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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Welcome

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FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts

❍ Welcome
● Contents Welcome to the Drilled Shaft
● Chapter 1 Inspector Tutorial
● Chapter 2
● Chapter 3 To start the course, you can click on the Contents heading to the left or
● Chapter 4 you can click on the Chapter 1 heading to the left.
● Chapter 5
● Chapter 6 Read each chapter carefully so you are prepared for the quiz at the end
● Chapter 7 of the chapter.
● Chapter 8
● Chapter 9 This tutorial was co-funded by the FHWA and Florida Department of
● Chapter 10 Transporation.
● Glossary
● Inspector math This tutorial has been developed as a companion training aid for NHI
tip sheet Course #132070A, Inspection of Drilled Shaft Foundations. It is
recommended that this tutorial be completed prior to attendance at the
NHI Inspector Qualification Course. Difficulties encountered during the
completion of the tutorial and associated quizzes should be discussed
and resolved with the participant's supervisor prior to attending the
course to ensure successful completion of the Qualification course and
associated examination.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Welcome

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Table of Contents

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FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts

● Welcome
❍ Contents Table of Contents
● Chapter 1
● Chapter 2 ● Welcome
● Chapter 3 ● Table of Contents
● Chapter 4 ● Chapter 1. Why a Tutorial
● Chapter 5 ● Chapter 2. What is a Drilled Shaft
● Chapter 6 ● Chapter 3. Drilled Shaft Construction Methods
● Chapter 7 ● Chapter 4. Drilled Shaft Equipment and Tools
● Chapter 8 ● Chapter 5. The Inspector's Role
● Chapter 9 ● Chapter 6. Contractor and Equipment Arrive on Site
● Chapter 10 ● Chapter 7. Shaft Excavation and Cleaning
● Glossary ● Chapter 8. Rebar Cage Fabrication and Positioning
● Inspector math ● Chapter 9. Concrete Operations
tip sheet ● Chapter 10. Post Installation Testing
● Appendix A. Glossary
● Appendix B. Inspector Math Tips Sheet

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 1

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FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts

● Welcome
● Contents Chapter 1
Chapter 1

Why a Tutorial?
● Chapter 2
● Chapter 3 Contents
● Chapter 4
Why a tutorial was developed.
Chapter 5


the Inspector means to the process.
Chapter 6

● Chapter 7
The tutorial is based upon the FHWA Publication IF-99-025, Drilled Shaft
● Chapter 8
Construction Procedures and Design Methods, including Chapter 15,
● Chapter 9
Guide Specifications
● Chapter 10
● Glossary
● Inspector math
tip sheet DRILLED SHAFT
FOUNDATION
INSPECTOR'S
QUALIFICATION
COURSE

Federal Highway
Administration

NHI Course 132070

Over the past decade, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), in

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 1

association with State Transportation Departments (DOTs), has increased


the focus on "Quality" in construction and design of transportation related
projects.

As part of this program, they have developed and instruct more than 100
courses dealing with the full range of transportation issues, from planning
to construction.

Recently enacted Federal regulations (23CFR 637B) requires that all


testing and inspection during construction be performed by qualified
personnel. In response to this legislation, the FHWA and DOTs established
training programs, with courses specifically designed and focused to the
Inspector's needs.

One of the qualification courses developed is the FHWA/NHI Course No.


132070, Drilled Shaft Inspector's Qualification Course. This three-day
course focuses on the Inspector's duties and responsibilities during the
drilled shaft construction process. Beginning with background information
related to construction methods, equipment and tools, the course then
takes the Inspector through each step of the process, pointing out specific
related responsibilities and methods to assist the Inspector in achieving
their goal- a quality constructed drilled shaft foundation in accordance with
the Plans and Specifications. The course concludes with a written
examination on the material covered.

This tutorial was developed to prepare potential and experienced


inspectors for attendance at the course. The goal being to provide basic
drilled shaft construction and inspection information of such value that
course attendees have an increased potential for successfully completing
and passing the course.

The Inspector serves as the link between the Engineer and Contractor.
The Engineer desires that the Contractor construct the project in
accordance with the Plans and Specifications and the Contractor desires
to build the the project in accordance with the plans and specifications. So
both the Engineer and Contractor have the same goal, getting a quality
project constructed, and someone needs to be the link that ensures this is
accomplished.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 1

Engineer

Inspector

Contractor

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 2

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FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts
● Welcome
● Contents
● Chapter 1
Chapter 2
❍ Chapter 2 What is a Drilled Shaft?
● Chapter 3
● Chapter 4 Contents:
Chapter 5
What is a drilled shaft.


Chapter 6
Drilled shaft uses.


Chapter 7
Advantages & Disadvantages of Drilled Shafts.


● Chapter 8
● Chapter 9
● Chapter 10
A Drilled Shaft is a deep foundation that is constructed by placing fluid
● Glossary
concrete in a drilled hole.
● Inspector math
tip sheet
Structures can be supported by a variety of foundations. The selection of the
foundation system is generally based upon several factors, such as:

● Loads to be imposed
● Site subsurface materials
● Special needs (high lateral capacity, etc.
● Cost

Drilled shafts (also called caissons, drilled piers or bored piles) have proven to be a cost effective, excellent
performing, deep foundation system, that is utilized world-wide. Typically they are used for bridges and
large structures, where large loads and lateral resistance are major factors.

Advantages

● Economics
● Minimizes pile cap needs
● Slightly less noise and reduced vibrations
● Easily adaptable to varying site conditions

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● High axial and lateral loading capacity

Disadvantages

● Extremely sensitive to construction procedures


● Not good for contaminated sites
● Lack of construction expertise
● Lack of Qualified Inspectors

End Bearing

Drilled shafts can be


designed as "End
Bearing" meaning
the load is carried by
the base or "end" of
the shaft.

Friction

Shafts design for


having their load
dissipated
throughout the
materials they are
formed into are
called "Friction"
shafts. The site
subsurface soils the
shaft are installed
into "grab" the sides
of the shaft, much
like when you step in
mud and try to pull
your foot out.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 2

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 3

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Transportation Curriculum Coordination Go!
Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts
● Welcome
● Contents
● Chapter 1
Chapter 3
● Chapter 2 Drilled Shaft Construction Methods
❍ Chapter 3
● Chapter 4 Contents
● Chapter 5
This Chapter contains information on the three methods of drilled shaft construction.
● Chapter 6
● Chapter 7
● Chapter 8 ● Dry Shaft
● Chapter 9 ● Wet Shaft Construction
● Chapter 10 ● Cased Shaft Construction
● Glossary ● A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.
● Inspector math
tip sheet
Each of these methods is different and has their own potential problem areas and applicability. It is
important for the Inspector to have an understanding of each of these processes to facilitate inspection of
the shafts during construction.

What is a Dry Shaft

A shaft excavation that can be excavated to its designed depth without the need for slurry or casing.

he dry construction method is used at sites where the ground water level and soil and rock conditions are suitable to permit construction of
the shaft in a relatively dry excavation. and where the sides and bottom of the shaft may be visually inspected by the Engineer prior to
placing the concrete.

The dry method is by far the least expensive method for drilled shaft construction. Given the choice of drilling methods, Contractors will try
the dry method even in soil or rock of dubious quality.

Dry construction is generally defined by an amount of water accumulation permitted over a


specified time period.

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Photograph of a dry shaft.

Note that the Inspector can visually inspect the bottom of the shaft.

● In place Soil/rock will keep the hole walls from collapsing.


● Construction of the shaft can be in relatively dry conditions.

Dry Shaft Construction Process

The dry method consists of drilling the shaft excavation, removing accumulated water and loose material from the excavation, placing the
reinforcement cage, and concreting the shaft in a relatively dry excavation.

What is a Wet Shaft

Often called the "slurry-method", wet shaft construction is when a slurry or water is used to keep the hole stable for the entire depth of the
shaft.

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Photograph of an Inspector sounding a wet shaft with a weighted tape.

Note the slurry in the hole. The Inspector's unable to visually inspect the bottom of the shaft,
as with the dry shaft seen earlier

When Used

● When a "dry" excavation cannot be maintained


● When In-place soil/rock is unstable and deforms or collapses
● When loose material and accumulated water cannot be removed

Wet -vs- Dry

● Wet is more expensive


● Wet requires more Contractor expertise
● Wet requires more equipment Wet is when there is more than 12" of accumulated water in the bottom of the shaft (typically)
● Wet precludes visual inspection of the bottom of the shaft by the Inspector

Wet Shaft Construction Process

Unlike the dry construction method, in this situation the water table may be above the shaft tip elevation or the geology consists of
unstable or "caving" soils. Think of trying to dig a hole at the beach or lake near the water's edge. The hole stays open until you reach or
get just below the water table or waterline. Then what happens? It collapses.

Well the same goes for drilled shafts excavated below the water table or in unstable soils. During the drilling of the hole, a slurry is
introduced that "stabilizes" the sides of the hole or casing is installed and prevents the soils from collapsing into the hole.

Upon reaching the designed shaft tip elevation, the hole is cleaned, then the rebar cage placed.

Unlike the dry shaft method, the concrete is being placed "under the water" and therefore a tremie is lowered into the hole and the
concrete placed through the tremie, which is carefully removed a little at a time to avoid "breaching" the concrete.

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Types of Wet Shaft construction

There are two types of "wet" shaft construction:

The Static Process The Circulation Process


● Drilled down to the piezometric level ● Hole is drilled
● Slurry introduced ● Slurry level maintained at the ground surface
● Cuttings are lifted from the hole ● Cuttings and sand, is circulated to the surface, where it is cleaned and
reintroduced down the hole.

What is Slurry
What Does the Slurry Do?

● Maintains a Stable Borehole Prior to Concreting


● Maintains High Effective Stresses in the Soil while the Hole is Open (Retard Softening or Loosening)
● Facilitates Removal of Cuttings in "Circulation Drilling"

Slurry is the fluid introduced into the excavation to assist in maintaining hole stability. Generally, three basic types of "slurries", Mineral,
Polymer and Water, are employed in drilled shaft construction.

In some instances, though not recommended, a blended slurry, consisting of mineral and polymer slurries is employed.

● Mineral Slurry

Mineral Slurry is made from naturally occurring clay minerals.

Natural mineral clays: Bentonite, attapulgite and sepiolite

Bentonite slurries have been used commonly in drilled shaft construction in the United States since the 1960's. Other processed,
powdered clay minerals, notably attapulgite and sepiolite, have been used on occasion in place of bentonite, usually in saline
ground water conditions. However, Bentonite is the most common Bentonite and other clay minerals, when mixed with water in a

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proper manner, form suspensions of microscopic, plate-like solids within the water. This suspension, in essence, is the drilling
slurry. If the fluid pressures within the slurry column in the borehole exceed the fluid ground water pressures in a permeable
formation (e.g., a sand stratum), the slurry penetrates the formation and deposits the suspended clay plates on the surface of the
borehole, in effect forming a membrane, or "mudcake" that assists in keeping the borehole stable.

