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THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE

TTAAKKIINNGG CCOOMMMMAANNDD

POLICE T T A A K K I I N N G G C C O

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR POLICING THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA

An Action Plan for the Alexandria Police Department from the International Association of Chiefs of Police

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE

THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE
THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE
THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE

TTAAKKIINNGG CCOOMMMMAANNDD

POLICE T T A A K K I I N N G G C C O

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR POLICING THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA

An Action Plan for the Alexandria Police Department from the International Association of Chiefs of Police

June 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

i

Principal Findings and Recommendations

1

THE ALEXANDRIA POLICING ENVIRONMENT

Chapter I. The Alexandria Policing Environment

9

Section 1: Service Population

9

Section 2: Violent and Serious Crime

10

Section 3: Comparative Crime Rates

15

Section 4: Less Serious Crime

12

Section 5: Juvenile Crime

16

Section 6:

Traffic Crashes and Enforcement

18

Section 7: Arrests - Adults

18

Section 8: Arrests - Juvenile

22

Section 9:

Clearances

22

Section 10:

Workload

25

Section 11: Resources – Appropriations and Expenditures

29

Section 12:

Resources - Staffing

34

Section 13:

The Experience Profile

34

Section 14:

The Diversity Profile

36

Section 15: The Training Profile

37

Section 16:

Workforce Perspectives

37

Section 17:

Implications

41

APD MISSION AND VISION

Chapter II. Mission, Goals and Objectives

45

Section 1:

Mission, Goals, and Objectives

45

Section 2:

Governing Body Direction

45

Section 3:

Evaluation

46

Section 4:

Recommendations

47

ORGANIZATION AND STAFFING

Chapter III. Organization and Staffing

49

Section 2:

Evaluation

54

Section 3:

Recommendations

57

COMMUNITY SERVICES: FIELD OPERATIONS

Chapter IV. Patrol Operations: Deployment and Scheduling

69

Section 1:

Objectives

69

Section 2: Staffing Factors and Database Architecture

70

Section 3:

Availability

71

Section 4:

Workload

74

Section 5: Measurement Factors/Standards

Section 8: Assignment Limitations for First Responders

80

Section 6: Current Allocation of First Responders

81

Section 7: Current Deployment of First Responders

82

84

Section 9: Operational Workload – Classes and Volume

84

Section 10:

Operational Workload – Officer Workload

86

Section 11:

Workload – Geographic Area

87

Section 12: Workload – Shift (Temporal) Distribution

89

Section 13: Workload – Day of Week Distribution

91

Section 14:

Workload – Month of Year Distribution

92

Section 15:

Supervision

94

Section 16:

Patrol Shift

95

Section 17:

Evaluation

96

Section 18:

Recommendations

100

Chapter V. Patrol Operations: Specialized Units and Patrol Practices

103

Section 1:

Canine

103

Section 2: Special Interdiction Division (SID)

104

Section 3: Special Operations Division (SOD)

104

Section 4:

Community Policing

106

Section 5: Patrol Practices

107

Section 6:

Evaluation

114

Section 7:

Recommendations

120

Chapter VI. Community Policing

123

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

123

Section 2:

Duties and Workload

123

Section 3:

Selection and Training

124

Section 4:

Evaluation

125

Section 5:

Recommendations

127

Chapter VI a. Community Services

129

Section 1: Organization and Staffing

129

Section 2:

Community Services

130

Section 3: Public Information

130

Section 4: Citizen Police Academy

131

Section 5:

Police Training Academy Assignments

131

Section 6: Polygraph Operator

131

Section 7:

Evaluation

131

Section 8:

Recommendations

132

COMMUNITY SERVICES: INVESTIGATIONS

Chapter VII. Criminal Investigations

133

Section 1: Organization and Staffing

133

Section 2:

Workload

134

Section 3: Case Assignment Practices

136

Section 4: Crimes Against Persons and Crimes Against Property

137

Section 5:

Financial Crimes

137

Section 6: Juvenile Investigations

137

Section 7: Crime Scene Search

138

Section 8:

Facilities

141

Section 9:

Selection and Training

141

Section 10:

Evaluation

142

Section 11:

Recommendations

144

Chapter VIII. Narcotics

147

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

147

Section 2:

Workload

148

Section 3:

Policies and Practices

150

Section 4:

Evaluation

151

Section 5:

Recommendations

153

SUPPORT SERVICES

Chapter IX. Support Services

155

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

155

Section 3:

Evaluation

156

Section 4:

Recommendations

156

Chapter X. Warrants and Records

157

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

157

Section 2: Roles and Responsibilities

157

Section 3:

Workload

160

Section 4:

Evaluation

160

Section 5:

Recommendations

160

Chapter XI. Information Management

162

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

162

Section 2:

Information Infrastructure

162

Section 3: Technology Support and Maintenance

163

Section 4: Information Management

165

Section 5:

Evaluation

166

Section 6:

Recommendations

167

Chapter XII. Legal Support

169

Section 1:

Policies and Practices

169

Section 2:

Evaluation

169

Section 3:

Recommendations

169

Chapter XIII. Planning and Research

171

Section 1: Organization and Staffing

171

Section 2:

Goals and Objectives

171

Section 3:

Policies and Practices

171

Section 4:

Evaluation

172

Section 5:

Recommendations

173

Chapter XIV. Reentry and Sex Offender Programming

174

Section 1: Reentry Programming

174

Section 2:

Sex Offender Programming

174

Section 3:

Evaluation

175

Section 4:

Recommendations

175

Chapter XV. Communications

177

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

177

Section 2:

Workload

177

Section 3:

Practices

178

Section 4:

Evaluation

182

Section 5:

Recommendations

184

Chapter XVI. Integrity – Citizen Complaints and Internal Affairs

186

Section 1: Organization and Staffing

186

Section 2:

Compliant Profile/Workload

187

Section 3: Policy and Practice – Intake and Investigation

189

Section 4:

Policy and Practice – Findings and Discipline

192

Section 5:

Officer-Involved Shootings

194

Section 6:

Evaluation

197

Section 7:

Recommendations

199

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Chapter XVII. Personnel Acquisition – Recruitment and Selection

201

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

201

Section 2:

Recruitment

201

Section 3:

Selection

202

Section 4:

Promotions

204

Section 5:

Specialized Unit Assignments

205

Section 6: Performance Evaluations

205

Section 7:

Evaluation

206

Section 8:

Recommendations

207

Chapter XVIII. Career Development – Training and Education

208

Section 1:

Organization and Staffing

208

Section 2: Basic/Academy Training

208

Section 3:

Field Training

216

Section 4:

In-Service

217

Section 5: Roll Call Training

224

Section 6:

Leadership Development

224

Section 7: Specialized Units

225

Section 8:

Evaluation

226

Chapter XIX. Policies and Procedures

232

Section 1: The Manual

232

Section 2:

Responsibilities

232

Section 3:

Practices

233

Section 4:

Evaluation

233

Section 5:

Recommendations

238

APD CULTURE AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Chapter XX. Organizational Culture – Workforce Perspectives

239

Section 1:

Survey Structure

239

Section 2: Survey Response

239

Section 3:

Servicing APD Stakeholders

241

Section 4: Workplace Practices and Conditions

243

Section 5:

Indicators

243

Section 6:

Open-Ended Responses

246

Section 7:

Productivity and Innovations

246

Section 8: Observations and Implications

251

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table 1: Serious and Violent Offenses Known to Police: 2003-2007

11

Table 2: Highest Violent Crime Rates

13

Table 3:

Violent Crime Rates 2003-2007

14

Table 4: Property Crime Rates 2003-2007

15

Table 5: Less Serious Offenses 2005-2008

16

Table 6:

Offenses Involving Juveniles 2003-2007

17

Table 7: Traffic Enforcement 2006-2008

19

Table 8:

Adult Arrests 2004-2007

20

Table 9: Juvenile Arrests 2004-2007

23

Table 10:

Offenses Cleared by Arrest 2003-2007

24

Table 11:

Clearance Rates APD vs. Comparable Cities 2004-2007

26

Table 12: Calls for Service – Type 2008

27

Table 13: Calls for Service – Hours 2008

30

Table 14:

Resources – Expenditures and Appropriations 2001-2009

32

Table 15:

Resources – Staffing 2005-2009

33

Table 16: Turnover Profile 2004-2009

34

Table 17:

Experience Profile

35

Table 18:

Gender and Race Profile 2008

36

Table 19: Average Number of Training Courses by Rank

38

Table 20: Average Number of Training Courses by Division

39

Table 21: Patrol Officer Availability

73

Table 22:

Deployment of Officers on Each of the Four Shifts

83

Table 23:

Operational Workload - Events

85

Table 24: Operational Workload - Hours

86

Table 25:

Calls by Police Zone

87

Table 26:

Activity by District (CAD Logs)

88

Table 27: Calls by Zone Car

89

Table 28: First Responders Incidents of the Day

90

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table 30: Activities by Day of the Week

92

Table 31:

Calls by Day of Week

92

Table 32: Activities by Month of the Year

93

Table 33:

Patrol Calls by Month of the Year

93

Table 34: Shift Staffing: First Responders

98

Table 35: CID Staffing by Sub-Unit

133

Table 36: CID Workload 2004-2008

135

Table 37: Clearance Rates, Patrol vs. Detectives, 2007-2008

135

Table 38:

Juvenile Investigations Data 2004-2007

139

Table 39: Crime Scene Search Unit Evidentiary Requests 2007

140

Table 40: Narcotics Unit Workload, 2004-2008

148

Table 41:

Narcotics Activity – Other Field Units

148

Table 42:

Seizures 2004-2007

149

Table 43:

Complaint Profile 2004-2008

188

Table 44:

Charge Disposition by Year 2001-2008

195

Table 45:

Police Basic Training Course – LA POST Requirements

209

Table 46: APD Recruit Academy Curriculum

212

Table 47: In-Service Profile 2007

218

Table 48: In-Service Profile 2008

221

Table 49: Average Number of Training Courses by Rank

227

Table 50: Average Number of Training Courses by Division

228

Table 51: Generic Police Department Policy Manual Table of Contents

235

Table 52: Workforce Survey Summary: Servicing APD Stakeholders

242

Table 53:

Practices and Conditions - Rankings

244

Table 54:

Practices and Conditions - Clusters

245

Table 55:

Summary of Open-Ended Responses

247

Table 56: Summary of Productivity and Innovation Suggestions

250

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Figure 1: Current Organization – Composite Chart

50

Figure 2:

Proposed Organization

59

Figure 3: Proposed Field Services Bureau

61

Figure 4: Proposed Investigative Services Bureau

64

Figure 5:

Proposed Administrative & Support Services Bureau

66

INTRODUCTION

This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Resource Management Evaluation of the Alexandria, Louisiana Police Department (APD), conducted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The goal of the evaluation was to position city executives and the men and women of the APD with information, insight, and an action plan to:

Build and sustain safe and secure neighborhoods

 

Conduct police services dedicated to integrity, responsiveness, accountability, justice, and public trust

Build and sustain creative and constructive partnerships with the community, criminal justice system, city, parish, and state agencies, and safety-relevant public and private sector interest and advocacy organizations

Employ

the

most

contemporary

policy

and

program

strategies

and

innovations

 

Maximize return and value added on resource investments

 

Cope with challenges and manage the opportunities inherent in the extraordinary change that is occurring in American society, technologically, demographically, and with regard to hometown security.

Objective of the study were to:

Measure the degree to which the APD’s philosophy, goals, objectives, and operations conform to the expectations of the city’s governing body

Identify crimes, victims, and police operations that require more effective response or emphasis

Evaluate how efficiently the APD is organized to achieve its mission and to conduct current operations

Identify important police and security functions that are not being performed by the APD

Identify functions that can be performed more cost-effectively by alternative means and/or agencies

i

Specify number and types of personnel needed to conduct current and future department operations at levels which meet professional standards and community/governing body expectations

Assess the readiness of the APD to cope with the rapidly changing cultural, programmatic, and technological environment of 21 st Century policing.

STUDY METHODS

There were four phases to the study, several of which overlapped. Phase 1 was devoted to collecting information about operations and conditions. A combination of data collection techniques and sources was used. Command and non-command police department personnel were interviewed. IACP staff observed numerous operations. Policy statements, rules and regulations, statistical reports, and other written documents were gathered. Data collection was, in fact, ongoing until the end of the study period.

An organizational culture/workforce survey was conducted. Eighty-five (85) responses were received in time for processing. (Five arrived well after the deadline.) This represents a response rate of 45%. Officers, sergeants, and civilian employees account for 88% of the response population.

Phase 2 concentrated on analysis and evaluation of data, development of improvement recommendations, and conceptualizing the most promising model for policing Alexandria in the immediate future and for some years to come. Evaluation involved comparison of APD policies, procedures, and operation with contemporary professional police standards – a composite of policies and practices favored by the IACP staff.

Phase 3 entailed discussion of findings and recommendations with government executives. Reactions, comments, and suggestions were considered, and in cases, incorporated during preparation of this final report – Phase 4 of the study.

THE NATURE OF THE EVALUATIONS

It is IACP policy to present a balanced report which highlights positive conditions as well as those which are not positive. By nature, however, management surveys and evaluations in their search for opportunities emphasize the conditions, policies, and practices which should and can be corrected and/or improved. This focus skews evaluation toward the negative side of the equation. We urge readers to recognize this and simultaneously appreciate that management studies are undertaken to be constructive. Readers are obligated to the city for opening the department to the

ii

scrutiny of professional evaluators. This represents an act of professionalism of the highest order. In doing so, the city has served its clientele well.

CHANGING CONDITIONS

The APD is a dynamic organization. Some conditions described in this report have changed during the time that the study was being performed and the report was being prepared. We have had to “freeze” conditions in order to prepare the report. The most current information on the condition of the department resides with the APD, including information on actions which would impact consideration and implementation of recommendations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our ability to conduct this evaluation was facilitated by the participation and cooperation of dozens of individuals. Our appreciation is extended to the men and women of the APD who provided data, participated in interviews, and returned survey questionnaires. Special acknowledgement is offered to those individuals with whom we worked most closely.

