flight cannot suddenly turn
round and mount a successful counter-
attack. Regrouping a routed army
takes months, if not years.
The idea that Republicans could
threaten another government shut-
down or default before the December
and February deadlines is therefore an
illusion. Because everybody who mat-
ters in Washington now understands
this, the approaching budget and debt
negotiations should prove surprisingly
consensual and calm.
This leads to the second historic
transformation. The outlines of a possi-
ble long-term U.S. budget deal are now
fairly clear. The White House is now in
The White
House is now
in a position
to dictate the
broad terms
of a budget
truce.
ECONOCLAST, PAGE 19
Business
WITH
PAVEL PROKOPCHIK FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Troels Oerting Joergensen, head of the European Cybercrime Center at Europol, at right, says the new weapons are in their infancy but can fire a bullet and can probably kill.
Europe on alert for printed guns
PARIS
BY GEORGI KANTCHEV
The gun fired four shots into a gelatin
block. Each nine-millimeter bullet
punched deep into the substance, which
was meant to mimic the density of a hu-
man body.
For the experts at the Austrian Interi-
or Ministry performing the test, it was a
clear sign: This was a deadly weapon.
But it was no ordinary gun. The offi-
cials had downloaded its digital blue-
prints from the Internet and printed
the weapon on a type of 3-Dprinter that
anybody could purchase online for
about 1,000, or about $1,360. It took the
Austrian authorities 30 hours, and
maybe 50 worth of plastic polymer,
built up layer by layer according to the
software instructions, to make the gun.
Our interest was to see if the manu-
facturing of a working gun using this
technology is possible, said Karl-Heinz
Grundbck, a spokesman for the Austri-
an Interior Ministry, which performed
the test in May. The answer was a very
clear yes.
Law enforcement agencies across
Europe are on alert over the prolifera-
tion of gun-making software that is eas-
ily found on the Internet and can be
used to make a weapon on a consumer-
grade 3-Dprinter. So far, there are no re-
ported incidents of violence committed
with such weapons, but police officials
worry it is just a matter of time.
In May, after a 25-year-old law stu-
dent from Texas named Cody Wilson
posted designs for a 3-D-printed hand-
gun online, the files were downloaded
more than 100,000 times in just two days
before the U.S. State Department de-
manded their removal. Spain led the
ranking of downloads at the time, fol-
lowed by the United States, Brazil, Ger-
many and Britain. A full version of his
gun, called the Liberator, went on dis-
play last month at the Victoria and Al-
bert Museumin London.
No wonder that in the European Un-
ion, which has much stricter gun-con-
trol laws thanthe UnitedStates, officials
worry that it is becoming much easier to
covertly obtain and carry potentially
lethal weapons.
In Germany and in most European
countries, the possession of an unre-
gistered weapon, even if it is manufac-
tured at home, is illegal and punishable
by law, said Michael Brzoska, a securi-
ty expert and director of the Institute
for Peace Research and Security Stud-
ies at the University of Hamburg. But
the temptation to try, if its technically
possible, is a great one.
Despite the U.S. State Departments
attempt to block them, the printing in-
structions for Mr. Codys Liberator have
continued to spread and are available
free on sites like The Pirate Bay, a pop-
ular file-sharing portal.
Stoking the anxiety have been well-
publicizedexamples inrecent months of
people evading airport-style security
scanners with 3-D-printed plastic
weapons, whose only metal compo-
nents are firing pins no bigger than a
short common nail. Two reporters for
the British newspaper The Mail on Sun-
day smuggled such a gun onto a packed
Eurostar train from London to Paris.
And a reporter from Israels Channel 10
televisionstationsuccessfullybrought a
3-D-made handgun into the Israeli par-
liament, the Knesset, where Prime Min-
ister Benjamin Netanyahu was giving
an address.
The development of 3-D printed
weapons is still in its infancy, said
Troels Oerting Joergensen, head of the
European Cybercrime Center at Euro-
pol, the European Unions law enforce-
ment agency. But such guns can fire a
bullet and they can probably kill. It is a
very unwelcome development.
The gun designs are evidently getting
better by the month. Although early
versions of the Liberator could be fired
only a fewtimes before the barrel need-
ing replacing, a YouTube video emerged
in August that appears to show a 3-D-
printed rifle dubbed the Grizzly 2.0 suc-
cessfully firing 10 consecutive shots.
The manufacture of weapons using
3-D printers is already banned by an
E.U. directive to member nations. En-
forcing that rule, however, may prove a
challenge.
Following the example of their Austri-
an colleagues, German police officials
are currently testing the technology
themselves. Europol has recently pur-
chased a 3-D printer to manufacture its
own weapon. The authorities in Spain,
Switzerland, theNetherlands andBritain
saidthey, too, were monitoringthe devel-
opments of the 3-Dprinting technology.
It is very difficult to do anything
about it, said Mr. Joergensen of Euro-
pol. Of course you can say that it is il-
legal, but as with everything else on the
Internet, you can always get it from
somewhere.
Notably, many active users of the
printing technology are skeptical about
the extent of the real threat posed by
3-D firearms. A sampling of discussion
forums of 3-D enthusiasts finds wide-
spread cynicism about the capabilities
of such weapons.
3-D printing a gun or a knife is akin
to building a car out of cheese its just
not going to work, wrote someone
posting as thejollygrimreaper on the
RepRap forum, one of the biggest 3-D-
printing online communities.
Another member of the same forum,
who identifiedhimself as Markus Hitter,
48, an engineering consultant fromGer-
many, said he did not consider 3-D-prin-
ted guns to be a public threat. Still, he
3-D printers make it easy
to skirt the Continents
strict rules on firearms
DEFENSE DISTRIBUTED, VIA EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY
Parts of the Liberator, a handgun made of plastic polymer. Its designs were downloaded
more than 100,000 times in two days in May, before U.S. officials ordered their removal.
EBay founder to back journalist who broke Snowden story
NEW YORK
BY NOAM COHEN
and Quentin Hardy
For years, the tech billionaire Pierre M.
Omidyar has been experimenting with
ways to promote serious journalism,
searchingfor the proper media platform
to support with the fortune he earned as
the founder of eBay. He has made
grants to independent media outlets in
Africa and government watchdog
groups in the United States. In a more
direct effort, he created a news Web site
in Hawaii, his home state.
Then last summer, The Washington
Post came calling in its pursuit of a buy-
er. The Graham family ended up selling
The Post to a different tech billionaire,
Jeffrey P. Bezos of Amazon.
But the experience, Mr. Omidyar
wrote on his blog on Wednesday, got
me thinking about what kind of social
impact could be created if a similar in-
vestment was made in something en-
tirely new, built fromthe ground up.
Mr. Omidyar also confirmed that he
wouldbe personallyfinancing just sucha
new mass media venture, where he
will be joined by the journalist Glenn
Greenwald, whois leavingTheGuardian,
the British daily. Mr. Greenwald gained
notoriety this summer when he reported
ontherevelations about U.S. National Se-
curity Agency surveillance contained in
papers leaked by Edward J. Snowden.
The details of the project are vague.
I dont yet knowhowor when it will be
rolled out, or what it will look like, Mr.
Omidyar wrote.
What is clear is that Mr. Greenwald
will be there, and he is expected to be
joined by Laura Poitras, the documenta-
ry filmmaker who was the crucial con-
duit between Mr. Snowden and Mr. Gre-
enwald. Together, Mr. Greenwald and
Ms. Poitras possess an extensive trove
of documents fromMr. Snowden related
to government surveillance and other
secret matters. Mr. Greenwald has
made it clear that he has much more
material from Mr. Snowden to go
through and many articles yet to write.
That means that Mr. Omidyar and his
media site could well be in the middle of
the tussle between the government and
news groups over how to balance a free
press against concerns about national
security, perhaps making hima newad-
versary for agencies trying to prevent
the disclosure of secret information.
Mr. Greenwald emphasized during an
interview Tuesday night that he would
not be the editor or manager of the site,
saying, I will be doing the journalism.
Mr. Omidyar wrote on Wednesday
that the project was something he
would be personally and directly in-
volved inoutside of my other efforts as a
philanthropist.
Mr. Omidyar and Mr. Greenwald
came together after developing a grow-
ingrespect that was built aroundshared
causes like protection for journalists
and a revulsion at government surveil-
lance tactics. Mr. Omidyar who de-
clinedaninterviewrequest but released
a statement and spoke to the New York
University journalism professor Jay
Rosen describes a happy coinci-
dence: just as he was looking to start his
project, Mr. Greenwald and Ms. Poitras,
along with the reporter and author
Jeremy Scahill, were already on a path
to create an online space to support in-
dependent journalists. He wrote, We
had a lot of overlap interms of our ideas,
and decided to join forces.
Mr. Rosen, on his blog, outlined some
of Mr. Omidyars thinking: while Mr.
Greenwald, Ms. Poitras and Mr. Scahill
have focused on national security and
U.S. foreign policy, the new project will
be of more general interest. Mr. Rosen,
paraphrasing Mr. Omidyar, writes that
the project would cover sports, busi-
ness, entertainment and technology.
When asked how large his financial
commitment would be, Mr. Rosen
writes, Mr. Omidyar referred to the $250
million it would have taken to buy The
Post as a starting point.
He is chairman of eBay, but for more
than a decade has not been active in the
day-to-day running of the organization.
He decided to devote some of his for-
tune to philanthropy, but has saidhe was
discouraged by traditional models,
which he says can often reward bad out-
comes. Henamedhis major philanthrop-
ic organization the Omidyar Network to
avoid connotations of being a charity,
and has made many donations aimed at
creating self-sustaining businesses.
The Twitter streams of Mr. Omidyar
and Mr. Greenwald show that they had
been moving toward each other over the
past year. Mr. Omidyar frequently re-
posts Twitter messages fromMr. Green-
waldabout concerns like protectingjour-
nalists from prosecution. One Twitter
conversation about the Snowden docu-
ments culminated with Mr. Omidyar
writing to Mr. Greenwald, youve been
the most consistent and knowledgeable
reporter onillegal (andnowsupposedle-
gal) wiretapping since Bush disclosure.
David Carr contributed reporting.
ANDREW HARRER/BLOOMBERG
The billionaire Pierre Omidyar of eBay has
opposed government surveillance tactics.
Companies transfer personal
data from Europe to a third
state like the United States
without having a legal base.
GUNS, PAGE 19
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 17 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
companies environment business
WITH
E.U. plan
to delay rule
on emissions
sparks anger
BY JIM MOTAVALLI
On Monday, the European Unions envi-
ronmental ministers agreed to delay a
plan to hold cars to tough new carbon
emissions limits by 2020. On Tuesday
they faced the music.
Environmental groups expressed
outrage that a deal, reached in July and
expected to be ratified on Monday, had
instead been delayed, largely by Ger-
many, a move that was supported by
Britain. Several groups said the Ger-
man chancellor, Angela Merkel, was un-
der heavy pressure from some German
automakers worried that they could not
meet the 2020 target an automotive
fleet average of 95 grams of carbondiox-
ide per kilometer.
A German proposal would delay full
implementation of the standard until
2024, but it would need approval from
more than one European agency. Ac-
cording to the European Commission,
the 2020 target represents a 40 percent
reduction fromthe fleet average in 2007.
