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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING LAB MATERIAL

REPORT
Subject Code Code & Experiment Title Course Code Date Section / Group Name Members of Group BFC 21201 SPAN DEFLECTION (DOUBLE INTERGRATION METHOD) 2 BFF/1 03/10/2011 2 MUHAMAD ASYRAF BIN AB MALIK (DF100108) 1.MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN (DF100018) 2.AHMAD FARHAN BIN RAKAWI (DF100142) 3.IDAMAZLIZA BINTI ISA (DF100128) 4.AINUN NAZHIRIN BINTI ABD JALIL (DF100076) EN MOHAMAD HAIRI BIN OSMAN 10 OCTOBER 2011

Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor Received Date

Comment by examiner

Received

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UTHM

We, hereby confess that we have prepared this report on our effort. We also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.
___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMAD ASYRAF AB MALIK Name ___________________________ Student Signature : IDAMAZLIZA ISA

Matric No. : DF100108 Date : 03/10/2011

Matric No. : DF100128 Date : 03/10/2011

___________________________ Student Signature Name : AHMAD FARHAN BIN RAKAWI Name

___________________________ Student Signature : AINUN NAZHIRIN ABD JALIL

Matric No. : DF100142 Date : 03/10/2011

Matric No. : DF100076 Date : 03/10/2011

_______________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD IKHWAN ZAINUDDIN

Matric No. : DF100018 Date : 03/10/2011

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OBJECTIVE Main propose of our experiment is to determine the relationship between span and deflection.

2.0

INTRODUCTION A beam must possess sufficient stiffness so that excessive deflections do not have an adverse effect on adjacent structural members. In many cases, maximum allowable deflections are specified by Code of Practice in terms of the dimensions of the beam, particularly the span. The actual deflections of a beam must be limited to the elastic range of the beam, otherwise permanent distortion result. Thus in determining the deflections of beam under load, elastic theory is used. In this experiment double integrations method is used to give the complete deflected shape of the beam.

3.0

THEORY

L/2-x A X L/2 L/2 x c B

Beam with point load at mid span

d2y P L M x - x EI 2 dx 2 2 dy PLx Px 2 Vx x EI A dx 4 4 PLx 2 Px 3 y x - x EIy Ax B 8 12 When x o; dy 0 , A 0 PL3 PL3 When x L/2; y 0; B 32 96 PL3 B 48 PL3 When x 0; Ymak (mid sp an; c) 48EI PL2 x L/2; v mak (at sup p ort) 16EI where E can be obtained from the backboard I bd 3 12

b d

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APPARATUS

Figure 1: Apparatus for Span Deflection Experiment ( Double Integration Method )

Figure 2 : Digital Dial Test Indicator

Figure 3 : Hanger And Masses

Figure 2 : Specimen Beam ( Steel )


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5.0

PROSEDURE 1. The moveable knife edge supports had been positioned so that they are 400mm. 2. The chosen beam had placed on the support. 3. The hanger and the digital dial test indicator had placed at mid span. The Digital Reading had been zeroed. 4. Incremental load had been applied and the deflection recorded for each increment in the table below. 5. The above step repeated using span of 300mm and 500mm.

6.0

RESULT Specimen Beam : Steel Youngs Modulus, E Steel = 207 GN/m2 = 207 x 109 Nm-2

Second moment of area, I rectangle b = 18.97 mm d = 3.15 mm = bd3 12 =(18.97 x 10-3)(3.15 x 10-3)3 12 = 4.941 x 10-11 mm4

EI for rectangular Steel

= (207 x 109 )( 4.941 x 10-11 ) = 10.25 Nm2 = 10.25 x 106 Nmm2

Experiment 1 : Span = 500mm : 0.5m No. Mass*(N) Deflection (experimental) (mm) 1. 2. 3. 0.981 1.962 2.943 0.26 0.52 0.81 Theoretical Def. ( YMak) ) - 0.249 - 0.498 0.748 4.417 % 4.417 % 8.289 % % Different

Experiment 2 : Span = 400mm : 0.4m No. Mass*(N) Deflection (experimental) ( Ymax) (mm) 1. 2. 3. 0.981 1.962 2.943 0.17 0.29 0.43 Theoretical Def. (Ymax) (mm) - 0.128 - 0.255 - 0.383 32.813 % 13.37 % 12.272 % % Different

Experiment 3 : Span = 300mm : 0.3m No. Mass*(N) Deflection (experimental) (mm) 1. 2. 3. 0.981 1.962 2.943 0.08 0.14 0.18 Theoretical Def. ( YMak) ) -0.054 -0.108 -0.162 44.82 % 29.62 % 11.11 % % Different

Ymax

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ANALYSIS

Experiment 1 : Span = 500mm : 0.5m MASS (N) DEFLECTION (( YMak) ) DIFFERENT (%)