This photograph shows bentonite slurry (in the


bags) being added to the mixing tub on a
small project

● Polymer Slurry

Polymers are semi-synthetic or totally synthetic chemical slurries.

Drilling slurries can also be made of mixtures of chemicals called polymers and potable water. Polymers have been used in
preference to bentonite in well drilling for some time in soil profiles that contain considerable clay or argillaceous (clay-based)
rock, because bentonite slurries have a tendency to erode clayey rocks and to produce enlargements and subsequent instabilities
in the boreholes. Polymer slurries require less conditioning before reuse than bentonite slurries and can be disposed of more
inexpensively than bentonite slurries.

It is also important that polymers be kept out of contact with cement as much as possible during the construction process, since
cement will cause the polymer to agglomerate.

Pictured here is one of the popular brands of Polymer slurry.

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● Water

Water is used in some areas as the drilling fluid, in lieu of mineral or polymer slurry.

In certain geologic conditions, water when combined with the naturally occurring subsurface materials creates it own "slurry".

Generally, the use of water must be approved by the Engineer.

A misconception by many is that because water is being used, slurry testing is not necessary. However, many local specifications
mandate that if water is used, it must still meet certain slurry properties and the only way to determine the specific properties
values is to test.

In some instances, though not recommended, a blended slurry, consisting of mineral and polymer slurries is employed.

What is a Cased Shaft

The casing method is often used either when shown on the plans or at sites when construction methods are inadequate to prevent hole
caving or excessive deformation. In this method the casing may be either placed in a predrilled hole or advanced through the ground by
twisting, driving or vibration before being cleaned out. Casings and liners play an important role in the construction of drilled shafts, and
special attention must be given to their selection and use.

Casings are tubes that are relatively strong, usually made of steel, and joined, if necessary, by welding. Liners, on the other hand, are light
in weight and become a permanent part of the foundation. Liners may be made of sheet metal, plastic, or pressed fibers. While their use is
much less frequent than that of casings, liners can become important in some situations.

Common situations where casing is used are:

● In generally dry soils or rocks that are stable when they are cut but which will slough soon afterwards. In such a case the borehole

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is drilled, and casing (a simple steel pipe) is quickly set to prevent sloughing.
● When there is a clean sand below the water table underlain by a layer of impermeable limestone or low permeability clay into
which the drilled shaft will penetrate. In this case, since the overlying sand is water bearing, it is necessary to seal the bottom of
the casing into the underlying rock/soil to prevent flow of water and caving of soils into the borehole.

This picture shows temporary casing being inserted in a pre-drilled hole.

Types of Casing

Temporary Casing Permanent Casing

Temporary casing is used to retain the sides of the The use of permanent casing is implied by its name; the
borehole only long enough for the fluid concrete to be casing remains and becomes a permanent part of the
placed. The temporary casing remains in place until the foundation. An example of the use of permanent casing is
concrete has been poured to a level sufficient to withstand when a drilled shaft is to be installed through water and the
ground and groundwater pressures. The casing is removed protruding portion of the casing is used as a form. A
after the concrete is placed. Additional concrete is placed possible technique that has been used successfully is to
as the casing is being pulled to maintain the pressure set a template for positioning the drilled shaft, to set a
balance. Thereafter, the fluid pressure of the concrete is permanent casing through the template with its top above
assumed to provide borehole stability. the water and with its base set an appropriate distance
below the mudline, to make the excavation with the use of
drilling slurry, and to place the concrete through a tremie to
the top of the casing.

This photograph shows a vibratory hammer being lowered to attached to a


piece of casing for installation in the hole.

Note the casing is marked in 5 foot intervals. At the top, 1foot increments
are marked to facilitate more accurate measurement as the casing nears
the bottom.

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Cased Shaft Construction Process

Drill- hole is advanced using slurry through the caving soils

Case- casing is then installed through the caving soils and drilling continues to desired depth

Clean- slurry and cuttings removed from the hole

Position- rebar cage is positioned in the hole

Place- concrete is placed. If temporary casing, casing slowly withdrawn as concrete level in hole rises

I have completed Chapter 3 and am ready to take the Quiz

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 3

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 4

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Coordination Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts
● Welcome
● Contents
● Chapter 1
Chapter 4
● Chapter 2 Drilled Shaft Equipment and Tools
● Chapter 3
❍ Chapter 4 Contents
Chapter 5
This Chapter contains information on the various types of rigs and tools used in the


Chapter 6
construction of drilled shafts.

Chapter 7
A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.


● Chapter 8
● Chapter 9
● Chapter 10
It is extremely important for the Drilled Shaft Inspector to be knowledgeable of the various types of
● Glossary
rigs and tools used in drilled shaft construction. Though not responsible for accepting or rejecting
● Inspector math
equipment and tools, the Inspector must be able to identify these items for documenting on the daily
tip sheet
report.

Drilled shaft construction equipment is typically divided into two categories Drilled Shaft Rigs and
Drilled Shaft Tools. Following are some examples of each.

Drilled Shaft Rigs

Drilled shaft rig components, for the most part, are all essentially the same, regardless of the rig size as shown and described
below.

1 - Power Unit- provides the


power to turn the table & kelly

2 - Kelly- the rod running through


the table that tools are attached to

3 - Table- connected to power unit,


turns kelly

4 - Tool- bits, buckets, etc. that go


down the hole

5 - Carrier (Crane)- carrier or


main component

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The rigs are typically classified by the carrier type and fall into these broad categories:

● Truck-mounted Drill Rig

Truck-mounted rigs are typically


used for smaller sized holes,
generally for mast arms and sign
posts.

Typically these rigs excavate


holes up to 5 ft. (1500 mm) in
diameter to depths on the order
of 30 to 35 ft. (9 to 10 m).

● Carrier-mounted Drill Rig

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Carrier-mounted rigs have larger


hole capabilities than the truck-
mounted rigs. These generally
have 2 front axles and telescoping
kellys, enabling greater hole
depths. Typically these rigs have
the capability of drilling holes of
120 inch diameter (3000 mm) to
depths ranging from 85 to 200
feet (27 to 62 m).

● Crane-mounted Drill Rig

For the largest and deepest holes,


crane attachments are used. The
attachments come as a unit which
includes the diesel engine,
transmission and torque converter.
The unit is attached to the crane by
using a "bridge", which provides for
increased working and tool room
under the table.

The hole diameter and depth


capability is generally dependent
upon the crane but holes 140 inches
(3500 mm) in diameter to depths of
near 300 feet (90-91 m) are common.
● Crawler-mounted Drill Rig

Crawler-mounted rigs offer more


maneuverability and require less overhead
clearance than the other rigs, making them
the rig of choice for restrictive work areas.

Typically these rigs have capabilities of


holes 250 feet (78 m) with diameters of
100 inches (2500 mm).

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Drilled Shaft Tools

There are a variety of tools utilized by the Drilled Shaft Contractor when constructing drilled shafts. From a wide assortment of
drilling bits, for rock and soil, to casing and cleanout tools, the Drilled Shaft Contractor is equipped for whatever conditions they
anticipate on the project. Regardless of how powerful the rig is, if the wrong tool or poor quality tool is used, the results are not as
expected. The Inspector must be able to identify these tools for documenting on the daily report.

Drilled shaft construction tools are typically divided into the following categories:

Bits

Bits are used for drilling (excavating) the shaft (hole) and can be either Auger or Barrel. Typically the Auger bits are used for soil
and rock and the Barrel types used predominately for rock.Typically, the augers are turned into the material by the rig, and upon
achieving penetration equal to the bit length, the auger retracted from the hole, the material removed from the flights, and the
process started again

Auger Bits

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Earth Auger Rock Auger

Earth augers, like the one shown below, are typically Rock augers, like the one shown below, are typically
used in sands and cohesive materials. Earth augers used in soft to hard rock formations. Rock augers are
are typically constructed of lighter weight material and typically constructed of heavier material than the earth
flat augers and typically have replaceable conical or bullet
teeth for cutting, rather than the flat blades associated
with the earth augers. In addition, they are generally
constructed with a tapered geometry.

Single flight, single cut earth auger.

Single flight, single cut rock auger.

Single Flight/Single Cut or double Flight/double Cut Augers

Single Flight/Single Cut Earth Auger Double Flight/Double Cut Earth Auger

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Rock Bits

Quite often, when hard rock is encountered, auger bits cannot advance the hole and the Contractor must employ Rock Bits to drill
the harder rock.

Cluster Rock Bit Step-face Roller Rock Bit

This bit pulverizes the rock with many rolling bits and the
cuttings are carried away through reverse circulation of the
drilling slurry.

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This bit grinds the rock up, first with the lead bit
(makes small hole, but weakens outer rock). The
other bits follow, gradually making the hole larger.
Compressed air is used to remove the cutting with
this type of bit.

Core Barrels

Core Barrels are different than Rock bits, in that the rock bits grind away the entire mass of rock in the hole, while barrels cut along
the perimeter of the barrel, hence less rock cutting. When a joint or discontinuities are encountered, the core breaks off and be be
removed. These are generally used where real hard rock is encountered and are often custom made for the project.

This is a double-wall rock core barrel. The outer barrel does the cutting while the
This is a single-wall rock core inner barrel remains stationary, holding the rock core in place.
barrel. Note that it is equipped
with replaceable bullet teeth.

Buckets

Buckets typically come in two types, Digging and Cleanout.

As the names imply, each has a designed use, one for advancing the hole, the other for cleaning the bottom of the hole. Typically,
the buckets are turned by the rig, and the bottom configuration either digs up material or collects material.

Generally, the digging buckets are equipped with flat cutting teeth while the cleanout bucket has a single flat blade.

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Digging Bucket Cleanout Bucket

This is the type of digging bucket


used in cobbles, gravel and clays.
When using this type of cleanout bucket, the rig is
rotated in the normal drilling direction, picking up
bottom sediments. Then while still on the bottom,
rotated in the opposite direction, which closes the
bucket, and removed from the hole.

Casing

Casing is used to maintain the stability of the hole and can be Temporary or Permanent, as discussed earlier in Chapter 3. In many
instances, a short piece of casing is used at the surface (called surface casing) to prevent the surface material from collapsing into
the hole and degradation of the top of the hole due to the in and out process of drilling.

Casing is typically made of strong steel and pieced together by welding to achieve the depths needed. It comes in a variety of
diameters, such as 30, 36, 42, 48 inches , etc.

Temporary Casing- Temporary casing is just that, temporary. The casing is used to maintain an open hole for the
construction process and is removed as the concrete is placed. This is the most common of the two casing types.

Permanent Casing- Permanent casing is just that, permanent. It is left in-place and becomes part of the drilled shaft. It is
generally used when conditions, such as voids, preclude the construction without casing, as concrete placement could not be
properly performed or maintained.

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This picture shows a piece of casing being placed. In this picture, you can see the casing extending above
existing ground and the bit being lower.

Specialty Tools

The Contractors use a number of "specialty" tools during drilled shaft construction Some of these are "homemade" and some are
manufactured and used widely, such as Desanders.

