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Step 1. What are the two strong branches that emerged from ESP?

The second type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English for Academic and Occupational Purposes. In the 'Tree of ELT' (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987), ESP is broken down into three branches: a) English for Science and Technology (EST), b) English for Business and Economics (EBE), and c) English for Social Studies (ESS). Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches: English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). What do the authors say that it was clear that the one-size fits all approach to learning English wasnt sufficient anymore? Anthony (1997) notes that there has been considerable recent debate about what ESP means despite the fact that it is an approach, which has been widely used over the last three decades. At a 1997 Japan Conference on ESP, Dudley-Evans offered a modified definition. The revised definition he and St. John postulate is as follows: I. Absolute Characteristics ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner; ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it serves; ESP is centered on the language (grammar, lexis, register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities. Dudley-Evans and St. John have removed the absolute characteristic that 'ESP is in contrast with General English' and added characteristics that are more variable. They assert that ESP is not necessarily related to a specific discipline. Furthermore, ESP is likely to be used with adult learners although it could be used with young adults in a secondary school setting. If we revisit Dudley-Evans' (1997) claim that ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level, use of authentic learning materials is entirely feasible. Closer examination of ESP materials will follow; suffice it to say at this juncture that use of authentic content materials, modified or unmodified in form, are indeed a feature of ESP, particularly in self-directed study and research tasks. For Language Preparation for Employment in the Health Sciences, a large component of the student evaluation was based on an independent study assignment in which the learners were required to investigate and present an area of interest. The students were encouraged to conduct research using a variety of different resources, including the Internet. Source; Step 2 define these terms and quote the source English as a restricted language Knowing a restricted language would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in a novel situation outside of a very specific environment. (Airline stewardess, waiter, air traffic controller etc.) Gatehouse, K. (2001). Key issues in English for specific purposes (ESP) Curriculum. The Internet TESL Journal, 7, 1-11.

English with Specific Topics The third and final type of ESP identified by Carter (1983) is English with specific topics. Carter notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts from purpose to topic. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions. Step 3. State and define the 3 features all ESP courses have in common ESP courses can be of various types, as you have just seen, but Carter (1983) feels that there are 3 features all ESP courses have in common. Which are they? Types of ESP: According to Carter (1983), there are three types of ESP:1. English as a restricted language: The language used by air traffic controllers or by waiters are examples of English as a restricted language. 2. English for academic and occupational purposes: English for science and technology(EST), English for Business and Economics(EBE), English for social studies(ESS), English for academic purposes(EAP), and English for occupational purposes (EOP). 3. English with specific topics: This type concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions. They have in common that each one of the above mentioned is for students that want to achieve goals in performing their specific topic knowledge in a second language.

Step 4. Write your own reflection (100 words) on what you make of the following: According to carter students will become users of the language and to become one you have to use authentic materials, purpose related orientation and self- direction that it means that the learning will become autonomous, and meaningful for the learners. But to achieve the learning that I just mention teacher have to be systematic in order to teach students through learning strategies. For example if we teach about laws, we need to find strategies to guide students to link up with the ones they already know in Spanish in order to have a deeper understanding of the specific topic that we want to teach them.