Ymax

PL3 48EI

Ymax Deflection 100 Ymax


x 100

= - 0.981 (500)3 0.981 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.249 mm 0.249 mm

= 0.249 0.26) 0.249 = 4.417 %

Ymax

PL3 48EI

Ymax Deflection 100 Ymax


x 100

= - 1.962 (500)3 1.962 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.498 mm


-0.498mm

= (0.498 0.52) 0.498 = 4.417 %

Ymax

PL3 48EI

Ymax Deflection 100 Ymax


x 100

= - 2.943 (500)3 2.943 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.748 mm


-0.748mm

= (0.748 0.81) 0.748 = 8.289%

Experiment 2 : Span = 400mm : 0.4m

MASS (N)

DEFLECTION (( YMak) ) = - 0.981 (400)3 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.128 mm

DIFFERENT (%) = ( 0.128 0.17) 0.128 = 32.813 % x 100

0.981
-0.128mm

= - 1.962 (400)3 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.255 mm 1.962


-0.255mm

= ( 0.255 0.29) 0.255 = 13.37 %

x 100

= - 2.943 (400)3 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.383 mm 2.943

= ( 0.383 0.43) 0.383 = 12.272 %

x 100

-0.383mm

Experiment 3 : Span = 300mm : 0.3m MASS (N) DEFLECTION (( YMak) ) = - 0.981 (300)3 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.054 mm 0.981
-0.054mm

DIFFERENT (%) = (0.054 0.08) 0.054 = 44.82 % x 100

= - 1.962 (300)3 48( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.108 mm 1.962


-0.108mm

= (0.108 0.14) 0.108 = 29.62 %

x 100

= - 2.943 (300)3 48( 10.25 x 106) = -0.162 mm

= (0.162 0.18) 0.162 = 11.11 %

x 100

2.943
-0.162mm

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8.0

DISCUSSION Comment on the different between the theatrical and experimental result. From experiment 1 and the span is 500mm we get the different between the theoretical and experiment 1 result for 0.981N=4.417%, 1.962N=4.417% and 2.943N=8.289%. Then, for experiment 2 with the span is 400mm we get for 0.981N=32..813%, 1.962N=13.37% and 2.943N=12.272%.. Finally, for experiment 3 with the span is 300mm we get for 0.981N=44.82%, 1.962N=29.62% and 2.943N=11.11%. Based on this different show that our experiment is accurate and success for experiment 1 because our different value is quite small. It can be because we followed the procedure without any error while doing it. But experiment 2 and 3 not accurate and both has a big different of theory and experimental. This can be some errors due to equipment experiment or environmental interference.

9.0

EXTRA QUESTION 9.1 Calculate the deflection when x = L/3 (experiment 1, no 3). Check the result by placing the digital dial at this position. P L/3-x A X X L/3 MB = 0 = RA (L) P( 2L/3 ) :- RA = P(2L/3) L = 2P/3
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2L/3 MX = 0 = RA (L/3 x ) - Mx-x Mx-x = RA (L/3 RA( x ) = 2P/3(L/3) - 2P/3(x) = 2PL/9 2Px/3

Mx-x = EI d2y = 2PL - 2Px dx2 9 3

Vx-x = EI dy = 2PLx - 2Px2 + A dx 9 6

Mx-x = EI Ymax = 2PLx2 - 2Px3 +Ax + B 18 18

= PLx2 - Px3 +Ax + B 9 9

X=0,

dy = 0 dx

A=0

X=L/3 , Ymax = PL3 - PL3 + B 81 B = -2PL3 243EI = - 2(2.943) (500)3 243( 10.25 x 106) = - 0.295mm 243

Experimental Value = 0.65 mm % diffrent = ( 0.295 0.65) 0.295 = 120.338 % x 100

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9.2

Calculate Vmax. in experiment 2, no. 2.

Experiment 2 : Span = 400mm : 0.4m Specimen Beam : Steel Vmax = EI dy = PL3 + A dx Vmax = PL2 16 EI = 1.962 (400)2 16( 10.25 x 106) = 1.914 x 10-3 mm 16

10.0

CONCLUSION

We can conclude that the experimental value and the theoretical value are not exactly same. We can see that there are small and big different values. It means that, our experiment (span deflection) is not success. From the result, the value for theoretical deflection is negative. This is because our experiment is in tension condition.

Besides that, we are able to know how much the span can support the load and have a maximum deflection level until it reached to failure mood. Although wise, we can design the safety factor from this action.

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11.0

REFERENCES
Mechanics of materials / Ferdinand P. Beer, John T. DeWolf Mechanics of materials / Madhukar Vable Mechanics of materials / James M. Gere, Barry J. Goodno Mechanics of materials / Ansel C. Ugural

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