Desanders, such as the one pictured above are used to remove


sand from drilling slurries and maintain sand content within
specified limits.

Vibratory hammers, such as the one pictured


above are used in some instances to vibrate
casing into the ground.

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A "Belling tool" (above) is used to bell out the bottom of a


hole, when specified. Lowered into the hole with the
cutting blades retracted, the tool is rotated and as the
One of the most positive methods for cleaning the hole is
cutting blades cut, the blades extend outward, excavating
a down-hole pump, such as the one pictured above.
a "bell" shape bottom.
These pump the bottom of the hole sediments up and out.

I have completed Chapter 4 and am ready to take the Quiz

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 5

Search FHWA:
Transportation Curriculum Keyword(s) Go!
Coordination Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts

● Welcome
● Contents Chapter 5
Chapter 1

The Inspector's Role
● Chapter 2
● Chapter 3 Contents
● Chapter 4
This Chapter contains an overview of the Inspector's main role
Chapter 5


and responsibilities during the drilled shaft construction
● Chapter 6
process.
● Chapter 7
A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.
Chapter 8

● Chapter 9
The Inspector is involved in all three
● Chapter 10 phases of the project:
● Glossary
● Inspector math Pre-construction
tip sheet
This would involve the review of the project plans, attending pre-
construction meetings and discussing, resolving, and clarifying any
questions you may have. These meeting provide the opportunity for all
parties to obtain a thorough understanding of the project details and
goals.

The Inspector must review, know and


understand the project plans.

Construction

The Inspector has numerous responsibilities during the construction


phase ranging from verifying the approved equipment is on-site to
determining hole cleanliness requirements have been met, just to name
a few. Extremely important during this phase is the communication and
coordination by the Inspector with the responsible Engineer, who must
be kept informed and up to date.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 5

The Inspector must have a thorough


understanding of the specifications, special
provisions, etc., the project is governed by.

Post Construction

During the post installation phase, the Inspector may be involved in


documenting completed drilled shaft construction details, integrity
testing and any required reports.

It is extremely
important for
the Drilled
Shaft Inspector
understand
their role in the
drilled shaft
construction
process. From
participating in
pre-
construction
meetings to
documenting
post
installation
testing, the
Drilled Shaft
Inspector is
intimately
involved and a
valuable team
player in
achieving the
results all
parties goal- a
quality drilled

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 5

shaft installed
in accordance
with the plans
and
specifications.

In accomplishing their duties, the Inspector's main functions are


covered below:

● Serve as the Department's


Representative

Each drilled shaft project is constructed based upon the


approved plans and applicable specifications. The Inspector is
to serve as the State's representative and ensure that this
occurs.

The Contractor is entitled to be paid for their work, providing it


meets the plans and specification requirements, and the
Inspector, by documenting the construction, assures all parties
get what is expected- The Contractor paid and the State, a
quality properly installed drilled shaft.

The Inspector, serving as the "eyes and ears" of the Engineer,


generally does not have, nor do they want, the authority to
direct the Contractor's work.

Important keys to remember are:

Who you represent

Not to unnecessarily delay or interrupt the


Contractor

Remember your common goal

● Be a "Recorder" and a "Reporter"

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The Inspector must make accurate, unbiased observations of


all important drilled shaft construction events. These events
must be documented on the appropriate forms or reports for
reporting.

Being a "Recorder" means:

Make accurate, unbiased observations-


Don't record "around 2 ½ feet". Measure and record
accurately- Don't record "in the PM". Put the correct time, say
2:05 PM.

Regardless of what you have heard or been told about a


Contractor or who you represent, you observations are to be
unbiased, based upon facts or actual observations. The
Inspector inspects based upon a set of plans and
specifications- it is either in accordance with or not in
accordance with those documents.

Document events completely and


consistently- Document events completely; this is part of
your obligation to whom you represent. A half report on the
volume of concrete placed or just documentation of the rig only
and not the tools is unacceptable. Remember, that possibly
sometime in the future, when you are on another project,
someone may have questions about what occurred on your
project and the only real source of information is your
documentation.

Be consistent in your documentation and observations. If you


start the project by recording the time it takes to drill a shaft,
you need to do that on every shaft. Inconsistency draws
attention and may bring your documentation into question.

Perform Your Duties Promptly- Prompt


performance of your duties is imperative. You should not delay
the Contractor. If the bottom of the shaft is ready for inspection,
and the Inspector is not there, the Contractor is on standby.

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May cost the Department money.

More importantly, if you perform your duties promptly, and an


out of compliance or questionable event occurs, you can
probably notify the Engineer soon enough to make a difference.

Being a "Reporter" means:

Complete Forms and Reports Accurately-


Typically standard reports or forms are used, based on local
practice, for the recording of drilled shaft construction activities.
The Inspector should never go to the jobsite without the current
forms or reports. Make sure to provide all the information
requested on a form or report, accurately and completely.
Incomplete or improperly completed forms or reports can call to
question your documentation. As discussed earlier, also be
consistent in completing of paperwork. In many locals, there
are specifications regarding erasers or changes (i.e., Erasers
are not permitted- make corrections by striking through the
wrong entry with a single line, initial it, and write the correct
entry close by). Know these, if they exist, and follow them.

Keep Forms & Reports Up-to-Date- Do not fall


behind on the paperwork. Recalling from memory and deciding
to scribble something down on a piece of paper for transfer
later is a No, No. What is the absolute best that can happen?
You get it right- everything else is a negative. Keep your
paperwork current. There may arise a question on something
performed the day before and if your paperwork isn't current,
how can the situation be resolved.

● Keep the Engineer Informed

The Inspector serves as the eyes and ears of the Engineer.


You must keep the Engineer informed so that in the event a
situation arises, the Engineer is not blindsided. They are
counting on you.

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Therefore, it is important that the Inspector develop a rapport


with the Engineer and this usually occurs during the pre-
construction phase, where the Inspector and Engineer discuss
specific project issuers.

Communicate- The Inspector should communicate as


often as needed to keep the Engineer informed. In most
instances, this is daily. The Engineer will want to know what
progress was made that day, were any problems encountered,
etc. Remember, they answer to someone too, who might ask
them questions.

Coordinate- The Inspector should coordinate any


meetings, site visit, etc., with the Engineer.

Notify the Engineer soon enough to make


a Difference- As the old saying goes, "it's to late to close
the gate after the horses are out". The same holds true in
drilled shaft construction, only it's to late after the concrete is
placed.

For example, should you observe that the cage is being


constructed outside the specifications, don't wait until it is
placed in the shaft, or worse yet, the concrete poured.
Document, notify the Engineer right away and inform the
Contractor. This will allow for the issue to be resolved before
the cage is in the ground.

This type of communication can reduce the impact to the


project schedule, quality and cost.

I have completed Chapter 5 and am ready to take the Quiz

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 5

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 6

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Transportation Curriculum Coordination Go!
Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts

● Welcome
● Contents Chapter 6
Chapter 1

Contractor and Equipment Arrive on Site
● Chapter 2
● Chapter 3 Contents
● Chapter 4
This Chapter contains an overview of the drilled shaft construction from the Inspector's
Chapter 5


viewpoint and an overview of the Inspector's responsibilities during this phase of drilled
❍ Chapter 6
shaft construction.
● Chapter 7
A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.
Chapter 8

● Chapter 9
Just as the Contractor has their tools, the Inspector needs to have their tools also. Without the
● Chapter 10
proper tools, the Inspector cannot perform their duties properly.
● Glossary
● Inspector math
The Inspector should not go to the site without the "tools" discussed below.
tip sheet

Documents Tools

● Approved Drilled Shaft Installation ● Hard hat, boots


Plan ● Eye & ear protection
● Project Plans & Specifications ● Measuring tapes
● Any Special or Technical Provisions ● Scale, level, sampler
● Required Forms/Reports ● Weighted tape (100')
● Calculator, pen, pencil
● Builders Square
● Life or reflective jacket
● Slurry testing equipment
● Concrete testing equipment

This photo shows


some of the
Inspector's tools, such
as hard hat, field
book, measuring
tapes, flashlights,
safety glasses,

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The Drilled Shaft Construction Process

Illustrated below is the drilled shaft construction process from the Inspector's viewpoint. During each
of these phases, the Inspector has specific responsibilities relating to verifying, measuring,
checking, and documenting.

Because the Inspector has no specific responsibilities during the development of the Drilled Shaft
Installation plan, other than to become familiar with it, and attend pre-construction meetings, as
discussed earlier, we will start with "Contractor Arrives On-site".

The Contractor mobilizes to the site.


They must bring the equipment
specified in the accepted Drilled Shaft
Installation Plan.

Excavation of the shaft begins. Typically


at this stage a "Trial or Technique" shaft
is constructed to determine if the
methods and techniques will work.

The specified reinforcing cage is


constructed and positioned in the
excavation.

The specified concrete is placed into the


excavation.

The specified load or integrity testing is


performed to document shaft
construction.

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The Contractor has arrived on-


site and the Inspector has
some basic responsibilities to
perform at this time.

These include:

● Check the Equipment


● Check for Protection
of Existing Structures

Check the Equipment

When the equipment arrives on site, it is the Inspector's responsibility to verify that the equipment
brought on-site matches the equipment listed in the approved Drilled Shaft Installation Plan.

The Inspector does not have the authority to reject equipment, but must accurately document the
Contractor's equipment. The equipment would have been detailed in the Contractor's Drilled Shaft
Installation Plan. In some instances the Contractor may not bring the equipment or tools or brings
different tools other than proposed. By documenting what equipment is on-site, should equipment
related questions arise later, the Inspector's documentation serves as a record.

Some of the things to check are shown and discussed below.

Are the bits the right type? Soil or rock; the


correct diameters; single flight or double flight;
Is the drill rig the specified one?
single cut or double cut?

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Are the buckets, barrels and


other tools as listed in the
approved Drilled shaft
Installation Plan?

Pictured above is the Inspector checking the


Pictured above is an Inspector checking the
dimensions of a belling tool. It needs to be in
tremie. Tremies are to be clean and smooth on
the extended position for the maximum
the inside.
diameter to be measured. The height needs to
be measured also, to add to the kelly bar
length for total depth to bottom of hole.

In this photograph the Inspector is verifying the


In this photograph the Inspector is verifying the
diameter of the casing to be used. He is
length the casing to be used. The overall
measuring the ID and the OD, which also
length is measured and documented.
provides the wall thickness of the casing.

Check for Protection of Existing Structures

Some projects will be near existing structures that could possibly be damaged by the construction.
Typically in these cases, the Contractor was required to submit a Protection of Existing Structures

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Plan. In some instances, the construction, such as vibrating of casing in or actual drilling, can create
vibrations that can impact structures in the vicinity, such as cracking of walls, etc.

Generally, the specifications will outline the requirements of the Plan and it is the Contractor's
responsibility to execute that plan once approved.