The rule is more of a challenge for
automakers that produce larger cars.
Two German manufacturers, BMW
and Daimler, have decided they will
miss this target and task the German
government with weakening and delay-
ing it instead, Franziska Achterberg,
European Union transport policy direc-
tor for Greenpeace, said in an e-mail.
The rest of the industry, including car
manufacturers such as Germanys
Volkswagen, Ford and Toyota, and
Europes automotive suppliers, have
broadly accepted the law.
Jos Dings, director of the Brussels-
based group Transport and Environ-
ment, said in a telephone interview:
This is analmost unimaginable display
of naked power politics from Germany.
A fair deal was struck, and Germany
was a part of it. Mr. Dings said that the
German proposal to delay the full rule
was very unlikely to be approved.
BMW does not have a comment on
this issue, Dave Buchko, a spokesman
for the company, said in an e-mail. The
Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers,
which represents Mercedes-Benz USA
and the BMW Group, also declined to
comment.
Belgian brewer joins U.S. craft beer craze
NEW YORK
BY STEPHANIE STROM
The Duvel Moortgat Brewery of Belgi-
um announced a deal on Thursday to
buy the Boulevard Brewing Company, a
craft brewery in Kansas City.
The acquisition will give Boulevard
access to wider distribution in the
United States and an avenue into inter-
national markets using Duvels world-
wide system.
Duvel will gain a large United States
craft brand that is well-known in the
Midwest at a time when brewers from
around the world are visiting to learn
fromAmerican craft brewers.
I see here in Europe that consumers
are getting more and more interested in
American craft beers, Michel Moort-
gat, one of three brothers who own
Duvel, said by telephone from Belgium.
In the future, with this partnership, we
will be able to developthe taste for those
beers more substantially here and in
other countries like Japan and China.
John McDonald, Boulevards founder
and owner, said he had been pondering
an exit strategy for the past few years.
I talked to several other breweries and
different types of financial institutions
that might be interested in partnering
with us, and about three months ago, I
decided to go talk to Duvel, said Mr.
McDonald, who recently turned 60.
He said he liked the way his company
could mesh with the Belgian brewery
and the cultural alignment between the
two businesses. I was looking to give
up control of my brewery, and to do that,
I hadto feel really goodabout the people
I would be giving control to, Mr. Mc-
Donald said.
While big beer brands like Budweiser
and Coors have struggled with stagnant
sales, craft beers have grown increas-
ingly popular, with newbreweries open-
ing at the pace of one a day last year.
There are about 2,600 craft breweries in
the United States, and volume sales of
their beers grew11 percent in2011 and14
percent in 2012, reaching almost 13 mil-
lion barrels, according to Technomic, a
market research firm.
It expects similar growth this year,
and puts craft beers share of the overall
beer market at 6.3 percent.
Donna Hood Crecca, senior director
of the adult beverage resource group at
Technomic, said the craft boom today
differed fromthe microbrewing craze of
the early 1990s, which fizzled except for
a handful of breweries like the Boston
Brewing Company, maker of Samuel
Adams, and the Brooklyn Brewery.
Timing is better for a craft beer boom
in today, she said, given the changing
demographics of the United States and
the rise of millenials, those between the
ages of 18 and 34.
The consumer palate has evolved
and is more interested in the flavor nu-
ances and complexities inherent in craft
beer styles, Ms. Hood Crecca said. In
addition, there is the overall interest in
local and hand-crafted food and drink
products, andcraft beers fit those bills to
a T, often with an interesting or unique
back story and sense of authenticity.
Consumption of craft beers is growing
fast among Hispanic consumers, whose
palates favor the kinds of spice and fruit
flavors that are hallmarks of craft beers.
Women, who have long preferred
wine to beer, also have jumped on the
bandwagon, forming craft beer-drink-
ing groups with names like Crafty
Ladies in Denver and Barleys Angels,
which has chapters around the country.
Nolonger does alight Americanlager
satisfy every beer lover, said Julia Herz,
the craft beer program director at the
Brewers Association, the trade group for
the craft brewing industry. Light beer
sales are down, and the majority of the
top-10 brands are losing market share.
That is not to say companies like An-
heuser Busch, Molson Coors and SAB-
Miller are absent from the fray. The
Tenth and Blake Beer Company, a joint
venture between Molson Coors and
SABMiller, produces Blue Moon and
Leinenkugels, and the Goose Island
Brewery in Chicago was bought by An-
heuser Busch, owned by InBev, in 2011.
But the major beer companies names
are nowhere to be found on those units
Web sites or on bottles of the beer they
make, which has been a source of con-
troversy in the craft beer world.
The Brewers Association, which has
called on the beer giants to put their
names on their craft beer bottles,
defines a craft brewer as small, inde-
pendent and traditional. That means,
Ms. Herz said, a brewery producing six
millionor less barrels ayear asmaller
limit was dropped when Samuel Adams
exceeded it and can include partial
ownership of less than 25 percent by an
alcoholic beverage companythat is not a
craft brewer. If a brewery does not meet
the trade groups classification, it cannot
be a voting member of the association.
Mr. Moortgat said he was somewhat
concerned that Boulevard would not be
consideredacraft brewerybytheassoci-
ations members because of its newown-
ership. But first let me say that if you
lookat barrels sold, InBevsells 500 times
the number of barrels we do, he said.
Duvel and its other European brewer-
ies, which include Achouffe and De
Koninck, will sell about 700,000 barrels of
beer this year, he said, while Om-
megang, based in Cooperstown, New
York, will sell about 45,000. Mr. Moortgat
said sales were on track to reach around
200 million, or about $275 million, bythe
end of this year, up from about 180 mil-
lionat the end of last year whenthe com-
pany went private, with profit increas-
ing at roughly the same rate.
We have made acquisitions in the
past and always really, really made sure
that we respect their specificity, their
traditions, their authenticity, he said.
Instead of chasing synergies and cost
efficiencies, we try to develop them
along the lines they would have if we
were not involved.
He said Duvel would continue to in-
vest in Boulevards production facilities,
and that Boulevards sales team would
market Duvels beers inits regions while
Duvel USAs team will sell Boulevard
beers on the east and west coasts of the
United States. One of the things we
have come to realize is that American
craft brewers are more creative, more
daring than we are in Europe, and we
dont want to change that, he said.
In a nod to American creativity, Duvel
three years ago created a fruit beer
made from things like strawberries,
raspberries and elderberries. The com-
pany wanted to suggest serving it over
ice to make it more refreshing, Mr.
Moortgat said, but was worried that
the whole industry would be shouting at
us you cant put ice cubes in beer.
Leifmans Fruit Beer over ice turned
out to be a hit in Europe but what
about Coconut Banana CreamPie Ale?
One of the things I like best about
craft beer is the collaboration you get
between breweries, said Carol Dek-
kers, who has just started the second
Barleys Angels chapter in Tampa, Flor-
ida. Like last year, a brewer from
Angry Chair got together with his room-
mate, who brews for Cigar City, after
they saw a recipe for coconut banana
cream pie on a food show and brewed a
coconut banana creampie beer.
I dont like dessert, she said, but
oh, my, it was so good.
Duvel to buy Boulevard
of Kansas City, and looks
to grow brand worldwide
STEVE HEBERT FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
John McDonald, founder and owner of the Boulevard Brewing Company, said he liked the way his company could mesh with Duvel.
tees offered by the British government
that could result in higher power bills for
consumers, are expected to be an-
nounced early next week. Those techni-
cal aspects will be crucial because the
project could yet attract the attention of
European Union regulators whose job it
is topolicestatesubsidies. Britainargues
that there are no direct state subsidies
for the project, whichis nowestimatedto
cost 14 billion, or around $22 billion.
Britains energy market is already
dominated by European giants, includ-
ing EDF, the French state-controlled
power company that is supposed to
oversee constructionandeventually op-
erate the Hinkley Point project, and the
GermanutilityE.On. But opening its nu-
clear power industry to Chinese invest-
ment raises questions over Beijings in-
fluence in a highly sensitive energy
sector.
The British government said that any
Chinese investments had to meet strict
standards for safety and security. And
Chinese investors will likely have a
minoritystake inthe HinkleyPoint proj-
ect, the government indicated Thurs-
day, adding that over time stakes in
subsequent new power stations could
be majority stakes.
Under an agreement signed between
the two countries, British-based compa-
nies, like Rolls-Royce and International
Nuclear Services, could also win a big-
ger role in Chinas nuclear power ex-
pansion, according to an e-mail fromthe
British Embassy in Beijing that sum-
marized Mr. Osbornes statement.
Mr. Osbornes bold announcement
sparkedadebateover whichtypeof stra-
tegic assets European countries should
be open to investment fromChina.
Cooperation on civil nuclear energy
with China has been going on for a long
time, and there are many French
companies working with the Chinese on
these issues, so its not something I find
difficult to accept, said Michel Barnier,
the European commissioner respon-
sible for the single market, speaking in
London.
But, Mr. Barnier added, the only
point I would make is that it is in
Europes general interest that Euro-
peans reflect on what are their strategic
assets. Each country has its own vision
of what is strategically important, and I
think it would be useful to have more of
a common vision or strategy on this
question.
Antony Froggatt, a senior research
fellowat ChathamHouse, a research in-
stitute in London, said there were lim-
ited concerns with a Chinese role be-
cause such power plants were already
being constructed by Chinese compa-
nies in partnership with the French in
China. He added, however, that political
tensions could provoke problems down
the line.
If there were a falling-out politically,
I think they would be more likely to
withdraw funding than to switch off the
lights, Mr. Froggatt said.
While Germany wants to shut down
all of its nuclear plants by 2022 and shift
almost entirely to wind and solar power
by 2050, Britain is betting big on nuclear
power. Though it is also pushing into
production of shale oil and gas, Britain
aims to cut greenhouse gas emissions in
half by the mid-2020s in large part by re-
newing the older nuclear power plants
that are going out of service.
In a report published this year the
British government said its nuclear in-
dustry had set out plans to deliver by
2030 at least 12 new nuclear reactors at
five sites currently earmarked for de-
velopment.
If and when the new plant, Hinkley
Point C, comes fully online, it will supply
about 7 percent of Britains electricity.
That would be enough power to meet
the needs of five million homes, with the
added benefit of no carbon emissions.
But the negotiations over the Hinkley
Point plant have been long and difficult.
Originally, EDF, whichalready operates
15 nuclear plants in Britain through a
15 billion acquisition of British Energy
in 2008, had intended to be in partner-
ship with Centrica, the owner of British
Gas. But Centrica pulled out of talks
saying the economic case was not
strong enough.
The setbacks underscore how build-
ing a new nuclear plant in the West is
very expensive and fraught with risk.
Two French-designed plants under con-
struction at Flamanville, France, and
Olkiluoto, Finland, have been plagued
by technical problems and huge cost
overruns. Last year, two big German
utilities, RWE and E.On, decided not to
proceed with construction of a plant
that hadbeenplannedfor Wales, largely
because of the costs and the uncertainty
of getting a return on their investment.
EDFs stock price, along with those of
many European utilities, has been un-
der pressure of late.