Daren Coutee, Chief of Police

James Hay, Assistant Chief of Police

Mel Queen, Lieutenant, Technical Support

Cliff Gatlin, Sergeant, Training Academy

Farrell Gaspard, Sergeant, Warrants/Records Division

Donald Weatherford, Sergeant, Professional Standards

IACP STAFF

Work was conducted by Palmer D. Wilson, Senior Associate Consultant; Dr. Robert Ford, Senior Associate Consultant; Randall Dilling, Associate Consultant; Tracy Phillips, Senior Project Specialist; and Jeanine Burchard, Technical Support Specialist. Jerry Needle, Director of Programs and Research, managed the study.

iii

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

PRINCIPLE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: AN ACTION PLAN TO TRANSFORM THE APD

The public safety/police operation equation in Alexandria is characterized, as in every city, by a mix of positives, assets, and achievements, paralleled by problems and resource and achievement gaps. Those of greatest significance are singled out here, to form a context for the detailed examinations that follow.

THE POLICING ENVIRONMENT

Current and future policing requirements of the city of Alexandria, APD goals and objectives, staffing, programs and technology are heavily defined by population; economic conditions; level and composition of crime in the community, region and increasingly, around the globe; availability of resources; service demands; and trends in each of these correlates.

The city has a stable population residing in low-density neighborhoods for the most part. These are positives for introducing and managing crime control and institutional (APD) change.

Crime Profile. Increase in overall crime was marginal (3.3%) from 2003 – 2007. This favorable record hosts, however, an 18.5% increase in violent crime, dominated by assaults. Property crimes, decreased 5.47%

Uniformed Crime Reports (2007) rank Alexandria in the top 25 metro areas in reported violent crime. Alexandria does not compare favorably with a selected group of Louisiana cities in violent and property crime. (Benchmarks are diagnostically punitive indices but help to frame/direct analyses.)

Youth Wellness.

Juvenile crime increased 40% from 2003 – 2007, an

average of 10% annually. Thefts are most prevalent. Of greater concern is the number of assaults (simple). Our ability to evaluate the juvenile picture is constrained by absence of reliable data on bullying, self- victimization (cutting, unreported substance abuse), and status offenses.

Arrests and Clearances.

Adult arrests increased 28.5% from 2004-2007.

Juvenile arrests increased marginally (2.7%) for the same period. Clearance rates for serious crimes were stable, ranging from 33.7% in 2007 to 35.6% in 2005. Violent crime clearance rates equal those of comparable cities, while property rates exceed them. The assault clearance rate is very low, comparatively, while robbery clearance rates are high.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

The Traffic Profile. Number of crashes remained stable from 2005-2008. Measured by citations issued and traffic stops, enforcement has received continuous emphasis:

- Citations issued have increased 7.6% annually since 2005

- Traffic stops have increased 18.7% annually since 2005

- An increasing number of DUIs have been recorded.

To a far greater degree than crime work, traffic work is elective (subject to managerial decision).

Workload Indicators. The APD serviced just over 65,000 calls for service (including self-initiated) in 2008. This consumed just over 87,000 hours of patrol time.

Traffic-related calls account for the greatest number of calls for service and are the leading consumer of patrol time (13%).

Disturbing the peace calls account for 12%.

Reliable trend data is not available to measure calls for service. (This seriously impairs staffing requirements forecasting in a number of areas.)

Resources – Fiscal and Staff. Since 2000 appropriations have increased at an annual rate of 12.4%, fueled by salary and fringe packages. This trend should end this year due to the mandate that the APD budget be reduced (about 4%).

Authorized positions (223) have been a constant, with little movement among ranks. Turnover has been low to normal (3 – 8%). Department experience is high with half of sworn officers having 15+ years.

APD workforce composition is 75% male and 74% white.

Training. In-service courses per employee each year average 2.45. Lower ranks receive more than higher ranks. Distribution of training is stable across divisions. Top executives and commanders are undertrained.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

ACHIEVEMENTS, ASSETS AND BUILDING BLOCKS

As the APD goes forward with servicing the citizens of Alexandria and those of the region who contribute to and depend on the city, it can and will build on the following conditions and assets.

Full

Service

Philosophy

and

Capacity.

The

APD

is

committed

to

providing the fullest range of police services, both public safety and quality-of-life, and has the capacity to continue to do so.

Mature Patrol Operations. First response operations are strong, generally.

Traffic Services. Enabled by robust staffing, the APD continues to mount strong traffic enforcement performance.

Adequate Clearance Rates. The combined efforts of the Uniform Division, Criminal Investigations Division, Narcotics Unit, and Warrants Division are producing adequate to favorable clearance rates.

Ample Resources. The APD is/has been well resourced, measured by appropriations and staff levels.

Favorable Change Climate. A number of dissatisfiers notwithstanding, workforce commitment, dedication, and morale are valuable assets for meeting change and challenge.

Well-Served Populations.

The workforce is satisfied with its records of

service to several populations, notably the mentally challenged,

businesses, and military personnel.

Experience of Staff. Department experience is high with half of sworn officers having 15+ years. However, the department is aging, and there is great potential for losses/retirements.

PROBLEMS AND PRIORITIES

Conditions which demand informed and immediate treatment by the APD, the governing body of the city and the community are:

Violent Crime. remains troubling.