It may call for surveying of potentially effected structures, within a specified distance, to document
their condition prior to construction. In addition, monitoring, for vibration and/or noise may be
specified, also for a specified distance, during construction.

If the project requires Protection of Existing Structures, the Inspector needs to review the approved
plan and document that the Contractor is executing it.

I have completed Chapter 6 and am ready to take the Quiz

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 7

Search FHWA: Keyword(s)


Transportation Curriculum Go!
Coordination Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts
● Welcome
● Contents
● Chapter 1
Chapter 7
● Chapter 2 Shaft Excavation and Cleaning
● Chapter 3
● Chapter 4 Contents
Chapter 5
This Chapter contains an overview of the drilled shaft construction from the Inspector's


Chapter 6
viewpoint and an overview of the Inspector's responsibilities during this phase of drilled

Chapter 7
shaft construction.

Chapter 8
A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.


● Chapter 9
● Chapter 10
Learning Objectives
● Glossary
● Inspector math When you have completed this Chapter, you will be able to:
tip sheet

● Describe, in general, the Inspector's role during the shaft excavation process
● Describe, in general, the Inspector's role during the shaft cleaning process
● Determine shaft tip elevations

Trial Shaft

On most projects, the Contractor will be required to install a "Trial" shaft. In some parts of the country these are also referred to as
Technique or test shafts. Regardless of the name, the purpose is the same; to determine if the method and equipment the
Contractor proposed in the Drilled Shaft Plan will work. This Trial shaft will help determine critical items such as:

● Can the dry shaft construction method be used


● Can the hole be stabilized with casing
● Can the hole be stabilized with the proposed slurry
● These are just a few of the reasons for performing the trial shaft.

The Inspector's role during shaft excavation is essentially the same as for production shafts, except that typically the trial shaft will
be located on the project plans a certain distance from the production shafts and the Inspector needs to verify that the shaft is
performed at the specified location. Upon successful completion of the shaft, the Inspector must verify it is "finished" per the plans.

In the event, the Contractor fails to install a successful trial shaft, they must revise the Drilled Shaft Plan and attempt another trial
shaft until successfully installing one that the Engineer accepts.

Shaft Excavation

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The Inspector has a variety


of functions to perform
during the shaft excavation
process. From verifying the
shaft is located in the
proper place to verifying the
shaft meets the cleanliness
requirements upon
completion of excavation,
the Inspector needs to
document construction
events.

Shaft Location This photograph shows the Inspector checking and verifying that the shaft is in the
and Alignment correct plan location.

● Is the shaft being


located at the
correct plan
location indicated
on the plans?
Typically there will
be a plan tolerance
which the
Contractor must
achieve.
● Is the kelly bar
plumb? This is
critical as there are
tolerances for axial
alignment that the
Contractor must
achieve.

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This photograph shows the Inspector and Contractor checking This photograph shows the Inspector checking the vertical
and verifying, on the project plans, the shaft location(s). alignment of the kelly.

Excavation

If the Drilled Shaft Plan specified the use of casing and or slurry, the Inspector must verify and document its use.

On many projects, a "surface casing" will be temporarily installed to stabilize the surface soils during the construction process.
The constant in and out of the hole with drilling tools can quickly degrade the surface soils conditions if not protected.

The Inspector needs to be concerned with, in general, the following.

● Documenting the type of drilling tool and its diameter, and condition. Also remember to record its length, as the Inspector
needs this to add to the kelly bar to determine depths.
● Documenting the length, diameter and type of any casing used.
● If slurry is used, verifying and documenting that the required sampling and testing is performed.
● Maintaining, in the required format, a log of the material excavated. Typically, there will be forms for Rock Coring, Soil/
Rock Excavation and possibly others.

Document, Document, Document.

Job site photographs are a very valuable form of documentation.

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Pictured here is the Inspector examining


Pictured here is the Inspector checking his
the material on the auger that is coming
documentation of the shaft excavation. Notice
out of the hole. It is important to
the right-hand page is a sketch of the material
accurately identify and document the
identified, versus depth.
material being excavated.
Photograph of a section of steel
casing being prepared for
installation by vibratory hammer.
Notice the casing is "marked" in feet.

Slurry Testing

Slurry needs to be maintained properly, as discussed earlier in, if it is to be effective.

Typically, the specifications for a project will specify the type and number of tests to be performed on the slurry.

The most common tests are:

● Viscosity- also know as Marsh Funnel Test, is the test used to measure the flow rate or consistency of slurry.
● Mud Balance Test- also known as the Mud Density Test, is used to measure the density of the slurry.
● pH Test- used to determine the alkalinity and acidity of the slurry.
● Sand Content Test- used to determine the sand content of the slurry. Generally the specifications have a
maximum allowable percentage of sand permitted.

Pictured here is the Inspector pouring slurry mud into the Pictured here is a typical "slurry sampler".
cup of the Mud Balance Test apparatus. When filled and

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sealed, the knife (graduated bar) is placed on the fulcrum The lower cap is lower to the desired depth and the tube
and the sliding weight moved until the cup and arm are then lower on the cable to that depth. The top cap is allowed
balanced. The density of the mud is then read from the bar. to slide down thereby trapping slurry at the sample depth.

Shown here is the sand washed and collected from slurry at


the final step of the Sand Content Test. The percentage of
sand is read from the graduated glass vial.

Shaft Cleaning
Depth Verification and Cleaning

During shaft excavation, the Inspector estimates the bottom of shaft depth by noting the depth marks on the kelly and adding the
length of the particular tool to it, the sum of which provides the total depth. Upon achieving the desired shaft tip elevation and
following cleaning of the shaft bottom, the Inspector needs to verify the depth and cleanliness.

Generally, cleanliness requirements will be specified and are typically based upon the amount, or thickness, of sediment
permitted on the bottom of the shaft.

In making this determination, the Inspector uses a weight tape and takes "soundings" at numerous locations (normally 5) around
and in the center of the shaft. These are recorded on the specified form. This should be done as soon as possible, as the longer
the hole is open, the greater the potential for problems.

Pictured here is the Inspector "sounding" the shaft for depth

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and cleanliness.

Pictured here is a typical "weighted" tape used to measure


shaft depth.

Illustrated below is a typical 5 location sounding pattern


to check for depth and cleanliness.

Determining Tip Elevation

The Designer has designed the drilled shaft foundations based upon a variety of factors and their design is based upon a certain
shaft diameter and depth of penetration below existing ground surface. Where the bottom of the shaft is to be located is referred
to as the "shaft tip elevation".

This elevation is determined from a fixed point elevation provided by the Contractor. Typically, this is the top of casing or some
other fixed reference. Using this elevation and the depth measured on the kelly or weighted tape, the Inspector calculates the

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shaft tip elevation, to verify the Contractor is at the specified elevation.

To determine the shaft tip elevation merely


subtract the depth (in feet or meters) of the shaft
below the reference elevation from the reference
elevation.

Remember to watch for + and - elevations.

EXAMPLE:

1. Reference Elevation = + 135.75 feet

Depth to bottom of
Shaft = 55.0 feet

+135.75' - 55.0' = Shaft Tip Elev. of +


80.75 feet

2. Reference Elevation = + 25.75 feet

Depth to bottom of
Shaft = 55.0 feet

+25.75' - 55.0' = Shaft Tip Elev. of -


29.25 feet

I have completed Chapter 7 and am ready to take the Quiz

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 8

Search FHWA: Keyword(s)


Transportation Curriculum Coordination Go!
Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts

● Welcome
● Contents Chapter 8
Chapter 1

Rebar Cage Fabrication and Positioning
● Chapter 2
● Chapter 3 Contents
● Chapter 4
This Chapter contains an overview of the fabrication and positioning, in the hole, of the rebar cage
Chapter 5


and an overview of the Inspector's responsibilities during this phase of drilled shaft construction.
● Chapter 6
A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.
Chapter 7

❍ Chapter 8
Learning Objectives
● Chapter 9
● Chapter 10
When you have completed this Chapter, you will be able to:
● Glossary
● Inspector math
● Describe, in general, the Inspector's role during the rebar fabrication and positioning process
tip sheet
● Determine the circumference of the shaft and cage

Rebar Cage

Drilled shaft foundations are constructed with a rebar cage inside to provide for strength and stability. The
rebar cages are constructed to meet the needs of the design, both in rebar size and number required.

The Inspector must verify that the cages are fabricated, lifted and positioned properly and are within the
allowable tolerances for "top of cage elevation" after positioning.

Quite often, post installation integrity testing will be specified and the access tubes for performing these
test are part of the cage assembly.

Remember, it is imperative that the hole be clean and this should have been verified by the Inspector
before the rebar cage is installed.

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Cage Fabrication

The Inspector must verify that the cages are constructed in accordance with the plans and specifications,
which includes verification of:

● Bar size
● Number of bars and condition
● Type and percentage of ties
● Diameter and length
● Couplers/splices
● Spacers and Standoff

Shown here is the cage under construction. The


workers are tying the cage together. The angled piece The Inspector verifying the cage diameter by
of bar is a stiffener, to help maintain the cage shape. measuring with a tape.

Here the Inspector is checking the ties for compliance to the plans. Typically, the plans will specify a
certain percentage of the intersections be tied.

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Cage Lifting and Positioning

Following fabrication of the cage, the Contractor will then lift the cage and lower it into the shaft.

Remember that prior to cage placement the Inspector verified the shaft depth and cleanliness.

It is important that the Contractor properly support the cage during lifting to avoid bending the cage so
much that it is permanently distorted. If distorted to much, it won't fit down the shaft without damaging the
shaft walls.

Typically the cage will have standoffs on the bottom to maintain a certain clearance from the bottom of the
hole and spacers on the outer edges to maintain a specified distance from the shaft walls.

This space between the shaft walls and the cage is to provide for the specified "concrete coverage".

Once positioned in the shaft, the top of the cage is to be within a specified tolerance of the elevations
shown in the plans.

In summary, the Inspector needs to verify and document:

● Lifting of the cage


● Positioning of the cage
● Top of cage elevation
● Couplers/splices

The photograph above shows the Inspector


observing the lifting of the cage and the photo to
the right, a cage lifted and ready to be placed in
the hole.

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This photograph shows the cage being lowered Here is a photograph of the cage after being
into the hole. Notice that the standoffs and the positioned in the hole. The Inspector needs to
side spacers are used to maintain the proper verify and document the "top of cage" elevation
"coverage". and if it is within the specified allowable
construction tolerance.

Access Tubes

Post installation integrity testing of drilled shafts has become very popular throughout the country. More
economical than conventional load tests, some of the methods used provide a "picture" so to speak of the
shaft in the ground.

To perform these types of test, access tubes, which permit lowering of instrumentation down into the shaft,
must be installed on the cage prior to placing the cage in the hole.

The Inspector must verify and document that the tubes are of the length, diameter, and material specified,
together with verifying they are secured to the cage and straight in accordance with the the project plans.

Shown here is an access tube inside the cage. Normally, they are installed
on the inside of the cage, which helps protect them from damage.