Ms. Alexander, of the Nuclear Indus-
try Association, said EDF was bringing
on partners because its the huge up-
front capital investment. Its billions
and billions of pounds. With nuclear you
dont see any returnonyour investment
for 15 years.
Alikely investor is China General Nu-
clear Power, which is the majority
stakeholder in the Taishan Nuclear
Power Plant in Guangdong Province in
the south of China, where Mr. Osborne
made his announcement on Thursday.
Technologyfromthe plant couldbe used
in the Hinkley Point nuclear power sta-
tion, the Peoples Daily Web site said,
citing unidentified sources from the
Chinese company.
China General Nuclear Power
stated that it will share its own experi-
ence in building and operating nuclear
power by participating in the British nu-
clear energy market, the Chinese re-
port said, noting the Chinese companys
experience working with French part-
ners on a reactor in China. China Gener-
al Nuclear will contribute to Britains
first newnuclear power project, the re-
port added.
The agreement with Britain comes as
China moves ahead with its own ambi-
tious plan to build dozens of nuclear
power stations in China in coming
years, on top of the 17 reactors already
running, which have a capacity of about
12 gigawatts. But after an earthquake
and tsunami triggered partial melt-
downs at three nuclear reactors in
Fukushima, Japan, China imposed a
moratorium on construction for many
months. The pace of construction has
not fully recovered, and China has since
reduced its target for nuclear power ca-
pacity in 2015 to 40 gigawatts, from50.
China passed the United States in
overall generating capacity in 2011 and
now has a total of 1,145 gigawatts, com-
pared with a little over 1,000 gigawatts
inthe United States. Nuclear power rep-
resents 1.1 percent of Chinas electricity
generating capacity, as against nearly
10 percent in the United States. In terms
of electricity actually generated, as op-
posed to capacity, nuclear is about 2 per-
cent of the total in China and 19 percent
in the United States.
A successful investment in Britain
could give China a showcase for its nu-
clear industry in an advanced Western
economy and help promote significant
expansion. Depending on the energy
price details to be announced shortly, it
might also provide a good financial re-
turn as well.
Chris Buckley reported fromHong
Kong. Keith Bradsher contributed re-
porting fromWuhan, China, and Stanley
Reed fromLondon.
There is the overall interest
in local and hand-crafted food
and drink products, and craft
beers fit those bills to a T.
U.K. opens nuclear sector to China
BRITAIN, FROM PAGE 1
SUZANNE PLUNKETT/REUTERS
China may help Britains frustrated efforts
to build the Hinkley Point plant, above.
If there were a falling-out
politically, I think they would
be more likely to withdraw
funding than to switch off
the lights.
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INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 18 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
Windowon
Wall Street
BEN PROTESS
AND LAUREN DAVOLI O
NEW YORK The U.S. government
mocked Mark Cuban as a winner in
his mind, claiming that the billion-
aire owner of the Dallas Mavericks bas-
ketball teampossessed a competitive
edge that drove himto insider trading.
But a jury cleared himof wrongdoing
on Wednesday, making Mr. Cuban a
winner in the civil case and delivering a
blowto the federal agency that he had
battled tooth and nail for five years.
The agency, the Securities and Ex-
change Commission, was hoping to
build on the momentumit gained from
the recent trial success against Fabrice
Tourre, a former Goldman Sachs trader
at the center of a failed mortgage deal.
Nowthe loss in the Cuban case could
reignite concerns about the agencys
struggles in the courtroom, where
some crucial cases fromthe financial
crisis crumbled. The loss on Wednes-
day might also undercut the S.E.C.s
campaign to hold more individuals ac-
countable at trial, a policy championed
by its newchairwoman, Mary Jo White.
The S.E.C., however, played down the
significance of the verdict.
We respect the jurys decision,
John Nester, the agencys spokesman,
said in a statement, adding that the ver-
dict will not deter us frombringing
and trying cases where we believe de-
fendants have violated the federal secu-
rities laws.
The verdict stands in stark contrast
with past successes in insider trading
cases, which traditionally are among
the safest bets for the government. Fed-
eral prosecutors in Manhattan are un-
defeated in recent insider trading trials.
But the nine-person jury concluded
that Mr. Cuban was not liable under fed-
eral securities laws, concluding that he
did not commit insider trading when he
dumped his stake in an Internet com-
pany. The verdict capped a civil trial for
one of the fewcelebrities to land on the
S.E.C.s radar. Mr. Cuban was facing a
fine of about $2 million fine, short of
what he paid for his lawyers.
With a net worth pegged at $2.5 billion,
and a track record of paying more than
$1 million in fines for courtside antics
and tirades against N.B.A. referees, Mr.
Cubans battle was not about the money.
He fought the case to clear his name and
humble the agency that had sued him.
In a statement, Mr. Cuban said the
verdict raised broader concerns about
S.E.C. tactics. The case, he said, shows
that the S.E.C.s process is broken.
I hope this result shines a light on the
S.E.C. abuses that I have witnessed, he
added, and causes the agency to
change the way they do business.
But the agency is unlikely to change.
In a recent speech, Ms. White argued
that a strong enforcement regime is
only effective if we have the ability to
back it up in court. The agency has
won about 80 percent of its trials in re-
cent years.
Its particularly important for the
S.E.C. to win the high-profile cases, said
Stephen J. Crimmins, a partner at the
lawfirmK&LGates and former deputy
chief litigation counsel in the S.E.C. en-
forcement division. With a loss, the
S.E.C. runs the risk of demoralizing its
staff and hurting the credibility the
agency brings to the table in negotiating
settlements.
There were early indications that the
Cuban case might not pan out. The
judge assigned to the case, Sidney A.
Fitzwater, initially dismissed it in 2009.
Mr. Cuban also carried a wild card: a
hometown jury. Mr. Cuban is generally
well liked in Dallas, where his Maver-
icks were champions of the National
Basketball Association in 2011.
The agencys case stems fromMr. Cu-
bans decision in June 2004 to sell his 6.3
percent stake in the search engine
Mamma.com. He did so after learning
fromMamma.coms chief executive that
the company was planning a private of-
fering of its stock a deal likely to hurt
the stock price and dilute the holdings of
existing shareholders like Mr. Cuban.
The S.E.C. lawyer leading the case,
Jan M. Folena, argued that Mr. Cuban
had agreed to keep the information con-
fidential in a call with the firms chief,
Guy Faur.
In response to hearing that Mr. Faur
had confidential information to
share, according to the S.E.C., Mr. Cu-
ban replied, Umhum, go ahead. And
at the end of the call, Mr. Cuban ex-
pressed frustration that I cant sell
the existing shares because he nowhad
access to inside information.
And yet, Ms. Folena said, Mr. Cuban
traded anyway, just hours before the in-
formation was made public, meaning
Mr. Cuban avoided $750,000 in losses.
Mr. Cubans lawyers cast doubt on
Mr. Faur. There was no recording of
Mr. Faurs call with Mr. Cuban, and Mr.
Cuban did not recall the conversation.
I hope this result shines a
light on the S.E.C. abuses
that I have witnessed.
finance companies business
WITH
dealbook
Insider-trading verdict a setback for S.E.C.
ONLINE: DEALBOOK
Read more about deals and the deal
makers. nytimes.com/dealbook
NEW YORK
BY SUSAN ANTILLA
A report released by an association of
lawyers who represent aggrieved in-
vestors suggests that Wall Street
brokers were almost always successful
when they asked to have negative ac-
tions erased from their records after
settling a dispute with a customer.
The Financial Industry Regulatory
Authority, a private corporation that
serves as the brokerage industrys self-
financed policing arm, has long
provided a public database, known as
BrokerCheck, to expose some of the bad
behaviors of Wall Street. Investors often
rely on the organizations database as a
repository of red flags.
In recent years, however, more and
more brokers have beenseekingto wipe
their slates clean by seeking expunge-
ments, or the deletion of negative re-
cords or other problems, the report, re-
leased Wednesday, found.
Brokers who asked arbitrators to re-
commend expungement got approval in
96.9 percent of cases that were settled
from May 18, 2009, to Dec. 31, 2011, the
lawyers group, the Public Investors Ar-
bitration Bar Association, said in the re-
port.
Such requests are most frequently
made after a customer and a broker or
firmhave reached a settlement before a
hearing occurs.
Finra has said that expungement is
supposed to be an extraordinary
remedy, but the report shows that such
grants are made routinely.
The industrys regulatory body is try-
ing to address the issue. On Monday, the
regulator e-mailed a notice to arbitrat-
ors, advising them that information
about a broker should be expunged
only when it has no meaningful investor
protection or regulatory value. Finra
advised arbitrators to examine brokers
records to see if they had had previous
problems with customers before grant-
ing expungement, and to explain their
reasons for any deletions.
Michelle Ong, a Finra spokeswoman,
said in a statement that the regulator
shares the serious concerns raised in
the study and is enhancing arbitrator
training with added emphasis onthe im-
portance of the integrity of the informa-
tion in its broker database. Finra is
also reviewing its rules and interpreta-
tions, the statement said.
Some arbitrators have set up their
own rules to evaluate expungement re-
quests rather than wait for guidance
fromthe regulator.
On Aug. 15, Paul R. Meyer, a Finra ar-
bitrator in Portland, Oregon, wrote that
his panel would disregard an affidavit
from a customer who supported an ex-
pungement because the case had
settled for substantial money, and ex-
pungement was not an appropriate
subject for negotiation.
Although the panel wound up grant-
ing the request, the members insisted
that the broker appear in person and
provide a detailed explanation of why
she believed she deserved the deletion.
The Fordham Journal of Corporate
and Financial Law is to publish an arti-
cle in November about expungement,
written by Seth E. Lipner, a professor of
law at the Zicklin School of Business at
Baruch College in NewYork.
Mr. Lipner, who represents investors
in cases against brokers, looked at 205
requests from Jan. 1 to July 31 this year
to remove information frombrokers re-
cords after a settlement had been
reached. Of those, 192 were granted, he
said in an interview.
Wall Streets policing arm
grants expungements
too often, report says
ULI SEIT FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Seth E. Lipner, a professor of lawat Baruch College in NewYork, found that of 205 requests
by brokers earlier this year to remove settlements fromtheir records, 192 were granted.
Aclean slate for brokers,
even after client disputes
Hedge fund urges breakup of restaurant group
NEW YORK
BY MICHAEL J. DE LA MERCED
AND ALEXANDRA STEVENSON
Over 45 years, Dardenhas grownfroma
single restaurant in a landlocked Flor-
ida city to a 2,100-outlet empire, with its
Olive Garden and Red Lobster brands
blanketing the United States.
But as the company struggles with a
stagnant stock price, the activist hedge
fund Barington Capital is calling for a
drastic solution: breaking the company
into as many as three separate busi-
nesses, according to a letter sent to its
board last month that was reviewed by
The NewYork Times.
The plan includes separating the
Olive Garden and Red Lobster chains
from faster-growing brands like Long-
Horn Steakhouse and the Capital Grille.
And it encourages Darden to explore
either selling its real estate and leasing
it, or spinning off its voluminous hold-
ings into a publicly traded real estate in-
vestment trust.