Despite more favorable 2008 data, the five-year trend

Assaults and disorderlies arising, we suspect, from

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

economic and social dysfunction, are driving this class of crime and victimization.

Burgeoning Juvenile Crime.

A correlate of adult crime and offending,

the steady increase in juvenile crime is a distress signal.

Underserved Populations.

The APD workforce is dissatisfied with its

record of service to these populations: crime victims; youth; the elderly; minorities; the homeless and indigent. In both number of categories and the total population, this clientele base far outnumbers the clientele base deemed to be served well. Meeting the needs of these underserviced populations is far beyond the capacity and mandate of the APD. A medical-model/social service/law enforcement partnership is called for.

Diversity of Staff. The APD workforce is dominated (75%) by white males, hardly a reflection of community demographics. As the department restructures and deals with impending retirements, there is a strong need for diversity in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.

EXPLAINING THE CRIME RECORD: BEST PRACTICE SHORTFALLS

Managing crime and victimization is the responsibility of the governing body, the community, as well as the APD. Still, the leadership obligation falls mainly to the police. Our work has surfaced a number of APD shortfalls that we believe account for current crime conditions.

A Strategy. The APD functions without clearly defined, measurable crime control goals, objectives, and a coherent strategy for crime prevention and control.

Intelligence-Led Policing. Crime analysis and intelligence programming is deficient. Intelligence-led policing, a 21 st Century data-information- driven approach to crime control, is absent from the APD.

Community Policing. Community policing, characterized by a checkered history in the APD, has atrophied along every core component – community engagement, problem solving, and partnerships.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

RESPONSES AND REMEDIES: TRANSFORMING THE APD

We urge the city of Alexandria, with a mandate from the public, and a “charge” to the department’s leadership, to undertake a radical reengineering of the APD. The transformation we envision should be guided by strategic intents:

Nurture leadership capacity

 

Intensify neighborhood/citizen engagement

 

Build

an

outcome

and

metrics-driven

management

and

operating

environment

 

Front-load prevention capacity

 

Maximize return on investment

Introduce best/promising practices

Develop/redevelop critical infrastructure

Strengthen workplace culture

Exploit productivity opportunities.

NURTURE LEADERSHIP CAPACITY

Accelerate leadership grooming and preparation.

Provide exempt status for the three proposed Bureau Commanders. Current civil service rules limit choice to the most senior officer. Seniority is far too limiting of a factor upon which to promote these key policy makers.

Develop a cadre of executives and commanders with 21 st Century management skills. The most essential are goal setting, measurement, and outcome evaluation capacity; a problem-solving orientation; ability to motivate the workforce; and an appreciation for value of vision.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

Introduce an “every officer a leader” development program, the West Point type model, (or a variation.) Local military assets should be able to help with this intent.

INTENSIFY NEIGHBORHOOD/CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT

“Recover” community policing, philosophically and organizationally.

Define and address needs of underserved population, neighborhoods, and victims.

Promote and sustain community trust in neighborhoods where this may be needed.

BUILD AN OUTCOME AND METRICS-DRIVEN MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING ENVIRONMENT

Establish goals and objectives at three levels: the agency; all units; and personnel.

Define/employ measurements.

Rely heavily on CompStat techniques.

Exploit the values of the program/personnel evaluation processes.

Ensure that the workforce perceives equity.

FRONT-LOAD PREVENTION CAPACITY

Problem solving.

Reentry.

Sex offender management.

Patrol methods (directed patrols, STEP).

Crime prevention programming.

Crime analysis.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

Police/corrections partnerships.

MAXIMIZE RETURN ON INVESTMENT

Restructure organization:

- Consolidate units

- Eliminate questionable operations

- Eliminate fragmentation

- Strengthen coordination.

Re-staff the APD:

- Consolidate command

- Add new skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs)

- Civilianize.

Establish a Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS) program.

Look for parish/regional partnerships.

Rebalance field and administrative support deployments.

INTRODUCE BEST / PROMISING PRACTICES

Revamp planning and research.

Victims services models.

VIPS models.

Reentry model.

Suspicious activity reporting (SARS).

Problem oriented policing (POP) guides.

Route 911 calls directly to APD dispatch centers (response time issue).

DEVELOP/REDEVELOP CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Establish a contemporary information technology capacity.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

Exploit the potentials of the RMS.

Finish the policy manual.

Leverage in-service training assets.

Do not forget the civilians.

STRENGTHEN WORKPLACE CULTURE

Focus on dissatisfiers:

- Performance evaluation

- Discipline practices

- Transfers and special assignments.

Increase in-service training.

Work toward increased ethnic, racial, and gender diversity.

EXPLOIT PRODUCTIVITY OPPORTUNITIES

Cost

efficient

resource

recovery

lies

in

workload

reduction

for

first

responders.

 

Alarm calls (7,200 last year), thefts (2,700), burglaries (2,000), and disturbing the peace (7,500) should be primary targets for evaluation.