Note the cap on the tube- this prevents debris or concrete from getting into
the tube, which can prevent the instrumentation from going down the tubes.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 8

This photograph shows the access tubes installed on the outside of the
cage. Care must be taken by the Contractor when placing the cage to avoid
damage to the tubes.

Determining Circumferences

Determining circumferences is one of the math computations the Inspector must be proficient in
performing.

Typically the number of side spacers that help maintain the proper coverage distance, as discussed earlier
in this Chapter, are generally determined by the cage circumference. The plans or specifications will
typically indicate a certain number of spacers, based upon inches of circumference of the cage, be placed
per level.

Circumference is the length of the outer boundary (perimeter) of a circular object.

To determine the circumference of a circular area, such as a drilled shaft or rebar cage;

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 8

I have completed Chapter 8 and am ready to take the Quiz

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 9

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Transportation Curriculum Coordination Go!
Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts
● Welcome
● Contents
● Chapter 1
Chapter 9
● Chapter 2 Concrete Operations
● Chapter 3
● Chapter 4 Contents
Chapter 5
This Chapter contains an overview of the concreting of the shaft following rebar cage installation and an


Chapter 6
overview of the Inspector's responsibilities during this phase of drilled shaft construction

Chapter 7
A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.


● Chapter 8
❍ Chapter 9
● Chapter 10 Learning Objectives
● Glossary
● Inspector math When you have completed this Chapter, you will be able to:
tip sheet
● Describe, in general, the Inspector's role during the placement of concrete
● Describe, in general, the concrete placement methods and process
● Determine theoretical shaft concrete volumes and develop placed concrete volume curves

Concreting Operations

Concreting of the shaft is the final step in the construction process itself. Up until this time, the Contractor has been willing to spend time with the
Inspector but often this changes once the concrete is on the way. There are generally time limits, slump requirements, etc., a whole host of issues or
potential problems that can occur during this phase. Remember, if concreting goes bad, the shaft is lost and everything the Contractor has done up
until this point is essentially lost.

The Inspector needs to perform their duties promptly and efficiently. Speed is of the essence, but do not sacrifice quality and thoroughness.These
duties may, depending upon the specifications, include performing standard field concrete tests, monitoring concrete placement and development of
the placement curves.

Pictured here is the arrival of the concrete truck. Depending upon


the specifications, the Inspector may have concrete sampling and
testing to do in addition to placement monitoring.

Concrete Type and Slump

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When the concrete arrives on-site, the Inspector may be required to verify the proper mix design is being delivered, that it meets the slump
requirements and perform standard field tests. Typically there will be a time limit imposed by the specifications relating to the length of time for
concrete placement.

Remember, it is imperative that the hole be clean and this should have been verified by the Inspector before the rebar cage was installed.

Typical concrete field tests the Inspector may be required to perform include:

● Slump
● Air Content
● Temperature
● Test Specimens

Shown above is the typical slumps specified for drilled shaft concrete.

The slump to the left is OK for drilled shafts. Notice the concrete is plastic, not like the one pictured to the right, where the slump is Ok but the
concrete not plastic as the segregation of the concrete is visible.

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The photo to the left shows a concrete with too low of a slump. Would be difficult to pump or place
through a tremie.

Concrete Placement Methods

A variety of methods or techniques are used by the Contractor to place the concrete. This selection generally depends upon the type of shaft
construction being used and the most common one.

Tremie Placement - Gravity-fed tremie placement is generally used for wet shaft construction. In this method, the concrete is introduced into
the hole, starting at the bottom, using a water tight tremie (tube). The concrete is fed by pump or bucket into the tremie and falls by gravity and
continuously placed until the shaft is full.

Pump-line Placement - This method is similar to the tremie method except that the concrete is "pumped" into the hole, rather than gravity
fed. (A pump-line can be used to feed concrete to a tremie in tremie placement).

Free-Fall - In this method, the concrete is placed by free-falling from the top of the shaft to the bottom and is typically used for dry shaft or dry
cased shaft construction only. Of importance with this method is that the concrete must be directed to free-fall down the center of the cage and not
make contact with the cage or shaft walls. The specifications will often specify the maximum distance concrete may free-fall.

Pictured here is the pump-line method in use.

Pictured here is a tremie, with a hopper on top, placed in the shaft for
concrete placement.

This picture shows concrete being placed by the free-fall method.

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Concrete Placement Process

The goal of concrete placement is to get the shaft filled with the specified concrete and have no voids or sediment/debris inclusions that effect the
structural integrity of the shaft.

During placement by tremie or pump-line, the discharge end is placed near the bottom of the hole and concrete flow started. The concrete, as it rises
and fills the shaft, displaces the sediments.

During the pour, whether by tremie or pump-line, the concrete flow must be continuous and the discharge end of tremie or pump-line must be
immersed in the concrete a specified distance, typically 5 ft. (1.5 m). If not, and the discharge end breaches (raised above the concrete flow level) the
shaft is rejected. The tremie is raised as the concrete level rises, but the required immersion distance maintained.

The placement continues until fresh concrete overflows the top of the shaft.

In this picture, the Inspector is checking the This picture is looking down inside a cased
tremie, for material, leaks, etc. shaft with the concrete being place by the
pump-line method.
This is a picture of concrete overflowing the
shaft.

Concrete Volumes

So, how much concrete should go into this hole and how do we know if sufficient concrete is being placed? The drilled shaft Inspector deals with two
concrete volumes, the theoretical and the actual.

Theoretically, the drilled shaft should take "x" cubic yards or cubic meters of concrete. By calculating the volume of the shaft, we can arrive at "x".

The actual must be determined during the actual placement. By comparing the actual, as it is placed, to the theoretical, the Inspector can get a "feel"
for what is happening below the ground surface. For example, if your gas tank was registering empty and holds 16 gallons, but when you gas up you
can only get 10 gallons in it, something is wrong. Something is taking up space in the tank or it has collapsed some, assuming the gauge works.On
the other hand, you reach 16 gallons, then 18, then 20 gallons, it is probably leaking.

These illustrations show how this relates to a drilled shaft.

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But, what if the shaft looked like this below ground surface?

With this shape, you would expect the


theoretical and actual volumes to be
quite close.

This subject, due to its complexity, is covered in detail in the Drilled Shaft Inspector course.

So, based upon these illustrations, we know that if we compare the actual to the theoretical volumes, during placement, we'll have a feeling for what is
happening below ground. This is done with the Concrete Volume Curves.

This is a large part of the Inspector's duties during concreting. The Inspector prepares the Concrete Volume graph, calculates the theoretical and plots
it. Then, during concrete placement, the Inspector determines the volume of concrete placed after each load, plots these values, which forms a plot
relative to the theoretical.

Theoretical Volume - To calculate the theoretical volume of the shaft:

To obtain the actual volumes, the Inspector needs some basic information such as the volume per truck, the depth in the hole to the top of concrete

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following each load and the elevation of the top of concrete after each load.

This is best collected in a table form, much like illustrated below. The elevation at the top of cumulative concrete amount after each load is plotted at
the corresponding top of concrete elevation.

The plot of the concrete volume curves is typically performed on a provided inspection form. Illustrated below is how the data and curves are
developed based upon the collected data.

First the Elevation and Cumulative Volume axis are labeled. Make sure the graph (see graph below) is labeled to include the bottom of shaft and top
of shaft elevations and the total cumulative cubic yards.

Next plot the theoretical volume. Plot the Bottom of Shaft elevation at 0 yards and the theoretical volume at the the corresponding Top of Shaft
Elevation.

Next plot each cumulative total at the corresponding elevations starting with 0 at the bottom of shaft elevation. Draw in the plot.

Actual plots that:

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Parallel the theoretical generally OK

Move away from theoretical generally OK

Cross over or move back towards theoretical generally indicate a problem.

I you have completed Chapter 9 and am ready to take the Quiz

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This page last modified on November 6, 2008

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Chapter 10

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Transportation Curriculum Coordination Go!
Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts
● Welcome
● Contents
● Chapter 1
Chapter 10
● Chapter 2 Post Installation Integrity Testing
● Chapter 3
● Chapter 4 Contents
Chapter 5
This Chapter contains an overview of the post installation integrity testing methods.


Chapter 6
A short quiz is provided at the end of the Chapter.


● Chapter 7
● Chapter 8
Learning Objectives
● Chapter 9
❍ Chapter 10 When you have completed this Chapter, you will be able to:
● Glossary
● Inspector math
● Identify and describe, in general, the various post installation integrity and load tests
tip sheet

Now the shaft is in, we need to ascertain its structural integrity. Will it carry the load it was designed for? Are
there defects within the shaft caused by errors in construction?

There are two basic methods to test shafts, those being:

● Load Tests - these are test to determine if the shaft, as constructed, will carry the loads designed for.
● Integrity Tests - these are tests to evaluate the soundness or "integrity" of the constructed shaft.

Typically the Inspector is not involved in these post installation


tests, except to document they have been completed. However,
in some instances, the specifications may require some
involvement.

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Load Tests

Load tests come in several different types, which are used to determine different load carrying or resistance capacity. The three typically
methods of load tests are:

Axial load tests - tests to determine if the shaft can carry the load imposed without settling.

Lateral load tests - these are test that test the shafts resistance to lateral forces.

Uplift tests - these tests are the opposite of axial, in that rather than push downward on the shaft, it is pulled upward to determine its
resistance to being "pulled out".

Pictured here is a lateral load test on a shaft to verify ship-impact


capacity.
Pictured above is a Statnamic Load test being performed on a
shaft for a new bridge.

In these tests, reaction loads are jacked against, applying loads incrementally, and the movement measured and documented.

For axial, the load is applied downward.


For lateral tests, the load is applied from the side.
For uplift, the load is applied upward, as in pulled.

Some of the more common tests used are Static Load Test, Statnamic Load test and Osterberg Load test.

Static Load Test

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The photo above is of a typical, simple arrangement for loading a drilled shaft laterally. Two companion shafts are used to support the load
from the reaction beam. The test shaft is pushed away from the reaction shafts, not pulled toward them (which might produce excessive
stress overlaps in the soil). In a conventional test, shown at the right, reaction (anchor) shafts are installed on either side of the test shaft
(two or four can be used). The anchor shafts should normally be constructed first. Hydraulic jacks are placed on top of the test shaft,
usually on a steel plate that is carefully leveled. A reaction frame spans the anchor shafts, as shown. Potential disadvantages of this
method are that it is relatively expensive compared to the other methods and the capacity is limited because of the use of the reaction
frame. The conventional method can also be used to conduct uplift, or "pullout" test.

In a conventional test, shown above, reaction (anchor) shafts are installed on either side of the test shaft (two or four can be used). The
anchor shafts should normally be constructed first. Hydraulic jacks are placed on top of the test shaft, usually on a steel plate that is
carefully leveled. A reaction frame spans the anchor shafts, as shown. Potential disadvantages of this method are that it is relatively
expensive compared to the other methods and the capacity is limited because of the use of the reaction frame. The conventional method
can also be used to conduct uplift, or "pullout" test.