Still, the efforts of Barington, which
says it represents a group that owns
more than 2 percent of Dardens stock,
reflects the continued focus of Wall
Street firms in the restaurant industry.
Activist investors have taken an in-
terest in chains like Cracker Barrel Old
Country Store and Wendys, calling for
significant changes in business
strategy.
Darden is one of the biggest targets in
the industry, with a market value of $6.6
billion. But the company has struggled
financially as people have tightened
their grip on their wallets, and its stock
price has fallen 8.5 percent over the past
12 months.
Jim C. Yin, an analyst at Standard &
Poors Capital IQ, also saidthat the com-
pany was still trying to open newstores
and act like a growth company when its
industry had matured and many of its
peers had instead focused on returning
cash to shareholders.
Last month, Darden announced that
sales at Olive Garden fell 4 percent in
the first half of this year, and were down
5 percent at Red Lobster. It has already
disclosed efforts to shave $50 million in
annual expenses, including through lay-
offs. Nowit has found itself the target of
Barington, a hedge fund that promotes
itself as a constructive activist investor
with a focus on consumer and industrial
companies. The firm has quietly helped
spur changes in the industry. For ex-
ample, the Jones Group, the fashion
company that owns brands like Anne
Klein, began pursuing a sale after the
hedge fund disclosed a stake this year.
But Barington has not been afraid to
take the gloves off in earlier campaigns,
either. In 2010, it publicly admonished
the Ameron International Corporation
for being too generous with executive
salaries and later called on the chair-
man and chief executive to resign. In
2007, it put pressure on A. Schulman to
replace its chief executive.
So far, the two sides have kept mat-
ters cordial, exchanging e-mails and
phone calls. And in June, Barington ex-
ecutives met with senior executives at
Darden to discuss how to improve the
companys performance.
In a statement, Barington acknowl-
edged the meetings. It added, We be-
lieve that Darden has the potential to
deliver significantly higher returns to
shareholders and anticipate continuing
our ongoing dialogue.
Darden said in a separate statement:
Darden welcomes input toward the
goal of enhancing shareholder value.
While its the companys policy not to
comment on specific discussions with
shareholders, the company has had dia-
logue with Barington Capital and the
board will take the time necessary to
thoroughly evaluate Baringtons sug-
gestions, just as the company does for
any of its shareholders.
KEITH BEDFORD/REUTERS
Darden owns the Olive Garden and Red Lobster chains, the Capital Grille and LongHorn
Steakhouse restaurants, and real estate holdings that Barington Capital wants spun off.
Owner of Capital Grille
is latest in the industry
to feel activists pressure
KPNopens
door to fresh
buyout talks
LONDON
BY CHAD BRAY
The Dutch telephone provider Royal
KPNsaid Thursday that it was still open
to pursuing a deal with Amrica Mvil, a
day after the Latin American telecom-
munications giant owned by Carlos Slim
Hel dropped its pursuit of the company.
Amrica Mvil disclosed in a regula-
tory filing with the U.S. Securities and
Exchange Commission on Wednesday
that it was abandoning its 7.2 billion, or
$9.8 billion, bid to acquire KPN. The de-
cision came after a foundation that
looks out for the interests of KPNs
shareholders exercised a call optionthis
summer giving it a nearly 50 percent
stake in the company.
A KPN spokesman said Thursday
that Amrica Mvil remained an impor-
tant shareholder, with a nearly 30 per-
cent stake in the company and two seats
on its supervisory board.
We dont have any problem sitting
down with them at the table, said
Stefan Simons, a KPNspokesman.
Those comments followed a confer-
ence call by Eelco Blok, the chief execu-
tive of KPN, with Dutch journalists on
Thursday.
Reuters reported that Mr. Blok said
on the call that, there is a possibility
that we will be sitting around the table
again.
AmricaMvil, the largest provider of
cellphone service in Latin America, had
offered to buy the 70 percent of KPN it
did not already own for a price of 2.40 a
share in hopes of acquiring a controlling
stake. Amrica Mvil said KPNs man-
agement had sought a higher price.
Mr. Simons said that KPN sought a
total package to present to sharehold-
ers, includingnot onlyahigher price, but
an agreement on corporate governance
and other concerns following a merger.
KPNs shares were down 8.7 percent
to 2.22 in afternoon trading Thursday.
The companys shares had been off as
much as 10 percent on Thursday.
Mr. Slim owns about a 13 percent
stake in The NewYork Times Company.
Goldman
tops profit
estimates
NEW YORK
BY SUSANNE CRAIG
Goldman Sachs, hit by a drop in trading
on certain desks, reported third-quarter
profit of $1.52 billion on Thursday, large-
ly flat compared with a year earlier.
Despite the difficult markets, Gold-
man kept a tight handle on expenses. Its
profit of $2.88 a share managed to
slightly exceed its performance of $2.85
a share in the third quarter of 2012. The
per-share results were also well ahead
of expectations of $2.43 a share, accord-
ing to analysts polled by Thomson Reu-
ters.
Revenue in the quarter fell about 20
percent, to $6.72 billion, compared with
$8.35 billion a year earlier. Analysts
were forecasting revenue of $7.36 bil-
lion. The company said its operating ex-
penses in the third quarter were $4.56
billion, 25 percent lower thaninthe third
quarter of 2012.
Despite the rigorous expense con-
trols, Goldman shares fell more than
two percent in premarket trading and
were off 2.75 percent in morning activity
in NewYork.
The third quarters results reflected
a period of slowclient activity, Lloyd C.
Blankfein, Goldmans chairman and
chief executive, said in a statement.
Still, we sawvarious signs that our cli-
ents are prepared to act on significant
transactions and we believe that the
firmis well positionedto helpour clients
accomplish their objectives.
Mr. Blankfein also signaled that the
resolution of the fiscal impasse would
bode well for clients. As longer term
U.S. budget issues are resolved, we
could see an improvement in corporate
and investor sentiment that would help
lay the basis for a more sustained recov-
ery, he said.
The firm also increased its dividend
by 5 cents, to 55 cents a share.
Revenue in the firms fixed income,
currency and commodities division,
which houses bond trading, came in at
$1.25 billion, down 44 percent from a
year earlier.
TOM FOX/THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS, VIA THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
The jury concluded that Mark Cuban did not commit insider trading when he sold his stake in the Internet company Mamma.com.
Over the past several months, Baring-
ton has urged Darden to broaden its
overhaul efforts. In a letter to the board,
sent on Sept. 23, the hedge fund argued
that the company had become too big to
run efficiently, with a multitude of
brands with different needs competing
for limited resources.
And the hedge fund pointed to
Dardens real estate holdings as a po-
tentiallyuntappedtrove of riches whose
worth it estimates at $4.1 billion. The
company owns the land and buildings
for 1,048 of its restaurants and the build-
ings on 802 more sites. Barington urged
the company to consider moves ranging
from selling the properties and leasing
them back to placing them in a publicly
traded real estate investment trust,
which could reduce its tax bill.
The hedge fund has also suggested
moving most of Dardens debt onto the
real estate company, contending that its
healthy cash flowcould support the bur-
den while freeing up the restaurant
companies balance sheets.
But analysts at Bank of America Mer-
rill Lynch cautioned in a recent note
that any moves to sell properties to help
shareholder returns without using
some of the proceeds to reduce debt
could lead to a downgrade to its credit
rating. They also pointed out that
Darden might be limited in how much
real estate it could sell because of corpo-
rate bond contracts.
Analysts broadly agree on the prob-
lems Darden faces, though not on the
solutions. Discussions about how the
company can revive its fortunes has
been in the chatter since the begin-
ning of the year, said Sara Senatore, an
analyst at Bernstein Research.
Lynne Collier, an analyst at Sterne
Agee, said Darden has some good
brands that, if spun out, could fetch a
higher trading multiple. But she ex-
pressed skepticism about spinning out
the real estate. And several analysts ar-
gued that the company should remain
together, with the cash flow from the
mature Olive Garden and Red Lobster
brands helping to finance their counter-
parts. Separating the two could harm
the growth of the younger chains.
Assets at top hedge fund grow, but global economy dims forecast
LONDON
BY JULIA WERDIGIER
The Man Group, the worlds largest
publicly traded hedge fund, reported its
first quarterly net inflows of money in
two years on Thursday, as clients be-
came more confident about a global eco-
nomic recovery.
Net inflows were $700 million during
the three months ended Sept. 30, includ-
ing fund investments of $4.1 billion and
redemptions of $3.4 billion, the firm
said. Clients poured more money into
funds at the companys GLG Partners
unit, while AHL, the companys largest
fund, continued to struggle.
Inflows were linked primarily to
stronger performance in the first half of
the year and were characterized by siz-
able asset flows fromcertaincustomers,
albeit into relatively low margin
products, Emmanuel Roman, the chief
executive, said in a statement.
The hedge fund, which is based in
London, had been experiencing client
withdrawals in recent years after the
performance of some of its larger funds
lagged behind that of rivals during the
financial crisis. Mr. Roman, who took
over as chief executive in February, an-
nounced far-reaching cost cuts.
Man Group said Thursday that the
cost reductions announced in August
would result in $90 million of pretax
charges that would affect the com-
panys figures in the second half of this
year. The company agreed to sublet its
London headquarters and reduce its
staff numbers.
Mr. Roman also gave a cautious out-
look for money inflows in the future, cit-
ing uncertainty in the global economic
environment. Assets under manage-
ment at the company rose to $52.5 bil-
lion on Sept. 30 from $52 billion three
months earlier.
We believe that Darden
has the potential to deliver
significantly higher returns
to shareholders.
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013 | 19 INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES
. . . .
economy markets business
WITH
a position to dictate the broad terms of
a budgetary truce, but that does not
make the Republicans powerless. Mr.
Obama has a strong interest in agree-
ing to a long-term fiscal deal and refo-
cusing his presidency on other issues.
He is therefore likely to offer some sig-
nificant concessions to settle the
budget once and for all.
The president has already indicated
that he might be willing to trade some
long-term economies in Social Security
and Medicare for a Republican agree-
ment to lift the short-term across-the-
board spending cuts known as sequest-
ration.
Such a deal, in addition to reducing
long-termfiscal pressures, would be
doubly attractive to Mr. Obama. Lifting
sequestration would provide a neutral or
slightly expansionary fiscal policy over
the next two years, thus strengthening
recovery. Meanwhile, the Republicans
vociferous insistence on Social Security
and Medicare cuts would relieve Demo-
crats of any blame for these fiscally nec-
essary, but highly unpopular, changes.
Apart from discussing Social Securi-
ty and Medicare reforms, to which Mr.
Obama has already agreed, the Demo-
crats need to make only one more con-
cession to facilitate a bipartisan deal:
they must abandon their insistence on
higher taxes.
While conventional wisdom main-
tains that this is the one concession Mr.
Obama will never make, it would actu-
ally be surprisingly easy because of
changing economic conditions. Recent
revisions to budget forecasts imply
that the U.S. government no longer
needs additional revenue to control its
deficits. As Lawrence H. Summers has
pointed out, the U.S. government defi-
cit will narrow to just 2 percent of gross
domestic product by 2015, even without
further fiscal action. Beyond that, an
increase of just 0.2 percentage point in
the economys structural growth rate
would entirely eliminate the projected
long-term budget gap.