Telephone and Internet report taking can also relieve burdens on patrol and dispatch.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

CHAPTER I: THE POLICING ENVIRONMENT

Current and future policing requirements of the city of Alexandria, APD goals and objectives, staffing, programs and technology are heavily defined by population; economic conditions; level and composition of crime in the community, region and increasingly, around the globe; availability of resources; service demands; and trends in each of these correlates. Environmental conditions in Alexandria and the APD and their implications are examined in this chapter.

SECTION 1: SERVICE POPULATION

The population of Alexandria was estimated to be 45,857 in 2007 (Source: City- Data.com). This represents a very marginal decrease since 2000, -0.5%. Race/ethnic distribution is:

Black

54.7%

White Non-Hispanic

42.0%

Hispanic

1.0%

Two or more races

0.9%

Other

1.4%

Land area of the city is 26.4 square miles. Population density, 1,736 persons per square mile, is low.

The city’s education profile shows that of persons 25 years of age and over:

72.4% have completed high school (or higher)

19.5% have a bachelor’s degree (or higher)

7.7 % have a graduate or professional degree

Housing starts, measured by building permits, are rebounding, although market prices remain depressed:

2004

79 buildings, average cost: $191,300

2005

81 buildings, average cost: $168,500

2006

214 buildings, average cost: $153,800

2007

231 buildings, average cost: $116,100

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

SECTION 2: VIOLENT AND SERIOUS CRIME

Table 1 displays the level of and trends in violent and serious crime in Alexandria for the five-year period 2003-2007. Overall, these crimes have increased marginally, by 232 recorded offenses (3.3%) for the period, and an average annual increase of 58 (0.8%.) Separating violent (crimes against persons) and property crimes for evaluation yields a far different picture. Violent crime has increased by 476 offenses, 18.5%, with annual averages of 119 and 4.63%.

While the total number of robberies is not to be dismissed, the occurrence and influence of assaults is self-evident. In 2007, aggravated and simple assaults accounted for 93% of violent crimes. Intrinsically violent, both a simple and aggravated assault have a “gateway” dimension – they often escalate to the most violent of crimes – homicide. It is important to recognize the increasing trend of assaults, both types having reached a new plateau in 2005, and remained there.

The property category is dominated by thefts. Burglaries are frequent. Totals have fluctuated annually during the years selected for analysis, decreasing for the period and decreasing in 2007.

Six-month data for 2008 suggests that the year just ended may show improvement.

Offense

Actual – January – July

2008 Projected

Homicide Forcible Rape Robbery Assault – Aggravated and Simple Burglary Theft Auto Theft

2

3

10

17

111

190

1,535

2,631

573

982

1,624

2,784

88

151

 

3,943

6,758

If the monthly averages hold, the APD will record 6,758 violent and serious crimes, 537 fewer crimes than in 2007, 7.4%.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

 

Table 1

 
 

SERIOUS AND VIOLENT OFFENSES KNOWN TO POLICE

2003-2007

 
 

Change –

Change -

 

Offense

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Number

Percent

Homicide/Manslaughter

8

3

12

5

8

0

0.0

Forcible Rape Total

13

17

21

29

16

3

23.1

Robbery Total

193

186

147

185

175

-18

-9.3

Aggravated Assault

755

687

845

836

866

111

14.7

Simple Assault

1,604

1,619

1,983

1,824

1,984

380

23.7

 

Violent Crime Total

2,573

2,512

3,008

2,879

3,049

476

18.5

Burglary Total

1,270

939

948

1,299

1,099

-171

-13.5

Theft Total

3,017

2,573

2,629

2,938

2,966

-51

-1.7

Auto Theft Total

203

211

210

258

181

-22

-10.8

 

Property Crime Total

4,490

3,723

3,787

4,495

4,246

-244

-5.4

 

GRAND TOTAL

7,063

6,235

6,795

7,374

7,295

232

3.3

Source: APD FBI - UCR Offenses Known to Police, Yearly Totals, 2003 - 2007

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

SECTION 3: COMPARATIVE CRIME RATES

Comparative/benchmark crime rates are inherently flawed methodologically. Nevertheless, they are used frequently for perspective and are not entirely useless. Table 2 arrays 25 MSAs with highest rates of violent crime (recorded crimes per unit of population). In 2007, the Alexandria MSA, which includes Grant and Rapides Parishes and the city of Alexandria, was reported by the FBI (UCR Section) to be among the most violent cities/MSAs in the United States. Note that most of the MSAs have a mid-size city as the core. This phenomenon is somewhat new and not well understood by criminologists, sociologists, and demographers.

Comparative rates of violent and property crime are shown in Tables 3 and 4. In this array, Alexandria’s rates are compared to those of six Louisiana cities. For the past five years, 2003-2007, Alexandria compared unfavorably with most of the selected cities.