Statnamic Load Test

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An alternate way of testing drilled shafts is the


Statnamic® test method. The principle of operation is
shown to the right. Heavy masses on top of the shaft are
accelerated upward by a propellant. This produces a
force against the masses equal to the mass of the
accelerated masses time the magnitude of the
acceleration and an equal and opposite force on the top
of the shaft. On the lower right is a photo of a Statnamic
test being performed.

Pictured above are the reaction weights (rings) and the


propellant (charge) for a Statnamic Test.

Pictured to the right is a Statnamic Test just after the charge was setoff. The
rings, which are now above the casing were originally set even with the top
of the casing

Osterberg Load Cell

In the Osterberg Cell method the cell must be cast into the shaft at the time of construction, which means that the shafts to be tested must
be identified in advance, unlike the Static or Statnamic.

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This photo shows one 3000-ton cell being used to test a socket in soft
rock. The socket diameter is 60 inches, so the 2-inch steel plates on
either side of the Osterberg Cell are 59 inches in diameter. In this case
the objective of the test was to find the ultimate side shearing resistance
in the soft rock.

Shown above is the principle of the operation of the


Osterberg Cell. The Osterberg Cell rests on top of the
reaction socket. Other configurations can be used to test
end bearing only or to test both end bearing and side
resistance.

Integrity Tests

Just as Load tests come in several different types, so do Integrity tests. Most are non-destructive and are used to identify anomalies or
defects in installed shafts.

Performing Sonic Echo test. Larger hammers, such as in this case, are used for
deeper tests

Very large defect in shaft found by Sonic Echo test.

The most commonly used Integrity Tests are:

Sonic Echo / Impulse-response- test is performed on installed shaft- quick, easy and inexpensive.

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Above is a schematic of a pulse-echo (sonic-echo) test. The principle is obvious from the sketch. Advantages of the test are that it can be
done on virtually any shaft without prior planning (no access tubes need be placed in the shaft) and is quick and inexpensive.
Disadvantages are that it is prone to showing false positives and to missing fairly large voids or inclusions in the concrete. It is essentially
100 per cent accurate only if the void or inclusion covers about half of the cross-sectional area of the shaft and is reasonably thick (say 18
inches (0.5 m) or thicker) and the test is performed correctly. This test is not usually effective in locating deep defects (depth > 60 feet (20
m) and cannot detect contact problems between the concrete and the soil or rock. False positives in this method come from changes in
cross-section that are not associated with an anomaly, from changes in concrete modulus (such as at the interface between concrete
placed from two different trucks), from changes in the stiffness of the soil or rock surrounding the shaft, which also dissipate sonic energy,
and from testing technique errors such as setting the sensor on weak or powdery concrete.

Sonic Echo test being performed on a shaft over water. Note the small hammer
being used to strike the shaft.

Cross-hole Acoustic (CSL) - these are test are performed in the access tubes installed on the rebar cage and is much more
accurate than Sonic Echo testing.

A primary use of access tubes is in the performance of cross-hole acoustic tests (usually ultrasonic in air but sonic in concrete), sometimes
called cross-hole sonic log tests or CSL tests. "Shots" are made from a source that generates acoustic energy to an energy receiver in
another tube at the same elevation, as depicted to the right. Both the time of travel from the source tube to the receiver tube and the
amount of energy transferred between tubes are indicators of the presence of either sound concrete or defective concrete. Good coverage
of the interior of the cage can usually be achieved, however, little information on concrete outside the cage can be obtained.

Several variations on this method are practiced by highly skilled specialists, involving placing source and receiver at different elevations to
develop a three-dimensional profile of the interior of the shaft, in a process referred to as tomography.

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This method can be performed fairly quickly and is often more definitive than the pulse-echo method. However, as mentioned above, shafts
to be tested must be identified in advance of construction to permit installation of the access tubes.

Sensors used in performing the CSL test.

Gamma-Gamma - these tests are also performed in access tubes with a nuclear density instrument. This test is also more definitive
than the Sonic Echo test.

Another successful down-tube integrity test is the gamma-gamma, or backscatter gamma test, illustrated to the right. The device is a
nuclear density meter that must be calibrated frequently. It measures density in the concrete to about 100 mm (4 inches) from the edge of
the tube. Newer devices can reportedly measure density to about twelve inches from the tube, but that characteristic is of little use if the
tube is less than twelve inches from the edge of the shaft. A disadvantage of the device is that it does not "shoot" across the shaft as does
a CSL device, so it does not test the entire cross-section, and it is sensitive to being placed too close to a longitudinal rebar. Otherwise, it is
a very definitive test.

This, like the CSL tests, requires advance identified of the shafts to be tested to allow for access tube installation.

Nuclear density source being lowered into access


tube for gamma-gamma testing.

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Coring - this is the most destructive of the common tests as a drill rig cores the shaft and the retrieved concrete cores are examined.
This can be performed on any shaft and does nor require pre-installed instrumentation.

Coring of drilled shafts can be used as an independent integrity test method, or it can be used to attempt to confirm the presence of defects
that appear as anomalies on pulse-echo records.

Coring is performed by setting a drill rig over the finished shaft, and then performing continuous core runs, typically 5 ft. (1.5 m) in length, to
the bottom of the shaft. The individually retrieved cores are then set out, end to end, which gives a picture of the shaft concrete, etc.

The bottom left picture is an unacceptable shaft, based upon coring results and the bottom right picture is an acceptable shaft. Notice how
the cores from the acceptable shaft are more intact and solid.

Coring is not full-proof, however, as cores can bypass serious defects. So, coring is a way of potentially confirming that the shaft is
defective but not that it is not defective.

Very careful coring is sometimes an effective way to investigate whether there is a soft base in the drilled shaft.

Unacceptable Acceptable

I you have completed Chapter 10 and am ready to take the Quiz

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Search FHWA:
Transportation Curriculum Keyword(s) Go!
Coordination Council
FHWA > NHI > TCCC > Tutorials > Drilled Shafts

● Welcome
● Contents Appendix A
Chapter 1

Glossary
● Chapter 2
● Chapter 3 Adhesion The property of a
● Chapter 4 substance (in our
● Chapter 5 case, cohesive soil) to
● Chapter 6 "stick", "cling", or
● Chapter 7 "adhere" to a solid
● Chapter 8 structural element
● Chapter 9 such as a concrete
● Chapter 10 pier or pile, and thus
❍ Glossary establish a resistance
● Inspector math to shearing movement
tip sheet between the soil mass
and the structural
element.

ADSC Association of Drilled


Shaft Contractors
(The International
Association of
Foundation Drilling
Contractors), Address
P. O. Box 75228,
Dallas, TX 75228.

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Aggregate The stone used in


making concrete.
"Fine aggregate" is
sand; "coarse
aggregate", gravel or
gravel-size crushed
stone.

Air Lift A device used to


clean material from
the bottom of a fluid-
filled shaft, usually
constructed using an
open-ended steel pipe
into which
compressed air is
injected near the
bottom in an upward
direction.

Allowable Load The load which


cannot be exceeded
without incurring (in
the opinion of the
designer) risk of
damaging structural
movement.

Anchor Pier A pier designed to


resist uplift or lateral
forces

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Artesian Water Subsurface water


underlying a confining
bed which has
sufficient pressure to
rise above existing
ground (or water
surface) when
encountered in cased
holes during drilling.

Attapulgite A clay mineral


consisting of complex
magnesium aluminum
silicates. It occurs
naturally near
Attapulgus, Georgia
where it is mined as
Fuller's earth. Also
made into commercial
drilling mud useful in
salt or brackish water
environments.

ASTM American Society for


Testing and Materials

Auger A helical rotary tool for


drilling a cylindrical
hole in soil and/or
rock.

Axial Load That portion of the


load on a pier or pile
which is in the
direction of its axis.

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Backfil A bucket-like tool for


removing water from
the hole during drilling
or in preparation for
concrete placement.

Bailing Bucket A bucket-like tool for


removing water from
the hole during drilling
or in preparation for
concrete placement.

Batter Angle with the


vertical, normally
expressed as a ratio
of horizontal to
vertical (i.e., 1:4= 1
horizontal to 4
vertical).

Bearing Stratum A soil or rock stratum


that is expected to
carry the drilled shaft
load (either by end
bearing or by sidewall
friction, or by a
combination of the
two).

Bell Enlargement of the


lower end of a shaft
excavation, to
increase the bearing
area of the drilled
shaft (Also called
"underream").

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Belling Bucket A drilling bucket tool


Underreaming Bucket with expanding cutters
that can enlarge the
bottom of the drilled
hole, to form a bell or
underream. See
Bucket Auger, Drilling
Bucket.

Bentonite The mineral, sodium


montmorillonite, a
highly expansive
colloidal clay; the
basis for a type of
commercial

Boulder A rock, usually


rounded by
weathering and
abrasion, greater than
200 mm in size.

Bucket Auger (or Drilling A cylindrical rotary


Bucket) drilling tool with a
hinged bottom
containing a soil
cutting blade; spoil
enters the "bucket"
and is lifted out of the
hole, swung aside,
and dumped by
releasing the latch on
the hinged bottom.

Cage Reinforcing bars


preassembled for
quick placing in a
drilled shaft.

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Cake (Filter Cake) A layer of clay or


clayey soil, built up on
the wall of a boring
drilled with slurry
(drilling mud,
bentonite, etc.),
having the effect of
forming an
impermeable lining to
prevent (or diminish)
loss of water from the
hole, and maintain
slurry pressure
against the wall of the
hole.

Calcarenite Mechanically
deposited carbonate
rocks consisting of
sand size carbonate
grains (1/16 to 2 mm
diameter)

Calcilutite Refers to a rock


composed of more
than 50% silt and clay
size carbonate
particles.

Calyx (or Shot) Barrel A core barrel without


hard-metal cutting
teeth, with which the
rock is cut (or ground
up) by chilled steel
shot which roll and
are ground up under
the rotating steel edge
of the barrel.

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Capillarity The upward


movement of water,
due to effects of
wetting and surface
tension, that occurs
through the very small
void spaces that exist
in a soil mass.

Carbonate Rocks Rocks composed of


more than 50% by
weight, of carbonate
minerals.

Casing An open-end steel


pipe installed by
drilling, driving or
vibrating; to support
the wall of a hole; to
seal out groundwater;
or to protect the
concrete of the shaft
from contamination by
sloughing of the sides
of the hole.

Caving (or Sloughing) A soil that tends to fall


into an uncased hole,
during or after the
drilling. Usually a
cohesionless soil.

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Changed Conditions Job conditions, which


differ, substantially
from conditions as
represented in the
plans and
specifications, and/or
the contract
documents.

Chert A hard, dense


microcrystaline
sedimentary rock,
consisting chiefly of
interlocking crystals of
quartz. It may contain
amorphous silica
(opal). Chert occurs
principally as nodular
or concretionary
segregations, or
nodules, in limestone
and dolomite, and
less commonly as
layered deposits, or
bedded chert. The
term flint is equally
synonymous.