Mr. Obama and the Republicans
could therefore reconcile their budget-
ary objectives by agreeing on a tax
overhaul to bolster the economys long-
term structural growth rate, instead of
seeking to squeeze more revenue out of
the present dysfunctional tax struc-
ture. By focusing on dynamic ac-
counting that takes account of the rev-
enue gains from higher expected
growth rates, tax reform could easily
become a winning proposition for both
Republicans and Democrats.
Third, a fiscally neutral or expan-
sionary long-term budget deal should
ensure an acceleration of U.S. econom-
ic growth. G.D.P. growth, excluding the
effect of public spending cuts, has been
running at a steady 3.5 percent since
late 2009. If the fiscal drag created by
sequestration could be eliminated by a
long-term budget deal, total G.D.P.
growth of 3.5 percent should be achiev-
able from early next year onward.
A final effect of the budget deal
should be to lift the cloud of political
dysfunction and monetary uncertainty
over the dollar.
The budget battle paradoxically
helped the U.S. economy and financial
markets by delaying the Feds reduc-
tion of its bond buying until at least
December. But now that the battle is
over, such tapering should begin in
December or early next year.
And once the Fed starts to taper, the
process will be clearer and more decis-
ive, since fears of unplanned fiscal
tightening will be removed by
whatever budget deal is agreed on.
Greater clarity in both monetary and
fiscal policy should restore some confi-
dence in the dollar, improve business
sentiment and perhaps drive up prices
on Wall Street.
In short, one of worst political blun-
ders in modern U.S. history is likely to
be remembered as good news.
Anatole Kaletsky is a Reuters columnist.
RICHARD DREW/THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
President Obama, speaking in Washington, on a screen at the NewYork Stock Exchange on Thursday. He can nowseek a long-termdeal.
Silver lining to rout of Republicans
ECONOCLAST, FROM PAGE 16
Europe wary of printed guns
GUNS, FROM PAGE 16
acknowledged in an e-mail exchange
that certainly some gun nuts will try
using the quite modest material proper-
ties of 3-Dprinting.
Although the technology, also called
additive manufacturing, has been
around as an industrial process since
the 1980s, it has only recently gained
broader currency with the arrival of af-
fordable consumer-level printers. Some
machines now cost less than 1,000 and
can be ordered on Amazon.
But the actual number in use is still
relatively tiny. According to Wohlers
Associates, a 3-Dprinting research firm
inFort Collins, Colorado, a total of 35,508
personal printers were sold worldwide
last year, though that was up nearly 50
percent from the year before. Most of
these machines are sold to hobbyists,
do-it-yourselfers, engineering students
and educational institutions, according
to Terry Wohlers, the firms president.
A RepRap forum member identifying
himself as a 21-year-old Finnish student
from Tampere said he succeeded in
printing a working gun and in testing it.
Since he considers his own actions to be
illegal under the strict gun laws in Fin-
land, he declined to reveal his name in a
message exchange. The International
New York Times was not able to inde-
pendently verify his claim.
It was for educational purposes and
out of curiosity that the student said he
downloaded the original Liberator mod-
el in early May, shortly before the U.S.
government ordered the files taken
down. He said he made the weapon on a
friends 3-Dprinter and fired it.
The guns receiver got a crack after
just one shot, he said, referring to the
firing chamber. No sane person would
fire the gun again.
They may not need to. Even if these
guns can only fire a couple of shots, they
can still have a lethal effect, said Mr.
Brzoska, the security expert in Ham-
burg. And you can easily build several
of them.
The Austrian authorities, for in-
stance, had to change the barrel after
each shot. But after the four shots, the
gun itself was still working, said Mr.
Grundbck, the Interior Ministry
spokesman.
A couple of deadly shots and the
ability to easily build more guns
might be enoughto make this anattract-
ive proposition for a variety of luna-
tics, lone-wolf terrorists and people who
want to draw attention to themselves,
said Michael Ashkenazi, a small-arms
analyst at the Bonn International Cen-
ter for Conversion in Germany.
While the choice of 3-D models is cur-
rently limited, improved designs are
certainly in the works, experts said. At
the moment, both the Liberator and the
Grizzly are little more than technology
demonstrators, Mr. Ashkenazi said.
But better design could make the guns
extremely dangerous.
Tightening airport security might be
one possible response, according to
Rdiger Holecek, a spokesman for the
German Police Union. It is quite con-
ceivable that this technical develop-
ment will make full body scanners at
airports mandatory.
A Danish company, Create it REAL,
which makes 3-Dprinters, says it might
have another possible solution. It has
developed software that looks for the
characteristics of weapon designs and,
when detected, blocks the printer from
making a firearm. If certain features
align, the software will not allow the
user to view and print the model, Cre-
ate it REAL says on its Web site.
Our software works like a computer
antivirus, explains Jeremie Pierre
Gay, the companys founder. The soft-
ware can be preinstalled on a 3-D print-
er byits manufacturer. Still, he acknowl-
edges, it is always possible to hack a
software.
Mr. Pierre Gay would rather, of
course, emphasize the virtues of 3-D
printing technology, rather than its
darker possibilities.
It is a great opportunity to boost
peoples creativity and to change the
world with beautiful inventions, he
said. But yes, it will also allow people
to create dangerous things such as fire-
arms. Threats and opportunities are of-
ten coming hand in hand.
Christina Hess contributed reporting
fromNewYork.
SAN FRANCISCO
BY VINDU GOEL
Facebook has loosened its privacy rules
for teenagers as a debate swirls over on-
line threats to children from bullies and
sexual predators.
The move, announced Wednesday, al-
lows teenagers to post status updates,
videos and images that can be seen by
anyone, not just by their friends or by
people who knowtheir friends.
While Facebook described the change
as giving teenagers, ages 13 to 17, more
choice, big money is at stake for the com-
pany and its advertisers. Marketers are
eager to reach impressionable young
consumers, andthemorepublic informa-
tionthey have about those users, the bet-
ter they are able to target their pitches.
Its all about monetization and being
where the public dialogue is, said Jeff
Chester, the executive director of the
Center for Digital Democracy, a group
that lobbies against marketing to chil-
dren. To the extent that Facebook en-
courages people to put everything out
there, its incredibly attractive to Face-
books advertisers.
But that public dialogue nowincludes
youths who are growing up in a world of
social media and, often, learning the
hard way that it can be full of risks. Par-
ents, too, are trying to help their chil-
dren navigate the raucous online world.
Theyre hittingkids fromaneurolog-
ical weak spot. Kids dont have the same
kind of impulse control that adults do,
said Emily Bazelon, the author of the
book Sticks and Stones: Defeating the
Culture of Bullying and Rediscovering
the Power of Character and Empathy.
Facebook said other services, includ-
ing big players like Twitter and Insta-
gramand lesser-known ones like ask.fm
and Kik, allowed teenagers to express
themselves publicly.
Across the Web, teens can have a
very public voice on those services, and
it would be a shame if they could not do
that on Facebook, Nicky Jackson
Colaco, Facebooks manager of privacy
and public policy, said by telephone.
Facebook is reducing childrens pri-
vacy even as lawmakers are moving in
the opposite direction, grappling with
difficult issues like online bullying and
the question of whether to allow people
to erase their digital histories.
A12-year-oldFloridagirl, RebeccaAnn
Sedwick, committed suicide last month
after being bullied online. This month,
the authorities charged two youngsters
with aggravated stalking in the case.
Governor JerryBrownof Californiare-
cently signed a lawthat allows residents
toeraseonlineindiscretions postedwhile
they were teenagers. AndEuropeanlaw-
makers are preparingto vote onchanges
that would give European residents far
more control over their online privacy.
In Britain, one of Facebooks largest
international markets, local policy
makers have highlighted the way social
networking sites have been used to tar-
get children for either sexual grooming
or online bullying.
Of course you can say that it is
illegal, but as with everything
else on the Internet, you can
always get it fromsomewhere.
Facebook eases some youth privacy rules
Thursday, Oct. 17
United States Last Chg 12 mo.%
World markets
The Americas
Europe and Middle East
Asia
U.S. Dow Jones indus. 15,324.35 49.48 +13.1
U.S. S.&P. 500 1,726.38 +4.84 +18.7
U.S. S.&P. 100 767.63 +1.03 +14.8
U.S. Nasdaq composite 3,851.67 +12.24 +24.2
U.S. NYSE composite 9,894.17 +49.17 +18.0
U.S. Russell 2000 1,097.65 +5.23 +31.4
Mexico IPC 40,126.24 229.03 5.6
Canada S.&P./TSX 12,980.69 +23.48 +4.6
Brazil Bovespa 55,664.88 308.15 6.8
Argent. Merval 5,255.40 1.39 +116.5
Chile Stock Market select 3,829.88 26.54 10.7
Euro zone Euro Stoxx 50 3,010.39 5.01 +18.2
Britain FTSE 100 6,576.16 +4.57 +12.0
Germany DAX 8,811.98 34.02 +19.5
France CAC 40 4,239.64 4.08 +21.1
Italy FTSE MIB 19,198.10 76.94 +20.1
Spain IBEX 35 9,918.00 +39.00 +24.9
Switzerland SIX 8,032.40 +50.53 +18.6
Sweden OMX 30 1,266.91 +0.90 +18.1
Russia RTS 1,491.51 8.74 +0.2
Czech Rep. Prague Stock Exch. 979.27 2.50 1.5
Israel TA-25 1,296.01 10.99 +5.1
Japan Nikkei 225 14,586.51 +119.37 +67.6
H.K. Hang Seng 23,094.88 133.45 +8.9
Australia All Ordinaries 5,281.88 +17.49 +17.0
China Shanghai composite 2,188.54 4.53 +4.3
S. Korea Kospi 2,040.61 +6.00 +5.1
India S.&P. CNX Nifty 6,064.20 24.85 +7.4
Taiwan Taiex 8,374.68 +42.50 +12.1
Singapore Straits Times 3,186.62 +12.59 +4.6
Thailand SET 1,473.04 +8.66 +14.4
Indonesia Jakarta composite 4,518.93 +26.67 +4.4
Interest rates
10-year govt. Ask yield Chg 12 mo. ago
Britain 2.743% 0.086 1.818%
France 2.445 0.053 2.076
Germany 1.863 0.062 1.542
Japan 0.618 0.010 0.751
United States 2.600 0.115 1.720
Britain 0.386% 0.007 0.234%
France 0.139 0.002 0.008
Germany 0.063 +0.010 -0.097
Japan 0.069 0.001 0.089
United States 0.120 0.008 0.165
1-year govt
Britain n.a.% n.a. n.a.%
France 0.049 0.087 -0.189
Germany 0.039 +0.022 -0.251
Japan 99.979 0.002 n.a.
United States 0.045 0.060 0.105
3-month govt Ask yield Chg 12 mo. ago
Britain (bank) 0.50% 0.50 (Mar. 5) 0.50%
Canada (overnight) 1.00 unch. (May. 14) 1.00
Euro zone (refinancing) 0.50 0.25 (May. 7) 0.75
Japanese (overnight) 0.10 unch. (Jun. 25) 0.10
United States (prime) 3.25 0.75 (Dec. 16) 3.25
Benchmark rates Last Latest chg
Agricultural City Units Delivery Last Chg
Futures
Metals, energy
Corn Chicago $/bu Dec. 4.43 +0.01
Cotton N.Y. $/lb. Dec. 0.83 unch.