SECTION 4: LESS SERIOUS CRIME

By Uniform Crime Report (UCR) conventions, Part II crimes include all those that are not included in the Part I, violent and serious class discussed above. Many of the crimes in this class are, in fact, very serious in nature or consequence. Part II crimes are:

forgery and counterfeiting, fraud, embezzlement, stolen property, vandalism, weapons violations, prostitution and commercialized vice, sex offenses (except forcible rape, prostitution and commercialized vice), drug abuse violations, gambling, offenses against the family and children, DUI, liquor law violations, drunkenness, disorderly conduct, vagrancy, suspicion, curfew and loitering law violations, runaways, and all other offenses of state and/or local laws.

Table 5 shows for the four-year period, 2005-2008, the number of Less Serious Offenses recorded by the APD has increased marginally, 8.5%, an annual average of 2.8%. Statistically, the total increase is accounted for entirely by 631 stolen property offenses in 2008, compared to a previous average of 45 annually. (This may be a data system error.)

The most prominent features of this class of offenses is the number of recorded disorderly conduct incidents, consistently half or more of all less serious crimes. Criminal Damage (occurs with great frequency). All Other Drugs, a self-initiated/ police-generated class of offenses is also prominent.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

 

Table 2

 

HIGHEST VIOLENT CRIME RATES

2007

 

Top 25 Metropolitan Statistical Areas

 
 

Violent Crime

Violent Crime Rate (per 10K population)

Rank

City

Population

Offenses

1

Sumter, SC

105,369

1,536

1,457

2

Memphis, TN-MS-AR

1,295,670

15,780

1,217

3

Shreveport-Bossier City, LA

387,314

4,353

1,123

4

Saginaw-Saginaw Township North, MI

204,943

2,194

1,070

5

Florence, SC

201,529

2,145

1,064

6

Lawton, OK

109,016

1,092

1,001

7

Pine Bluff, AR

103,240

1,008

976

8

Myrtle Beach-North Myrtle Beach-Conway, SC

247,229

2,344

948

9

Gainesville, FL

243,506

2,296

942

10

Alexandria, LA

150,243

1,403

933

11

Las Vegas-Paradise, NV

1,834,533

16,272

887

12

Stockton, CA

684,405

6,054

884

13

Battle Creek, MI

137,388

1,186

863

14

Tallahassee, FL

335,945

2,885

858

15

Texarkana, TX-Texarkana, AR

135,211

1,155

854

16

Flint, MI

440,751

3,712

842

17

Jackson, TN

113,807

953

837

18

Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR

659,776

5,484

831

19

Anchorage, AK

303,996

2,526

830

20

Fairbanks, AK

33,156

275

829

21

Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville, SC

616,999

5,086

824

22

Brunswick, GA

101,687

836

822

23

Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN

1,492,983

12,193

816

24

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL

5,480,920

43,956

802

25

Lubbock, TX

262,990

2,092

795

Source: FBI Uniform Crime Reports (2007)

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

Table 3

Violent Crime Rates, 2003 - 2007

Alexandria, Louisiana & Comparable Cities

300.0 243.4 250.0 221.9 232.9 210.9 195.4 200.0 150.0 100.0 50.0 0.0 2003 2004 2005
300.0
243.4
250.0
221.9
232.9
210.9
195.4
200.0
150.0
100.0
50.0
0.0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Year
Rate per 10,000 population

Lake CharlesKenner Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Houma Slidell

KennerLake Charles Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Houma Slidell

Bossier CityLake Charles Kenner Monroe Alexandria Houma Slidell

MonroeLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Alexandria Houma Slidell

AlexandriaLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Monroe Houma Slidell

HoumaLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Slidell

SlidellLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Houma

Source: Crime in the United States, FBI, Offenses Known to Law Enforcement, by State by City, 2003 - 2007

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

Table 4

Property Crime Rates, 2003 - 2007

Alexandria, Louisiana & Comparable Cities

1200.0 1037.6 1000.0 976.4 928.7 822.3 809.7 800.0 600.0 400.0 200.0 0.0 Rate per 10,000
1200.0
1037.6
1000.0
976.4
928.7
822.3
809.7
800.0
600.0
400.0
200.0
0.0
Rate per 10,000 population

Lake CharlesKenner Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Houma Slidell

KennerLake Charles Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Houma Slidell

Bossier CityLake Charles Kenner Monroe Alexandria Houma Slidell

MonroeLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Alexandria Houma Slidell

AlexandriaLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Monroe Houma Slidell

HoumaLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Slidell

SlidellLake Charles Kenner Bossier City Monroe Alexandria Houma

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

 

Year

Source: Crime in the United States, FBI, Offenses Known to Law Enforcement, by State by City, 2003 - 2007

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

 

Table 5

 

LESS SERIOUS OFFENSES

2005-2008

 

Change –

Change -

 