Clay A mineral particle of


any composition
having a diameter
less than 0.002 mm.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Cleanout Bucket A cylindrical tool used


for removing
"cuttings" from the
shaft bottom. The
bucket typically has a
bottom that opens up
when turned
clockwise and closes
when turned
counterclockwise.

Coarse-Grained Soil The soil types which


have particles large
enough to be seen
without magnification.
The coarse-grained
soils include the sand
and gravel (or larger)
soil particles.

Cohesion The bonding or


attraction between
particles of certain
fine-grained soils that
enhances shear
strength and is
independent of
confining pressure.

Cold Joint Surface where


concrete placement
was interrupted then
later resumed.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Concrete Pump A truck mounted


pump specially
designed to transfer
fluid concrete through
lines (hoses and
pipes) to deliver ready
mix to locations not
readily accessible
otherwise.

Continuous Flight Auger A string of helical


augers and a cutting
head, used to bore a
hole in the earth, into
which a pile section
may be set, concrete
cast in place, or
tieback grouted.

Coquina A soft, porous


limestone made up
largely of shells, coral,
and fossils cemented
together.

Core Barrel A cylindrical rock-


drilling tool, designed
to cut an annular
space around a
central cylindrical core
of rock, which can
then be removed to
classify the material or
in the case of a drilled
shaft removed to
deepen the hole.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Crane Carrier A specially built truck


for mounting a drill rig
or for carrying a crane.

Crowd The soil types which


have particles large
enough to be seen
without magnification.
The coarse-grained
soils include the sand
and gravel (or larger)
soil particles.

Cuttings Particles of soil or


rock resulting from the
cutting action of
drilling or augering a
hole. See also Spoil.

Dense Compact

Desander A specially designed


piece of equipment
consisting of a series
of screens and
hydrocyclones which
remove sand and silt
particles from the
slurry used in
constructing a fluid-
filled excavation.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Dewatering (1) The removal of


water from a
construction area, as
by pumping from an
excavation or location
where water covers
the planned working
surface. (2) Lowering
of the groundwater
table in order to obtain
a "dry" area in the
vicinity of an
excavation which
would otherwise
extend below water.

Diatomaceous Earths Silts containing large


amounts of diatoms-
the siliceous
skeletons of minute
marine or freshwater
organisms

Dolomite A carbonate rock


composed of more
than 50% by weight,
of the mineral
dolomite.

Drawdown Lowering of the level


of groundwater; for
example, when a work
area is dewatered for
construction.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Downdrag A downward force


exerted on a drilled
shaft, pile, or other
structural element by
settling soil.
Sometimes called
"negative skin friction".

Drilled Pier/Drilled Shaft A reinforced or


unreinforced concrete
foundation element
formed by drilling a
hole in the earth and
filling it with concrete.
Also called a
"caisson", or a "large-
diameter bored pile".

Drilling Bucket A closed rotary boring


tool with its cutting
edge at its base. Spoil
is removed from the
bucket by lifting it out,
swinging it to one side
of the hole, and
releasing the hinged
bottom of the bucket.

Drilling Mud, Mud, or Slurry A fluid mixture of


water and clayey soil,
or commercial
"driller's mud" which
may be bentonite or
attapulgite.

Elastic Movement Movement under load


which is recoverable
when the load is
removed.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

"Elephant's Trunk" A collapsible conduit


of fabric or plastic
which, when coupled
to the bottom of a
concrete hopper,
directs the concrete to
a point near the
center of the
reinforcing cage to
prevent concrete from
striking the cage or
the sides of the shaft.

End Bearing The portion of load


carrying capacity a
shaft or pile has due
to the end area
bearing on the
material below.

Extractor A device for pulling


piles or casings out of
the ground. It may be
an inverted steam or
air hammer with yoke
so equipped as to
transmit upward blows
to the pile body, or a
specially built
extractor utilizing this
principle. Vibratory
hammers/extractors
may be especially
effective.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Fill Any man-made soil


deposit. Fills may
consist of soils that
are free of organic
matter and that are
carefully compacted
to form an extremely
dense, incompressible
mass, or they may be
heterogeneous
accumulations of
rubbish and debris.

Fine-Grained Refers to silt and clay-


sized particles which
exist in a soil.

Fixed-Head Pier A pier whose top,


when deflected
laterally with
application of lateral
force, is so restrained
that the pier axis at
the top must remain
vertical during such
movement.

Friction/End-bearing Pier A pier that achieves


support from the
combination of side
friction and tip (end)
bearing.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Friction Shaft A pier that derives its


resistance to load by
the friction or bond
developed between
the side surface of the
pier and the soil or
rock through which it
is placed.

Fuller's Earth Soils having the ability


to absorb fats or dyes.
They are usually
highly plastic,
sedimentary clays.

Full-Scale Load Test A load test made on a


full-scale shaft or
other structural
element, with the load
carried at least to the
structural design load,
and preferable to
twice (or more) the
design load.

Geomaterial Material (soils, rock,


clays, silts, etc.)
underlying the surface.

Geotechnical Engineer An engineer with


specialized training
and knowledge of
structural behavior of
soil and rocks,
employed to do soil
investigations, to do
design of structure
foundations, and to
provide field

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

observation of
foundation
investigation and
foundation
construction.

Grains Discrete particles


larger than 0.074 mm.
They may form the
rock framework,
similar to sand grains
in a sandstone, or
they may be
subordinate to smaller
particles in the rock.

Grain Size A term relating to the


size of grains. (See
above)

Gravel Small stones or


fragments of stone or
very small pebbles
larger than the
particles of sand, but
often mixed with
them. Generally 4.76
to 75mm in size.
(Stones 75 to 300 mm
are usually called
"cobbles".

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Ground Loss Subsidence of surface


of ground adjacent or
close to a shaft
excavation, caused by
soil moving into the
excavation laterally
during drilling, or
during dewatering
after drilling is
complete. Common in
soft organic soils or
clays, and
cohesionless soils
below the water table.

Groundwater Level A shallow pit,


excavated adjacent to
a boring location,
used to contain drilling
mud (slurry) during
drilling.

Hardpan A term that should be


avoided by the
engineer. Originally, it
was applied only to a
soil horizon that had
become rocklike
because of the
accumulation of
cementing minerals.
The name implies a
condition rather than a
type of soil.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Head Shortened form of the


phrase "pressure
head", referring to the
pressure resulting
from a column of
water or elevated
supply of water.

Hollow-Stem Auger An earth auger with


an end bit on a hollow
center shaft.

Hydraulic Pump The hydraulic pump is


the same and
performs the same
functions as the
electric submersible
pump except it is
hydraulic.

Impervious Impervious soil is soil


in which the spacing
of the soil particles is
so close as to allow
only very slow
passage of water. For
example, movement
of water through a
typical clay (an
"impervious" soil) may
be only 1/1,000,000
as fast as through a
typical sand.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Kelly bar (or Kelly) The kelly bar transfers


the rotary and pull-
down force to the
drilling tools. The kelly
bar is also used to
raise and lower the
tools in the shaft. It
may be solid or hollow
with two or more bars
telescoping inside
each other. The ability
of the bar to
telescope, allows
excavation to greater
depths than the boom
height would
otherwise allow.

Laitance A fluid mixture of


water, cement, and
fine sand that appears
at the top of concrete
soon after pouring

Lateral Load That portion of load


that is horizontal, or at
90E to the axis of a
pier or pile, or of the
supported structure.

Limestone A carbonate rock


composed of more
than 50%, by weight,
of the mineral calcite.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Load Cell A device for


measuring the
pressure exerted
between the soil (or
rock) and a structural
element (e.g., the
bottom or side of a
pier); used with a
hydraulic or electrical
indicating or recording
instrument at ground
surface.

Matrix The natural material in


which any fossil,
pebble, crystal, etc., is
embedded.

Micrograined A grain-size term


pertaining to
carbonate particles
smaller than 0.0625
mm and larger
than .004 mm
diameter.

Mud See Drilling Mud

Mud Pit A shallow pit,


excavated adjacent to
a boring location,
used to contain drilling
mud (slurry) during
drilling.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Mudding-In The technique of


stirring soil and water
by and auger;
sometimes with the
addition of
commercial "driller's
mud", to form a slurry
as the hole is
advanced by auger
drilling.

MultipleUnderreams Additional underream


cut in a bearing soil,
at elevations above
the bottom
underream, to force
shearing resistance in
the soil into a larger
peripheral surface.

Moisture Content The reduction in


diameter in a section
of a drilled shaft.

Natural Moisture Content Moisture content in-


situ, at the time of
measurement or
investigation. May be
subject to seasonal
variation

Necking The reduction in


diameter in a section
of a drilled shaft.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Negative Skin Friction Effect of settling soil


that grips a pile or pier
by friction and adds its
weight to the structure
load. Also called
Downdrag.

NX Core Rock core taken with


an "NX" core barrel,
which cuts a core
60mm in diameter.

Oolite Small spherical or


subspherical
carbonate
accretionary grain
generally less than
2.0 mm in diameter.

Over Reaming Enlarging the


diameter of the shaft
to remove any slurry
cake build up

Piezometric Head (See Artesian


Pressure)

Plasticity Term applied to fine-


grained soils (such as
slays) which when
moist can be
remolded without
raveling or breaking
apart.

Rebar A bar of reinforcing


steel.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Reverse Circulation A counterflow method


of circulating drilling
fluid and spoil in a drill
hole. In the direct
circulation method,
drilling fluid is pumped
down a hollow drill
pipe, through the drill
bit, and back to the
surface in the annular
space around the drill
pipe; and the cuttings
are carried to the
surface by the flow. In
the reverse-circulation
or counterflow
system, drilling fluid is
pumped out of the drill
stem at the top
circulated through a
pit where cuttings are
removed, and
returned to the
annular space around
the drill stem.
Circulation is upward
inside the drill stem
and downward
outside it.

Rig, Drilling Rig A machine for drilling


holes in earth or rock.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Rock A naturally occurring


mineral substance
cohesively bound by
chemical bonds and
forming the basic
structure of the earth's
crust.

Rock Auger An auger-type drilling


tool, equipped with
hard-metal teeth to
enable it to drill in soft
or weathered rock.

Rock Socket That portion of a


shaft, which
penetrates into a rock
formation beneath
less competent
overburden.

Rotary Boring A method of boring


using rotary (as
opposed to
percussive) means of
excavation.

Rotary Drill Rig A rotary drilling


machine powered
hydraulically,
pneumatically,
electrically or
mechanically to bore
exploratory holes or
for installation of
drilled shafts,
caissons, or in-situ
piles. The equipment
may use a continuous-

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

flight auger or a rotary


table and Kelly bar
with various
attachments and tools
to perform the work.

Sand Cohesionless soil


whose particle sizes
range between 0.074
and 4.76 mm in
diameter.

Seepage Small quantities of


water percolating
through a soil deposit
or soil structure.

