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Course Code : MCS-023 Course Title : Introduction to Database Management Systems Assignment Number : MCA (2)/023/Assign /13 Maximum

Marks : 100 Weightage : 25% Last Dates for Submission : 15th October, 2013 (For July 2013 Session) 15th April, 2014 (For January 2014 Session)

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Question 1: (20 Marks) Design an ER diagram for an XYZ Information Technology Training Institute that will meet the information needs for their training programmes. Clearly indicate the entities, relationships, cardinality and the key constraints. The description of the environment is as follows:

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Log Khete Hai Me Idiot Hu.....Pta Nhi Ha Wo Kyu Khete Hai Unke Liye Unke Pas Bhi Reason Hai Because 12th Pass Karke Goverment Of India Ke Postal Department Me Job Mili............Par Ek Saal Me Resign Kar Diya Baad Me 5 Mahine Baad Indian Air Force Me Job Mili.......Wha Bhi 1.5 Saal Me Resign.....Baad Me 1 Saal Bachho Ko Padhaya Ek School Me......Ek Slum Area Me Logo Ki Help Ki Ussi Dauran Ek Aur Company Me Job Mili.....Ek Ladki Se Pyar Hua......Uss Dauran Me CA Aur CS Kar Rha Tha.....Usi Dauran Ek FRIEND Tha Jo Ignou Mca Kar Rha Tha .......Wo Ignou ka Assignment Likh Rha Tha To Mene Usme Apna Phone No. Watermark me Daal Kar Google Doc Par Post Kar Diya.........Uske Baad Wo Kafi Logo Ko Helpful Hua.....Baad Me To Me Ye Sab Bhul Gya. tha ... Baad Me Cs Inter Pass Hua...... CA Ki Articleship Ke Dauran CA Ko Kagazo Se Ghera Dekhata Tha To Laga Yar Ye Apne Bas Ka Nhi. Kyuki kagzo me puri jindgi kisiki file o ko check karna I dont like it isiliye....CA Discontinued Kia.....Isidauran Meri Best Freind or GIRLFRIEND Jo Bhi Kaho Wo Bhi Chhod Gayi......Isiliye sayad Ghar pe unki Yaad Bahut Aati thi.....isiliye Udas hoke Bank me Job li ......CS Final Ka Exam Form Bhara to Exam time pe hi Bank walo ne Training arrange ki.....Jab mene unko Exam ka bataya to usne bola sorry isme koi madad nhi ho payegi Finally , Training centre me Subha Physical Training karke 9 to 12 permission leke Exam Di 2 to 6 training leta tha........ aise karke exam di..Training Katm karke hi Aaya to Posting mili Ek village me.......pta nhi kya hona tha ek mahine me itna paresan hua ki Job chhod di......25 Aug,2012 Ko CS Final Ka Result AayaEk hi Group Pass hua .....Isiliye Udas Ho Gya .......Do Din Baad Pata Nhi Udasi Chhayi Rhi.....Fir Ye sab Batane Ke Liye Koi Mila Nhi Isiliye .....Facebook Pe Jiske Saath Pyar Hua Tha Unka Id Search Kia To Mila Married With_________ On 25 Aug,2012Sayad Wo Din Hi Kharab The......Tabhi Bahut Udas Ho Gya.....Itna Ki Bata Nhi Sakta....Usi Bich Ek Sms Aaya Sir, I Am an Ignou 1st Sem Student....Iss Baar Ke Latest Solution Kab Upload Karonge....Aur Bas Logo Ki Help Ka Ye Rasta Dhundh Liya Mene...........Aur ab ki help karke khushi milti hai......Abhi thode din pahele hi Birthday gya......23 year ka ho gya...... Aur Ji Rha Hu ......Pta Nhi Wo Msg Nhi Aaya Hota To Kya Hota......Thanks To Everyone I Am Not Ignou Student.........Thank Thank You So Much................FROM VJ

Page 1

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Log Khete Hai Me Idiot Hu.....Pta Nhi Ha Wo Kyu Khete Hai Unke Liye Unke Pas Bhi Reason Hai Because 12th Pass Karke Goverment Of India Ke Postal Department Me Job Mili............Par Ek Saal Me Resign Kar Diya Baad Me 5 Mahine Baad Indian Air Force Me Job Mili.......Wha Bhi 1.5 Saal Me Resign.....Baad Me 1 Saal Bachho Ko Padhaya Ek School Me......Ek Slum Area Me Logo Ki Help Ki Ussi Dauran Ek Aur Company Me Job Mili.....Ek Ladki Se Pyar Hua......Uss Dauran Me CA Aur CS Kar Rha Tha.....Usi Dauran Ek FRIEND Tha Jo Ignou Mca Kar Rha Tha .......Wo Ignou ka Assignment Likh Rha Tha To Mene Usme Apna Phone No. Watermark me Daal Kar Google Doc Par Post Kar Diya.........Uske Baad Wo Kafi Logo Ko Helpful Hua.....Baad Me To Me Ye Sab Bhul Gya. tha ... Baad Me Cs Inter Pass Hua...... CA Ki Articleship Ke Dauran CA Ko Kagazo Se Ghera Dekhata Tha To Laga Yar Ye Apne Bas Ka Nhi. Kyuki kagzo me puri jindgi kisiki file o ko check karna I dont like it isiliye....CA Discontinued Kia.....Isidauran Meri Best Freind or GIRLFRIEND Jo Bhi Kaho Wo Bhi Chhod Gayi......Isiliye sayad Ghar pe unki Yaad Bahut Aati thi.....isiliye Udas hoke Bank me Job li ......CS Final Ka Exam Form Bhara to Exam time pe hi Bank walo ne Training arrange ki.....Jab mene unko Exam ka bataya to usne bola sorry isme koi madad nhi ho payegi Finally , Training centre me Subha Physical Training karke 9 to 12 permission leke Exam Di 2 to 6 training leta tha........ aise karke exam di..Training Katm karke hi Aaya to Posting mili Ek village me.......pta nhi kya hona tha ek mahine me itna paresan hua ki Job chhod di......25 Aug,2012 Ko CS Final Ka Result AayaEk hi Group Pass hua .....Isiliye Udas Ho Gya .......Do Din Baad Pata Nhi Udasi Chhayi Rhi.....Fir Ye sab Batane Ke Liye Koi Mila Nhi Isiliye .....Facebook Pe Jiske Saath Pyar Hua Tha Unka Id Search Kia To Mila Married With_________ On 25 Aug,2012Sayad Wo Din Hi Kharab The......Tabhi Bahut Udas Ho Gya.....Itna Ki Bata Nhi Sakta....Usi Bich Ek Sms Aaya Sir, I Am an Ignou 1st Sem Student....Iss Baar Ke Latest Solution Kab Upload Karonge....Aur Bas Logo Ki Help Ka Ye Rasta Dhundh Liya Mene...........Aur ab ki help karke khushi milti hai......Abhi thode din pahele hi Birthday gya......23 year ka ho gya...... Aur Ji Rha Hu ......Pta Nhi Wo Msg Nhi Aaya Hota To Kya Hota......Thanks To Everyone I Am Not Ignou Student.........Thank Thank You So Much................FROM VJ