Offense

2005

2006

2007

2008

Number

Percent

Forgery

235

282

236

262

27

11.5

Embezzlement

0

0

0

0

--

--

Criminal Damage

1,227

1,439

1,329

1,290

63

5.1

Stolen Property

27

56

51

658

631

--

Prostitution – Vice

14

26

41

23

9

64.3

Gambling

2

0

0

0

-2

-100.0

Disorderly Conduct

3,570

3,334

3,336

3,439

-131

-3.7

Sex Offense

108

112

110

102

-6

-5.6

Family Offenses

168

155

134

162

-6

-3.6

Marijuana

205

273

279

243

38

18.5

All Other Drugs

1,109

1,347

1,207

1,052

-57

-5.1

 

TOTAL

6,665

7,024

6,723

7,231

566

8.5

SECTION 5: JUVENILE CRIME

The number of and trends in recorded serious crime involving juveniles during the 2003-2007 period is summarized in Table 6. A pattern of rising juvenile offending is distinct. A 40.1% increase has emerged from three successive annual increases.

Year

Number

Percent

2004

-3

-1.0

2005

45

15.3

2006

44

13.0

2007

33

8.6

Source: APD FBI - UCR Offenses Known to Police, Yearly Totals, 2003 - 2007

Thefts predominate, 176 in 2007, followed very closely by simple assaults, 160. As is true for adults, assaults continue to remain high (aggravated) and increase (simple). Thefts jumped noticeably in 2007, 45, 34%.

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

 

Table 6

 

OFFENSES INVOLVING JUVENILES

2003-2007

 
 

Change –

Change -

 

Offense

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Number

Percent

Homicide/Manslaughter

1

0

0

0

0

-1

-100.0

Forcible Rape

2

0

1

1

0

-2

-100.0

Robbery

3

1

6

3

4

1

33.3

Aggravated Assault

30

50

49

68

41

11

36.7

Simple Assault

89

78

132

137

160

71

79.8

Burglary

17

25

16

37

32

15

88.2

Theft

152

133

134

131

176

24

15.8

Auto Theft

3

7

1

6

3

0

0.0

 

TOTAL

297

294

339

383

416

119

40.1

Source: APD FBI - UCR Offenses Known to Police, Yearly Totals, 2003 - 2007

 

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

We were unable to acquire Part II and status offense data for juveniles, which is often revealing. Vandalism and drug violations are among frequently occurring juvenile crimes. Both would be recorded in the Part II category. We are also unable to assess truancy violations, which are important for evaluation purposes.

SECTION 6: TRAFFIC CRASHES AND ENFORCEMENT

Table 7 profiles a broad range of dimensions of traffic safety conditions in Alexandria and the APD enforcement record. During the four-year period 2005-2008, the number of crashes (accidents) remained stable, changing/increasing only 1.4% each year, 24 crashes. Crashes occur at a daily average of seven.

Enforcement, measured by citations issued and traffic stops have received continuing emphasis. Largely elective (as opposed to citizen demanded), citation activity has increased continuously since 2005, almost 300 citations annually, 7.6%. Citation activity by violation type (speeding, parking, etc.) were not readily available. The traffic stop trend is more aggressive, a 56.6% increase, 18.7% annually. Most of the increase occurred from 2005 to 2006 and 2006 to 2007.

DUI arrests are an important indicator of traffic performance. Since 2005 an increasing number of DUI arrests has been recorded, rising from 242 in 2005 to 393 in 2008.

The APD engages in a range of resource-consuming activities, 700 escorts, almost 900 PDAs, and 326 tows (arranged for) in 2008. We are unable to separate work done by Uniform Division/shift patrol officers and Special Operations – Traffic officers from the data in Table 7. CAD data, used to calculate the number of first responders, (see Chapter IV.) provides some further definition.

SECTION 7: ARRESTS – ADULTS

Arrest trends for 2004-2007 are displayed in Table 8. The period was characterized by an increase, 28.5%, from 6,364 arrests in 2004 to 8,175 in 2007, an annual average of 9.5%. The 2007 total approximated the previous year, 2006. The change was powered, numerically, by 722 additional arrests in the “All Other Offenses” category. Additional increases of note are:

Disorderly Conduct

397

Drug Abuse Violations

202

Theft

143

Taking Command: New Directions for Policing the City of Alexandria

Table 7 TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT 2006-2008 Change: Change: Activity 2005 2006 2007 2008 Number Percent Dispatched
Table 7
TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT
2006-2008
Change:
Change:
Activity
2005
2006
2007
2008
Number
Percent
Dispatched Calls
4,742
4,558
4,842
5,296
554
11.7
Traffic Stops
2,855
3,907
4,403
4,470
1,615
56.6
Citations Issued
3,755
4,371
4,437
4,615
860
22.9
Street Crashes
2,235
2,033
2,248
2,331
96
4.3
PLA
500
614
733
872
372
74.4
Escorts
409
627
638
705
296
72.3
Compulsarys
125
116
114
142
17
13.6
Vehicles Towed
469
292
294
326
-143
-30.5
Misdemeanor Arrests
265
168
232
262
-3
-1.1
Felony Arrests
40
65
51
45
5
12.5
DUI Arrests
242
315