Soybeans Chicago $/bu Nov. 12.91 +0.14
Wheat Chicago $/bu Dec. 6.92 +0.11
Rice Chicago $/cwt Nov. 15.48 +0.04
Cocoa N.Y. $/ton Dec. 2,769.00 +22.00
Coffee N.Y. $/lb. Dec. 1.15 0.01
Sugar N.Y. cts/lb. March 18.99 0.02
Orange juice N.Y. cts/lb. Nov. 118.60 5.10
Aluminum London $/m. ton 3 mo. 185,600 +700
Copper N.Y. $/lb. Dec. 3.29 0.02
Gold N.Y. $/tr.oz. Dec. 1,320.80 +38.50
Palladium N.Y. $/tr.oz. Dec. 733.85 +20.30
Platinum N.Y. $/tr.oz. Jan. 1,431.00 +32.80
Silver N.Y. $/tr.oz. Dec. 21.87 +0.50
Brent crude London $/bbl. Dec. 109.22 1.64
Light sw.crude N.Y. $/bbl. Nov. 100.41 1.88
Natural gas N.Y. $/mln.BTUs 3 mo. 3.75 0.02
Cross rates
Australia 1.037 1.417 1.676 1.060 0.033 1.149 1.009
Brazil 2.161 2.952 3.492 2.208 0.068 2.392 2.101
Britain 0.619 0.845 - 0.632 0.019 0.685 0.602
Canada 1.028 1.405 1.662 1.051 0.322 1.138 -
China 6.098 8.331 9.854 6.231 0.190 6.751 5.930
Denmark 5.459 7.458 8.821 5.578 0.171 6.044 5.309
Euro zone 0.732 - 1.183 0.748 0.023 0.811 0.712
India 61.130 83.666 98.988 62.579 1.916 67.841 59.448
Japan 97.850 133.67 158.12 - 3.064 108.35 95.150
Mexico 12.761 17.431 20.619 13.000 0.000 14.126 12.409
Russia 31.905 43.585 51.555 32.600 - 35.320 31.027
Singapore 1.240 1.694 2.004 1.267 0.039 1.373 1.206
S. Africa 9.760 13.333 15.770 10.000 0.309 10.804 9.491
S. Korea 1062.38 1451.32 1716.70 1085.50 33.273 1176.11 1033.34
Sweden 6.413 8.759 10.362 6.551 0.201 7.100 6.235
Switzerland 0.903 1.234 1.459 0.923 0.028 - 0.878
Taiwan 29.350 40.095 47.427 30.000 0.921 32.499 28.542
U.S. - 1.366 1.616 1.022 0.031 1.107 0.973
One One
One Swiss Can.
$1 1 1 100 ruble franc doll.
Exchange rates
Euro 0.732 0.007 - - 1.183 0.005
Dollar - - 1.366 0.013 1.616 0.021
Pound 0.619 0.008 0.845 0.003 - -
Swiss franc 0.903 0.010 1.234 0.002 1.459 0.002
Yen 97.850 0.910 133.67 0.010 158.12 0.620
Asia
Australian dollar 1.037 0.010 1.417 unch. 1.676 0.007
Chinese renminbi 6.098 0.002 8.331 0.076 9.854 0.126
Hong Kong dollar 7.754 0.001 10.592 0.099 12.530 0.161
Indian rupee 61.130 0.590 83.666 0.003 98.988 0.392
Indonesian rupiah 11325.0 35.000 15470 99.870 18301.2 182.00
Malaysian ringgit 3.147 0.024 4.299 0.008 5.086 0.028
Philippine peso 43.015 0.145 58.758 0.363 69.512 0.672
Singapore dollar 1.240 0.003 1.694 0.012 2.004 0.022
South Korean won 1062.38 3.890 1451.32 8.230 1716.70 16.210
Taiwan dollar 29.350 0.045 40.095 0.312 47.427 0.548
Thai baht 30.980 0.220 42.319 0.105 50.064 0.300
Europe
Czech koruna 18.804 0.187 25.686 0.009 30.387 0.097
Danish krone 5.459 0.051 7.458 0.001 8.821 0.034
Hungarian forint 215.33 2.430 294.14 0.489 347.97 0.646
Norwegian krone 5.932 0.059 8.103 0.003 9.586 0.030
Polish zloty 3.050 0.026 4.166 0.004 4.929 0.023
Russian ruble 31.905 0.148 43.585 0.205 51.555 0.437
Swedish krona 6.413 0.067 8.759 0.012 10.362 0.025
Turkish lira 1.962 0.010 2.680 0.012 3.171 0.025
Argentine peso 5.848 0.008 7.988 0.087 9.450 0.136
Brazilian real 2.161 0.019 2.952 0.002 3.492 0.015
Canadian dollar 1.028 0.005 1.405 0.008 1.662 0.015
Chilean peso 493.36 2.840 673.93 2.571 797.27 5.831
Mexican peso 12.761 0.081 17.431 0.051 20.619 0.139
Venezuelan bolivar 6.284 unch. 8.584 0.082 10.155 0.132
Middle East and Africa
Egyptian pound 6.890 unch. 9.412 0.090 11.134 0.145
Israeli shekel 3.523 0.017 4.812 0.023 5.693 0.047
Saudi riyal 3.750 unch. 5.123 0.049 6.060 0.079
South African rand 9.760 0.055 13.333 0.008 15.770 0.050
Major currencies $1 Chg. 1 Chg. 1 Chg. Asia (cont.) $1 Chg. 1 Chg. 1 Chg. The Americas $1 Chg. 1 Chg. 1 Chg.
World 100 The companies with the largest market capitalization, listed alphabetically by region. Prices shown are for regular trading.
A + or indicates stocks that reached a new 52-week high or low.
Abbott Laborat. 36.97 +1.07 48.7 32.05 72.13
Amazon.com 309.2 1.3 +26.7 220.6 321.0
Apple 504.2 +3.1 22.4 390.5 649.8
AT&T 34.33 +0.13 3.0 33.11 39.00
Bank of America 14.63 +0.07 +54.6 8.99 14.95
Berkshire Hath. 175,680 +808 +30.3 126,900 178,275
Caterpillar 85.60 0.67 +0.8 80.43 99.49
Chevron 118.9 0.3 +4.2 101.6 127.8
Cisco Systems 22.69 0.31 +20.4 16.82 26.38
Citigroup 50.71 0.13 +36.1 34.22 53.27
Coca-Cola 38.37 +0.37 +1.2 35.97 43.09
Comcast 47.06 +0.08 +28.3 35.13 46.46
ConocoPhillips 73.10 +0.14 +26.9 54.59 71.96
Exxon Mobil 87.23 0.08 5.6 85.10 95.20
General Electric 24.32 0.05 +7.4 20.01 24.86
Google 892.8 5.2 +19.9 647.2 924.7
Home Depot 75.33 +0.39 +23.8 59.01 80.54
IBM 175.4 11.3 16.9 178.7 215.8
Intel 23.79 +0.09 +6.4 19.36 25.47
J&J 91.71 +0.60 +31.9 67.97 94.39
JPMorgan Chase 54.10 +0.10 +26.3 39.29 56.67
Kraft Foods 53.46 +0.40 +13.1 43.66 58.29
McDonalds 95.23 +0.01 +1.2 84.05 103.59
Merck 47.26 +0.09 +0.2 40.64 49.44
Microsoft 34.96 +0.32 +18.5 26.37 36.27
Occidental Petrol. 97.18 +0.21 +16.8 73.58 95.71
Oracle 33.01 0.01 +3.6 29.58 36.34
P&G 78.44 +0.11 +13.7 66.32 82.54
Pepsico 82.35 +0.08 +17.1 68.02 86.80
Pfizer 29.92 +0.12 +16.0 23.66 31.08
Philip Morris 86.92 +0.83 6.1 82.39 96.44
Qualcomm 68.39 0.48 +13.3 57.43 70.09
Schlumberger 91.06 1.12 +23.9 67.77 91.17
United Technol. 107.5 +1.0 +38.5 74.7 112.0
UPS 91.61 +0.28 +25.3 70.02 91.80
Verizon 48.87 +1.62 +10.9 41.40 53.91
Visa 197.8 +2.1 +40.1 136.5 198.8
Wal-Mart 75.75 +0.14 1.5 67.61 79.86
Walt Disney 66.30 0.05 +29.4 47.06 67.67
Wells Fargo 42.40 +0.19 +25.7 31.43 44.63
The Americas
AmBev (BR) 85.13 +0.43 +1.5 76.38 93.80
Ame`r. Mo`vil (MX) 13.83 0.19 18.0 11.62 17.01
Bradesco (BR) 32.82 +0.22 +2.3 26.00 38.40
Ecopetrol (BR) 4,510 5 19.8 3,850 5,790
Itau Unibanco (BR) 33.09 +0.27 +10.6 26.80 36.90
Petrobras (BR) 17.08 +0.10 27.9 13.55 23.68
R. Bk of Can. (CA) 68.28 0.12 +18.0 55.08 66.71
Toronto Dom. (CA) 92.39 0.16 +12.3 78.83 92.74
Vale (BR) 32.53 +0.22 12.0 26.00 42.60
Middle East and Africa
Saudi Basic In. (SA)98.00 closed +10.4 87.00 99.25
Europe
A-B InBev (BE) 73.75 +0.66 +8.8 63.90 78.66
BASF (DE) 72.95 0.16 +11.2 62.50 75.85
BG Group (GB) 1,220 6 8.0 1,000 1,350
BP (GB) 442.8 2.9 +2.2 416.6 484.5
Brit. Am. Tob. (GB) 3,265 +15 +1.0 3,070 3,784
ENI (IT) 17.68 0.17 1.2 15.29 19.48
Gazprom (RU) 155.0 3.0 +0.7 107.2 158.9
GDF Suez (FR) 18.81 0.52 +5.9 14.12 19.48
Glaxo (GB) 1,574 1 +9.6 1,322 1,791
HSBC (GB) 676.9 8.9 +11.4 592.8 770.7
LOre`al (FR) 123.1 +1.0 +22.4 95.0 136.7
LVMH (FR) 138.1 0.7 +7.6 118.4 149.3
Nestle` (CH) 63.90 +1.90 +3.1 58.40 69.50
Novartis (CH) 67.60 +0.10 +15.4 55.45 73.65
Novo Nordisk (DK) 948.5 +12.5 0.2 853.5 1,070.0
R. Dutch Shell (GB)2,036 24 5.6 1,987 2,310
Roche (CH) 244.3 1.3 +32.3 174.2 258.5
Rosneft (RU) 256.9 4.4 +22.3 208.2 275.4
Sanofi (FR) 72.70 0.30 +4.8 66.07 86.67
Santander (ES) 6.72 +0.02 +10.9 4.84 6.71
SAP (DE) 53.31 0.51 3.9 52.20 64.80
Sberbank (RU) 103.3 0.7 +12.1 84.3 110.7
Siemens (DE) 89.16 1.01 +15.1 76.00 91.90
Statoil (NO) 136.5 unch. 7.5 123.0 147.5
Telefo`nica (ES) 12.88 +0.07 +22.4 9.49 12.04
Total (FR) 44.42 +0.04 +12.3 35.25 43.68
Unilever (GB) 2,439 +40 +4.7 2,266 2,900
Vodafone (GB) 227.1 +2.1 +30.6 154.8 222.3
Volkswagen (DE) 177.1 +0.2 +20.6 138.5 186.7
Asia
Agric. Bank (CN) 2.49 unch. 0.4 2.44 3.23
Bank of China (CN) 2.81 +0.01 +2.6 2.54 3.22
BHP Billiton (AU) 35.80 +0.02 +8.3 30.65 39.00
CBA (AU) 73.43 +0.67 +28.6 56.59 74.55
CCB (HK) 6.00 0.06 +5.4 5.07 6.71
China Life (CN) 13.70 0.04 25.6 12.91 21.92
China Mobile (HK) 83.85 0.40 +0.2 75.10 91.50
Chi. Shenhua (HK) 24.40 +1.10 22.5 18.20 35.25
CNOOC (HK) 15.98 0.02 +0.3 12.26 17.36
Honda Motor (JP) 3,950 +45 +61.4 2,319 4,275
ICBC (CN) 3.86 unch. +1.0 3.74 4.47
Mitsubishi UFJ (JP) 637.0 +7.0 +76.5 345.0 732.0
NTT (JP) 5,250 20 +36.7 3,575 5,550
NTT DoCoMo (JP) 1,537 1 98.8 1,518 165,800
PetroChina (HK) 8.98 0.10 16.2 7.87 11.28
Rio Tinto (AU) 63.71 0.40 +15.6 50.24 72.07
Samsung El. (KR)1,463,000+13000 +10.01,217,000 1,576,000
Sinopec (HK) 6.16 0.04 21.2 5.08 9.44
Toyota Motor (JP) 6,340 20 +109.2 2,903 6,640
TSMC (TW) 107.0 +1.0 +22.3 84.8 115.5
Westpac Ban. (AU) 33.62 +0.41 +30.7 24.40 34.06
Data are at 1600 U.T.C. Prices are in local currencies.
