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1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 To understand the concept of mechanical properties of solid materials To construct the stress-strain diagram based on Universal Testing Machine data To understand the concept of engineering stress-strain To understand the concept of and true stress and strain To understand how to determine: a) Youngs Modulus b) Yield strength c) Ultimate stress d) Fracture stress e) Percent reduction of area f) Percent elongation g) Modulus of Resilience

The basic understanding of stress-strain behavior of materials is most importance to the material and design engineers. The tensile test is one of a common mechanical test that gives stress strain behavior on chart/ plot. This test allows us to determine several important mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, etc. The tensile test is carried out on Universal Testing Machine (UTM).

Figure 1: Structure Diagram of Testing Machine

Figure 2: Tensile Test

Figure 3: Standard Specimen

Figure 4: Stress-Strain Curve

In a tensile test specimen is deformed by a gradually increasing tensile load applied along its vertical axis. The specimen will elongate at a constant rate. For a better understanding of the stress-strain curve, it is necessary to define a few basic terms that are associated with the stress-strain plot. Stress: the force applied to produce deformation in a unit area of a test specimen. The value which is obtained by dividing tensile load applied to the test piece at any moment by area of original cross section within the reference lines. Stress =

Load Area
P A (kgm-2)

Strain: the measurement of the deformation length that has occurred in specimen or simply stated as changed in length per unit of the original length. Strain =

Final length original length Original length

L Lo

Elongation: the increase in the length of a test specimen produced by a tensile load.
L 100% Lo

Percent elongation: % Elongation =

where Lo : initial length Yield stress/ yield strength: the stress at the first point on the stress-strain curve at which an increase in strain occurs without the increase in stress. Break stress/ break strength: The stress at the break point of the specimen. Proportional limit: the stress at the point where the straight line portion of the stressstrain curves ends or the relation between stress-strain begins to deviate from linearity. Modulus of elastic/ Youngs modulus: the ratio of stress corresponding strain within the proportional limit. In case where the tensile stress-strain curve has no linear portion, it is defined as the inclination of tangent to the curve at the starting point of deformation. Modulus is a measurement of materials stiffness.

Ultimate strength: the maximum/ highest stress a material will withstand when subjected to an applied load. Percent reduction of area: a measurement of the fracture ductility % Reduction of Area =

Ao A f Ao


where Ao : initial cross sectional area Af : final cross sectional area



3.1 Equipments 1) Universal Testing Machine 2) Gripper 3) Personal Computer 3.2 Material 1) Specimens-Round Bar(Mild steel & Aluminum)

Figure 5: Universal Testing machine (UTM)



4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4.

Run the machine and make sure take a warm-up time before of appox.15 minutes after turning ON the power. Measure the width and thickness of specimen and place the specimen on the supports Start the test until a specified displacement is achieved. Obtain the data from data acquisition software and save the data in ASCII file.


5.1. Find the data for the specimen Mild Steel and Aluminium below: i. Original Diameter ii. Original Gauge Length iii. Final Diameter iv. Final Gauge Length 5.2. Construct a stress-strain curve from the load-elongation curve i. Print your load-elongation curve data. ii. Construct the load-elongation curves by utilizing spreadsheet software. The load is on the y-axis and elongation is on the x-axis. The unit of load and elongation are kN and mm, respectively. iii. Compute the Strain and stress (Engineering Values)

5.3. Plot the graph Stress vs Strain. Use the graph Stress vs Strain where the strain goes to 2%,make the following calculations(and on the graph, show how you made those calculations) i. The Elastic Modulus ii. The 0.2% offset Yield Strength if you have the graph that does not have a well-defined Yield Point. 5.4. Plot the graph Stress vs Strain up to failure, using that graph determine the Tensile Strength. 5.5. Find the results of the specimen containing i. Elastic modulus. ii. Yield Strength iii. Tensile Strength, the percent Elongation iv. Percent reduction Area v. Modulus Of Resilience 5.6. Present the result in a table containing : i. Engineering Stress ii. Engineering Strain iii. True Stress (%) iv. True Strain (%) 5.7. Plot the true stress-strain curve together with the engineering stress-strain curve for comparison



7.1 Define ductile material? Give three (3) example ductile materials. 7.2 Give three reasons why Tensile Tests was performed?

7.3 What do you understand about elastic behavior in stress-strain diagrams?

8.0 DISCUSSION (Include a discussion on the result noting trends in measured data, and comparing measurements with theoretical predictions when
possible. Include the physical interpretation of the results and graphs, the reasons on deviations of your findings from expected results, your recommendations on further experimentation for verifying your results, and your findings.)



(Based on data and discussion, make your overall conclusion by referring to experiment objective).