Segregation Separation of poured


concrete into zones of
coarse aggregate
without fines, and
sand-water-cement
without coarse
aggregate.

Settlement (1) The amount of


downward movement
of the foundation of a
structure or a part of a
structure, under
conditions of applied
loading. (2) The
downward vertical
movement
experienced by
structures or soil
surface as the
underlying supporting
earth compresses.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Shaft Inspection Device (S.I. The shaft inspection


D.) device is an
instrument that allows
the inspector to see
the bottom of the
drilled shaft. It has a
video camera that is
lowered to the bottom
of the drilled shaft. It
can also measure the
thickness of sediment
on the bottom of the
shaft and sample
sidewall soils.

Sidewall Grooving The cutting of circular


or spiral grooves in
the walls of a drilled
shaft hole in rock or
soil, with the objective
of improving sidewall
support.

Sidewall Shear Frictional resistance


to axial movement of
a pier or pile,
developed between
the soils surrounding
the shaft and the
peripheral surface of
the shaft. (Does not
include resistance to
movement of an
enlarged base, due to
development of
shearing strains within
the soil below the
base).

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Silt A fine-grained
nonplastic soil; often
mistaken for clay, but
quite different in its
behavior. (Particle
sizes ranging from
0.002 to 0.074 mm).

Skin Friction Resistance to


shearing motion
between the concrete
of the shaft and the
soil or rock in contact
with it.

Slurry See Drilling Mud

Soil Auger The soil auger is used


for cutting and
removing the soil from
the shaft volume. It
typically has several
flights of 30 degrees
or less.

Sonotube A cylindrical form of


treated cardboard, for
forming round
columns of concrete;
a commercial product

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Spacers Spacers are used to


keep the steel cage
centered in the drilled
shaft and insure
proper concrete
cover. The spacers
should be concrete
wheels o other
approved non-
corrosive spacing.

Spoil Soil or rock removed


from an excavation; to
be wasted or used
elsewhere as fill.

Squeezing Ground A soil formation,


usually of clay, silt, or
organic material,
which tends to bulge
or squeeze into the
hole during drilling, or
afterward if the hole is
left uncased.

Standard Penetration Test The number of blows


(SPT) (N) required to drive a 2-
inch O.D., 1-3/8 inch I.
D., 24-inch long, split
soil sampling "spoon"
1 foot with a 140
pound weight freely
falling 30 inches. The
count is recorded for
each of three 6-inch
increments. The sum
of the second and
third increments is
taken as the N value

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

in blows per foot.


(This is ASTM
Designation D 1586).

Strain Gauge An instrument or


device for measuring
relative motion
(compression,
elongation, or shear)
between two points in
a mechanism or in a
structural member
such as a drilled shaft

Swelling Soil A soil subject to


volume increase
caused by wetting,
oxidation, buildup of
crystals, or relaxation
after load removal.

Telltale A strain indicator,


usually comprised of a
sleeved free-standing
rod cast in place in a
drilled pier or pile to
measure relative
movement between
the anchored
(embedded) tips of
two or more rods or
between the rod
anchor and the top of
the pier or pile.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Template A fixed template is


required during all
excavation and
concreting operations
when drilling from a
barge. This is to
maintain shaft position
and alignment. A
template is not
required on land if the
contractor can
satisfactorily show
that he can maintain
proper position and
alignment without it.

Temporary Casing Casing left in place


until concrete has
been placed, or
casing placed as
protection for
workmen or inspector.

Test Hole With the test hole, the


contractor must
demonstrate that his
construction methods
will work. A test hole
is typically the same
size as the shafts to
be constructed.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Tremie (1) (verb)To place


concrete below water
level though a pile,
the lower end of which
is kept immersed in
fresh concrete so that
the rising concrete
from the bottom
displaces the water
without washing out
the cement content.
(2) (noun) The hopper
and drop pipe used to
place the concrete
underwater.

Tremie Pipe The tremie pipe is


used to place
concrete in the drilled
shaft. In shafts
constructed by the
wet method, the
tremie pipe must
extend to the bottom
of the drilled shaft. In
shafts constructed by
the dry method, the
tremie pipe must
extend to within five
feet of the shaft
bottom. The tremie
pipe serves several
purposes. It transports
the concrete through
the slurry. It keeps the
concrete from
segregating during
placement. Also, it

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

helps keep the


concrete from mixing
with the drilling slurry
at the slurry/concrete
interface.

Twisting Bar A tool attached to the


kelly, used for
"screwing" down
casing through caving
or squeezing soil.
Sometimes used for
pulling casing.

Underream Enlargement of the


lower end of an
augered or drilled pier
hole to increase its
bearing area. Also
called "bell".

Underreamer, Belling Tool See Belling Bucket.

Unit Weight The weight per unit


volume of a material
such as soil, water,
concrete, and so on.
Typically expressed
as pounds per cubic
foot, rams per cubic
centimeter, or
kilograms per cubic
meter.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Uplift An upward force


exerted on a pier, pile,
or other structural
elements, by
expanding soil or
rock, hydraulic
pressure, or structural
loading.

Vibratory Driver/Extractor A pile-driving and


extracting machine
which is mechanically
connected to a pile or
casing and loosens it
while driving or pulling
by oscillating it
through the soil.
Power source may be
either electric or
hydraulic.

Vug A small cavity in a


vein or in rock.

"Walking Off" Tendency for a


rotating bit to deflect
laterally when
encountering harder,
deflecting layer of
rock or irregular
surface.

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial Glossary

Water Content The ratio of the


quantity (by weight) of
water in a given
volume of soil mass to
the weight of the soil
solids, typically
expressed as a
percentage.

Water Table The subsurface


elevation at which free
water will usually be
present. Also called
"groundwater".

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial - Appendix B

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Appendix B
Inspector Math tip sheets

VOLUME OF A SHAFT
EQUATION EXAMPLE

VOLUME OF A BELL
EQUATION EXAMPLE

VOLUME OF A TOE OF BELL

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial - Appendix B

EQUATION EXAMPLE

CIRCUMFERENCES

SI Conversion Factors
APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNIT
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
LENGTH
mm millimeters 0.039 inches in
m meters 3.28 feet ft
m meters 1.09 yards yd
km kilometers 0.621 miles mi
AREA
mm^2 square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in^2
m^2 square meters 10.764 square feet ft^2
ha hectares 2.47 acres ac

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial - Appendix B

km^2 square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi^2


VOLUME
ml milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz
l liters 0.264 gallons gal
m^3 cubic meters 35.71 cubic feet ft^3
m^3 cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd^3
MASS
g grams 0.035 ounces oz
kg kilograms 2.205 pounds lb
TEMPERATURE
°C Celsius 1.8 C + 32 Fahrenheit °F
WEIGHT DENSITY
g/cc grams per cubic centimeter 62.4 poundforce/cubic foot pcf
kN/m^3 kilonewton/cubic meter 6.36 poundforce/cubic foot pcf
FORCE and LOAD
N newtons 0.225 poundforce lb
kN kilonewtons 225 poundforce lb
kg kilogram (force) 2.205 poundforce lb

MN meganewtons 112.4 tons (force) t

PRESSURE and STRESS*


kPa* kilopascals 0.145 poundforce/square inch psi
kPa kilopascals 20.9 poundforce/square inch psi
MPa megapascals 10.44 tons per square foot tsf
kg/cm^2 kilograms per square cm 1.024 tons per square foot tsf

Notes: 1 kPa = kN/m2 = one kilopascal = one kilonewton per square meter
For dimensionless graphics and equations, a reference stress of one atmosphere can be used, such that σa = ρatm = 1 bar = 100
kPa = 1tsf = 1 kpg/cm2

Shaft Areas and Volumes

Per Linear Foot


Shaft Diameter (in) Volume (yd^3) Side Shear Area (ft^2) Bearing Area (ft^2)
12 0.03 3.14 0.79
14 0.04 3.67 1.07
16 0.05 4.19 1.40
18 0.07 4.71 1.77
20 0.08 5.24 2.18

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial - Appendix B

22 0.10 5.76 2.64


24 0.12 6.28 3.14
26 0.14 6.81 3.69
28 0.16 7.33 4.28
30 0.18 7.85 4.91
32 0.21 8.38 5.59
34 0.23 8.90 6.31
36 0.26 9.42 7.07
38 0.29 9.95 7.88
40 0.32 10.47 8.773
42 0.36 11.00 9.62
44 0.39 11.52 10.65
46 0.43 12.04 11.54
48 0.47 12.57 12.57
50 0.51 13.09 13.64
52 0.55 13.61 14.75
54 0.59 14.14 15.90
56 0.63 14.66 17.10
58 0.68 15.18 18.35
60 0.73 15.71 19.63
62 0.78 16.23 20.97
64 0.83 16.76 22.34
66 0.88 17.28 23.76
68 0.93 17.80 25.22
70 0.99 18.33 26.73
72 1.05 18.85 28.27
74 1.11 19.37 29.87
76 1.17 19.90 31.50
78 1.23 20.42 33.18
84 1.43 21.99 38.48
90 1.64 23.56 44.18
96 1.86 25.13 50.27
102 2.10 26.70 56.75
108 2.36 28.27 63.62
114 2.63 29.85 70.88
120 2.91 31.42 78.54
126 3.21 32.99 86.59

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial - Appendix B

132 3.52 34.56 95.03


Shaft Areas and Volumes

Per Linear Meter


Shaft Diameter (cm) Volume (m^3) Side Shear Area (m^2) Bearing Area (m^2)
30 0.07 0.94 0.07
35 0.10 1.10 0.10
40 0.13 1.26 0.13
45 0.16 1.41 0.16
50 0.20 1.57 0.20
55 0.24 1.73 0.24
60 0.28 1.88 0.28
65 0.33 2.04 0.33
70 0.38 2.20 0.38
75 0.44 2.36 0.44
80 0.50 2.51 0.50
85 0.57 2.67 0.57
90 0.64 2.83 0.64
95 0.71 2.98 0.71
100 0.79 3.14 0.79
105 0.87 3.30 0.87
110 0.95 3.46 0.95
115 1.04 3.61 1.04
120 1.13 3.77 1.13
125 1.23 3.93 1.23
130 1.33 4.08 1.33
135 1.43 4.24 1.43
140 1.54 4.40 1.54
145 1.65 4.56 1.65
150 1.77 4.71 1.77
155 1.89 4.87 1.89
160 2.01 5.03 2.01
165 2.14 5.18 2.14
170 2.27 5.34 2.27
175 2.41 5.50 2.41
180 2.54 5.65 2.54
185 2.69 5.81 2.69
190 2.84 5.97 2.84

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Drilled Shaft Tutorial - Appendix B

195 2.99 6.13 2.99


210 3.46 6.60 3.46
225 3.98 7.07 3.98
240 4.52 7.54 4.52
255 5.11 8.01 5.11
270 5.73 8.48 5.73
285 6.38 8.95 6.38
300 7.07 9.42 7.07
315 7.79 9.90 7.79
330 8.55 10.37 8.55

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