Source: Reuters Infographics by: CUSTOM FLOW SOLUTIONS
Company 52-wk price range
U.S. Last Chg 12 mo.% Low Last () High
Company (Country) 52-wk price range
U.S. (cont.) Last Chg 12 mo.% Low Last () High
Company (Country) 52-wk price range
Europe (cont.) Last Chg 12 mo.% Low Last () High
For online listings and past performance visit
www.morningstar.com/Cover/Funds.aspx October 17, 2013
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5 GUTZWLLER FOND5 NANAGENENT AG
www.gulzwII0r-fun0s.c0m
T0I.:+41 61 205 70 00
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141 FRENER NVE5TNENT FUND5 LTD
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International Funds
For information please contact Clare Chambers
Fax +44 (0)20 7061 3529 | e-mail cchambers@nytimes.com
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The Independent Mark of Quality
Morningstar Analyst Research and Ratings for Funds
www.morningstar.co.uk
INTERNATIONAL NEW YORK TIMES 20 | FRIDAY, OCTOBER 18, 2013
. . . .
Floyd
Norris
HI GH & LOW FI NANCE
NEW YORK It looks as if patent
trolls are going to lose a big one.
The Supreme Court announced this
month that it would hear two appeals
of decisions by the federal appeals
court that oversees all patent cases. In
each case, the company that had been
sued for patent infringement prevailed
on the merits but did not win an argu-
ment about whether its legal fees
should be paid by the losing party.
The court will decide whether to
make it much easier for victors in pat-
ent suits to force their opponents to pay
their legal fees. If it does so and pat-
ent watchers generally assume that the
court would not have agreed to hear
the appeals if at least some justices
were not sympathetic to the companies
being sued that could make it much
more expensive to file a frivolous suit,
and perhaps scare patent holders away
fromfiling meritorious suits. Losing
such a suit conceivably could bankrupt
a small company if it were forced to
pay the other sides legal bills, which
can run into the millions of dollars.
There are two ways to look at many
types of civil litigation. Is the plaintiffs
lawyer seeking to defend the rights of
his client, and perhaps those in similar
situations? Or is the lawyer abusing
the process in hopes of forcing a settle-
ment out of a company that will settle
to avoid the costs of litigation?
In recent years, it is the latter view
that has tended to prevail, in the Su-
preme Court and, to some extent, in
Congress. In the 1990s, it became
harder to bring a class-action suit al-
leging securities fraud. Court decisions
and a law made it much easier for de-
fendants to get cases dismissed before
ring to a company that is not actually in
business using patents, but merely owns
themto collect royalties and damages.
One of the cases the Supreme Court
will hear was decided by the Federal
Circuit sitting en banc, on a 6-5 vote,
with Judge Rader in the minority. It did
not involve a troll, but rather was a suit
in which Icon Health, a maker of fitness
equipment, sued a smaller competitor,
Octane Fitness, for violating a patent.
Octane Fitness prevailed, after spend-
ing $1.3 million on the case, and argued
that the case was obviously baseless. It
asked for its legal fees to be paid. The
district court judge refused, and the
majority of appellate judges sustained
that ruling.
Because the Federal Circuit has
made it virtually impossible for suc-
cessful defendants to recover attor-
neys fees, both N.P.E.s and others can
assert weak patent claims to extract
royalties and/or harm smaller compet-
itors, without fear of having to pay fees
to compensate the defendant in any
way, wrote Octane Fitnesss lawyer,
Rudolph A. Telscher Jr. of Harness,
Dickey and Pierce, in a brief asking the
Supreme Court to hear the case.
He wants the court to rule that rather
than requiring fees only in a case that
is objectively baseless, it should al-
low them in cases where there is an
objectively low likelihood that the
plaintiff will win the case. In an inter-
view, Mr. Telscher said that he thought
such a standard would deter litigation.
The other case the court will hear in-
volves Highmark, a health insurer that
denied it was violating a patent on soft-
ware. It prevailed, and persuaded the
district court judge to order the patent
owner to pay legal fees.
The judge said the complaint was
baseless and was the kind of case that
gives the term patent troll its negat-
ive connotation.
The Federal Circuit overturned that
decision, saying it had reviewed the
facts on its own and decided the judge
was wrong. That appeal asks the high
court to order that district court opin-
ions on the issue be granted more de-
ference by appellate judges.
The high court could rule for High-
mark without doing much to change
the law, since the district court said it
had applied the Federal Circuit stan-
dard. But overturning the Octane Fit-
ness ruling could be a fundamental
change in the law, making it far more
risky to file a patent infringement suit.
the plaintiff can gather any evidence
from the defendant. And the court
ruled that only the government not a
fraud victim could file suit for aiding
and abetting a fraud.
Under the patent law, the two sides
pay their own legal fees when a patent
holder claims a company is infringing on
its patent unless the case is deemed
exceptional. Then the loser can be
forced to pay the winners legal fees.
And what is exceptional? That ques-
tion is at the heart of the cases the Su-
preme Court will hear.
At the moment, the United States
Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal
Circuit, which hears all patent appeals
from district courts, has established a
standard that companies are asking
the Supreme Court to overrule. That
standard says that for a company ac-
cused of patent infringement to get its
legal fees paid it must show that the al-
legations in the suit were objectively
baseless and that there is clear and
convincing evidence of bad faith on the
part of the plaintiff.
It is not as difficult for a patent owner
to get lawyers fees paid by the other
side after it prevails in a patent case.
Then a case is
deemed exceptional if
the company that in-
fringed on the patent
acted despite an ob-
jectively high likeli-
hood that it was in
the wrong.
All of this makes
sense if you think of
the patent holder as a
noble inventor, possibly deprived of just
rewards by a big company that has
stolen the work without compensation.
Clearly, it should be hard to make such
an inventor, who may have little money,
pay the opponents legal fees, even if
the inventor does lose the suit. That
would discourage inventors fromstand-
ing up for their rights.
And that is where patent trolls
come in. They are widely disparaged.
The onslaught of litigation brought
by patent trolls who typically buy
up a slewof patents, then sue anyone
and everyone who might be using or
selling the claimed inventions has
slowed the development of new
products, increased costs for businesses
and consumers, and clogged our judicial
system, said a NewYork Times op-ed
piece published in June while the Su-
preme Court was weighing whether to
take the cases. It was written by Ran-
dall R. Rader, chief judge on the Federal
Circuit, and two lawprofessors.
The polite termfor patent trolls is
non-practicing entity, or N.P.E., refer-
REUTERS BREAKINGVIEWS
Nestl may be looking to fatten up
Basel rules complicate life for Spanish bank
It may seemodd that Nestl would
even consider buying a company in its
most challenging region. But a sizable
European acquisition could yield sav-
ings and synergies in, say, innovation.
And while Nestl sometimes appears to
be involved in too many businesses,
Ferrero is in Nestls traditional,
chocolaty sweet spot.
Nestl has a strong balance sheet.
Net debt, which is about equivalent to
annual earnings before interest, taxes,
depreciation and amortization, is mod-
est. If it sold down its chunky stake in
LOral, the cosmetics company, its
budget for mergers and acquisitions
could quickly swell to double-digit euro
billions. Abbott Nutrition has been sug-
gested as a suitable target by analysts
at Socit Gnrale.
So Nestls growth is mixed as things
stand, but the company is in a strong
position as an acquirer. Ferrero may be
off limits for now, but Nestls advant-
ages as a buyer will not count for much
unless it puts themto use. ROBERT COLE
It is easy to see why Nestl might want
to do deals. The Swiss food giant is find-
ing it hard to deliver on sales growth
targets. And it can afford to buy itself
out of trouble.
True, the picture is far fromuni-
formly bad. In the Americas, Asia and
Africa, Nestls organic sales grewat
more than 5 percent in the first nine
months of this year. The challenging
market is Europe, which dragged down
overall organic growth to just 4.4 per-
cent at the nine-month mark. That fell
short of Nestls long-held target of
achieving growth of at least 5 percent
to 6 percent.
Asensible deal could pep things up
either through Nestl buying faster-
growing sales, or by providing an op-
portunity for cost cuts. Ferrero, the
family-owned maker of Nutella spread,
swiftly denied a report on Thursday
that Nestl had made an approach
which could have valued the Italian
company at 10 billion, or $13.7 billion,
or more.
it invested is smaller. BBVAwill now
only be able to book dividends fromCit-
ic Bank, not its share of the lenders
earnings, which will dilute the Spanish
banks own earnings per share by 14
percent next year, according to esti-
mates by N+1, an investment advisory
firm. That could put pressure on
BBVAs dividend.
Being less exposed to Citic Bank is no
loss. The Chinese bank trades at 0.6
times next years book value, according
to Eikon estimates, the lowest of its
peers. It will also need to raise capital,
according to Bernstein Research. With
luck, BBVAmight be able to play the
Basel card again to avoid putting in
more money.
BBVAsays it has revised its strategic
agreement with Citic Bank on a
nonexclusive basis, which could al-
lowthe Spanish bank to open a branch
of its own in China. So it hasnt given up
on China. But its hard to avoid the con-
clusion that the Citic Bank foray has
been nothing short of a very expensive
way to plant a Spanish flag in the
Middle Kingdom. FIONAMAHARG-BRAVO
BBVAis learning the Chinese art of sav-
ing face. The Spanish lender has attrib-
uted its sale of a 5 percent stake in China
Citic Bank to newBasel capital rules.
Yet while the deal will add 2.4 billion,
or $3.3 billion, to BBVAs capital, it
hardly sugarcoats a 2.3 billion write-
down on the value of its stake in the
Chinese bank. Basel may have
provided a graceful way to reduce an
underwhelming investment.
Investors had long expected BBVAto
sell down its stake in Citic Bank. Forth-
coming bank capital rules known as
Basel III heavily penalize lenders that
hold stakes in other financial institu-
tions. The increase to BBVAs core Tier 1
capital, a key measure of financial
strength, is equivalent to 72 basis points.
(Abasis point is a hundredth of a per-
centage point.) That will come in useful
at a time when Spanish banks face a
European asset quality reviewand
ever-mounting nonperforming loans at
home. BBVAsays it will be comfort-
ably above 9 percent core capital on a
Basel III basis by the end of 2013.
The snag is that by taking its share-
holding in Citic Bank below10 percent,
BBVAmust start marking the stake to
market. It has written down its stake by
about half, though the cash loss on what
RENO, NEVADA
BY FREDA MOON
Reno was once a boomtown of
gambling, vice and quickie divorces.
The city struggled as tribal casinos pro-
liferated in neighboring California in the
last decade, sapping the demand for
just-across-state-lines slot machines
and blackjack tables. Never as cosmo-
politanas its Biggest Little City motto
suggests, Reno has long had a night life
dominated by second-rate casinos, strip
clubs and the diviest of dive bars. Those
days, however, are disappearing.
Nowhere is that change more appar-
ent than in the Midtown District, a mod-
est neighborhood south of downtown
where a half-dozen new lounges, gastro
pubs, craft breweries and cocktail bars
have recently opened. In a city notori-
ous for wicked night life, this generation
of businesses represents a continuation
of a boozy after-dark tradition and a
break from Renos seedy past. This
Midtown, as such, has existed for only a
handful of years. Previously, it was
known as the Bungalow District. But
the area, like Reno itself, battled a
sleazy reputation.
The making of this new Midtown was
the work of the small-business owners
behind Midtown District Reno
(midtowndistrictreno.com) vintage
boutique, hardware store andtattoopar-
lor owners. Another group, the Creative
Coalition of Midtown (creativecoalition
reno.com), was started this year to host
events and bolster the areas creative
community. It has taken off, said Am-
ber Solorzano, a 31-year-old artist and
coalition co-founder. We saw a hole,
with the Midtown growing so fast and it
becoming a place where people want to
be, where people want to live, where
people want to come to hang out.
At the top of Midtown and one block
east of the areas mainartery, SouthVir-
ginia Street, three-year-old Old Granite
Street Eatery (oldgranitestreeteatery
.com) is an advantageous starting point
for an evening out. The weekday happy
hour includes the restaurants entire list
of craft beers, a well-considered selec-
tion of wines by the glass and a menu of
satisfying three-for-$10 small plates.
Brasserie Saint James (brasserie
saintjames.com) opened in a nearby his-
toric building in 2012. Its massive, high-
ceilinged interior has been converted in-
toamicrobrewerywitharoof deckthats
hard to resist on a clear desert night. At
first glance, Craft Wine and Beer
(craftreno.net) is, in essence, a glorified
liquor store. With a 9 p.m. closing time, a
bedroom-size walk-in beer refrigerator
and wooden bins of wine from around
the world, Craft is more bottle shop than
bar. But this being Nevada, the usual
rules dont apply, and this shop is actu-
ally both. It has a small selection of wine
andbeer that is servedat abar alongside
the checkout counter, but the staff will
also pop whatever you buy.
For somethingstronger, walksouthto
Chapel Tavern (chapeltavern.com).
Theres a lively pool table and a D.J. sta-
tion for late nights, but more than any-
thing, Chapel is an enthusiasts cocktail
bar. Ask the bartender to make you a
drink, and hell probably pull out a lad-
der to hit shelves stocked floor to ceiling
with obscure bottles.
A bit more affected, Death and Taxes
is the newest project by the owner of the
popular Midtown Eats restaurant. In
the speakeasy model, the bar is dark,
with elaborate chandeliers and superb
drinks. Reno Public House (renopublic
house.com), by contrast, is what a
neighborhood pub should be: it wel-
comes young and old, hip and pass
alike, and the bartender will offer tast-
ings of anything on the tap list.
After a long night out, go for the large
platters of huevos rancheros or chiles
rellenos at Pegs Glorified Ham n Eggs
(eatatpegs.com) or the potent house-
roasted coffee at Hub Coffee Roasters
(hubcoffeeroasters.com). Reno is now a
city of sustenance as well as indulgence.
business
WITH
Threshold
could rise for
patent suits
ONLINE: HIGH &LOWFINANCE
Join the conversation with Floyd Norris,
the chief financial correspondent of The
NewYork Times. norris.blogs.nytimes.com
SILVER LINING FOR U.S.
IN REPUBLICAN RETREAT
PAGE 16 | BUSINESS FRONT
For more independent commentary and
analysis, visit www.breakingviews.com
U.S. justices
will hear
cases that
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for trolls.
I NTERNATI ONAL TRAVELER
Comeback for a former boomtown
>35
>35
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NORWAY
SWEDEN
GERMANY
AUSTRIA
ROMANIA
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TUNISIA
LIBYA
EGYPT
SAUDI
ARABIA
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LEBANON
MOROCCO
SPAIN
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ITALY
SWITZ.
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NETH.
DENMARK
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MOSTLY
CLOUDY
STATIONARY
COMPLEX
WARM
COLD
SHOWERS
FLURRIES
SNOW
RAIN
ICE
T-STORMS
HIGH
LOW
Travelers forecast
High/low temperatures, in degrees Celsius and
degrees Fahrenheit, and expected conditions.
C..................... Clouds
F .......................... Fog
H........................ Haze
I.............................. Ice
PC.......... Partly cloudy
R......................... Rain
Sh................. Showers
S.......................... Sun
Sn...................... Snow
SS....... Snow showers
T ........ Thunderstorms
W...................... Windy
Abu Dhabi 35/23 95/73 S 37/23 99/73 S
Almaty 20/5 68/41 S 20/4 68/39 PC
Athens 24/13 75/55 S 24/13 75/55 S
Bangkok 33/26 91/79 T 31/25 88/77 T
Barcelona 23/18 73/64 C 24/18 75/64 C
Beijing 19/7 66/45 S 18/5 64/41 S
Belgrade 17/7 63/45 S 17/10 63/50 H
Berlin 12/2 54/36 PC 12/9 54/48 C
Boston 20/12 68/54 PC 18/11 64/52 PC
Brussels 16/10 61/50 C 19/12 66/54 PC
Buenos Aires 26/13 79/55 S 29/20 84/68 PC
Cairo 29/17 84/63 S 27/15 81/59 S
Chicago 14/5 57/41 PC 12/2 54/36 C
Frankfurt 12/7 54/45 PC 17/13 63/55 PC
Geneva 17/8 63/46 C 21/9 70/48 PC
Hong Kong 26/22 79/72 H 28/23 82/73 S
Istanbul 17/11 63/52 R 17/10 63/50 S
Jakarta 34/25 93/77 T 33/24 91/75 R
Johannesburg 26/13 79/55 S 24/13 75/55 T
Karachi 35/24 95/75 S 37/24 99/75 S
Kiev 12/5 54/41 C 8/0 46/32 PC
Lagos 30/24 86/75 T 29/23 84/73 T
Lisbon 23/17 73/63 R 21/16 70/61 PC
London 16/10 61/50 Sh 18/12 64/54 R
Los Angeles 28/16 82/61 S 30/14 86/57 S
Madrid 24/14 75/57 PC 22/12 72/54 PC
Manila 31/24 88/75 S 31/24 88/75 PC
Mexico City 24/12 75/54 T 22/13 72/55 T
Miami 31/24 88/75 PC 31/24 88/75 PC
Moscow 8/5 46/41 PC 6/0 43/32 R
Mumbai 33/26 91/79 H 33/26 91/79 H
Nairobi 29/15 84/59 PC 30/13 86/55 PC
New Delhi 35/20 95/68 H 34/20 93/68 H
New York 20/11 68/52 PC 20/10 68/50 PC
Nice 21/15 70/59 C 22/17 72/63 PC
Osaka 19/13 66/55 C 17/14 63/57 C
Paris 17/11 63/52 C 18/12 64/54 C
Riyadh 35/18 95/64 S 35/16 95/61 S
Rome 23/14 73/57 PC 23/15 73/59 C
San Francisco 22/9 72/48 S 22/10 72/50 S
Sao Paulo 21/14 70/57 T 23/14 73/57 R
Seoul 21/11 70/52 PC 21/13 70/55 PC
Shanghai 22/17 72/63 PC 23/16 73/61 PC
Singapore 30/24 86/75 R 31/24 88/75 R
Stockholm 6/-1 43/30 PC 5/-2 41/28 PC
Sydney 23/9 73/48 S 26/10 79/50 S
Taipei 26/20 79/68 Sh 27/20 81/68 Sh
Tel Aviv 27/18 81/64 PC 26/17 79/63 PC
Tokyo 18/14 64/57 C 18/16 64/61 Sh
Toronto 16/7 61/45 PC 12/4 54/39 Sh
Tunis 27/19 81/66 PC 29/20 84/68 C
Vienna 14/5 57/41 PC 14/8 57/46 PC
Warsaw 11/1 52/34 Sh 8/3 46/37 S
Washington 20/11 68/52 PC 21/9 70/48 PC
Friday Saturday
C F C F
Meteorology by
AccuWeather.
Weather shown
as expected
at noon on
Friday.
STOCK INDEXES
CURRENCIES
COMMODITIES
2012 2013
+60%
+40
+20
0
2012 2013
0%
10
20
2012 2013
0%
20
40
UNITED STATES S&P 500 52-week
1,726.38 +4.84 +18.7%
OIL Nymex light sw. crude 52-week
$100.41 a barrel 1.88 +9.2%
EUROPE DJ Stoxx 50
3,010.39 5.01 +18.2
GOLD New York
$1,320.90 a tr. oz.+48.00 24.6
JAPAN Nikkei 225
14,586.51 +119.37 +67.6
CORN Chicago
$4.43 a bushel +0.03 40.4
EURO 52-week
1= $1.37 +0.013 +4.1%
YEN
100= $1.02 +0.009 19.3
POUND
1= $1.62 +0.021 +0.1
Data as of 1600 U.T.C.
Source: Reuters
Graphs: Custom Flow Solutions
Conquest Classic
Elegance is an attitude
Simon Baker
OFFICIAL TI MEKEEPER
Helsinki, Finland
17-20 October 2013