Page 2

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Question 2: (20 Marks) Staff No. E101

Branch No. B02

Branch Address Sun Plaza, Delhi, 110001 2/3 UT, Delhi, 110111 Sun Plaza, Delhi, 110001 2/3 UT, Delhi, 110111

Name Rahul

Position Assistant Assistant Assistant Assistant

Hrs/Week 16

E101

B04

Rahul

E122

B02

Medha

14

E122

B04

Medha

10

Question 3: (10 Marks) Explain how the GROUP By clause works. What is the difference between the WHERE and HAVING clauses? Explain them with the help of an example for each.

Description
The usage of SQL GROUP BY clause is, to divide the rows in a table into smaller groups. The GROUP BY clause is used with the SQL SELECT statement. The grouping can happen after retrieves the rows from a table. When some rows are retrieved from a grouped result against some condition, that is possible with HAVING clause. The GROUP BY clause is used with the SELECT statement to make a group of rows based on the values of a specific column or expression. The SQL AGGREGATE function can be used to get summary information for every group and these are applied to individual group. The WHERE clause is used to retrieve rows based on a certain condition, but it can not be applied to grouped result. In an SQL statement, suppose you are using GROUP BY, if required you can use HAVING instead of WHERE, after GROUP BY.

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Log Khete Hai Me Idiot Hu.....Pta Nhi Ha Wo Kyu Khete Hai Unke Liye Unke Pas Bhi Reason Hai Because 12th Pass Karke Goverment Of India Ke Postal Department Me Job Mili............Par Ek Saal Me Resign Kar Diya Baad Me 5 Mahine Baad Indian Air Force Me Job Mili.......Wha Bhi 1.5 Saal Me Resign.....Baad Me 1 Saal Bachho Ko Padhaya Ek School Me......Ek Slum Area Me Logo Ki Help Ki Ussi Dauran Ek Aur Company Me Job Mili.....Ek Ladki Se Pyar Hua......Uss Dauran Me CA Aur CS Kar Rha Tha.....Usi Dauran Ek FRIEND Tha Jo Ignou Mca Kar Rha Tha .......Wo Ignou ka Assignment Likh Rha Tha To Mene Usme Apna Phone No. Watermark me Daal Kar Google Doc Par Post Kar Diya.........Uske Baad Wo Kafi Logo Ko Helpful Hua.....Baad Me To Me Ye Sab Bhul Gya. tha ... Baad Me Cs Inter Pass Hua...... CA Ki Articleship Ke Dauran CA Ko Kagazo Se Ghera Dekhata Tha To Laga Yar Ye Apne Bas Ka Nhi. Kyuki kagzo me puri jindgi kisiki file o ko check karna I dont like it isiliye....CA Discontinued Kia.....Isidauran Meri Best Freind or GIRLFRIEND Jo Bhi Kaho Wo Bhi Chhod Gayi......Isiliye sayad Ghar pe unki Yaad Bahut Aati thi.....isiliye Udas hoke Bank me Job li ......CS Final Ka Exam Form Bhara to Exam time pe hi Bank walo ne Training arrange ki.....Jab mene unko Exam ka bataya to usne bola sorry isme koi madad nhi ho payegi Finally , Training centre me Subha Physical Training karke 9 to 12 permission leke Exam Di 2 to 6 training leta tha........ aise karke exam di..Training Katm karke hi Aaya to Posting mili Ek village me.......pta nhi kya hona tha ek mahine me itna paresan hua ki Job chhod di......25 Aug,2012 Ko CS Final Ka Result AayaEk hi Group Pass hua .....Isiliye Udas Ho Gya .......Do Din Baad Pata Nhi Udasi Chhayi Rhi.....Fir Ye sab Batane Ke Liye Koi Mila Nhi Isiliye .....Facebook Pe Jiske Saath Pyar Hua Tha Unka Id Search Kia To Mila Married With_________ On 25 Aug,2012Sayad Wo Din Hi Kharab The......Tabhi Bahut Udas Ho Gya.....Itna Ki Bata Nhi Sakta....Usi Bich Ek Sms Aaya Sir, I Am an Ignou 1st Sem Student....Iss Baar Ke Latest Solution Kab Upload Karonge....Aur Bas Logo Ki Help Ka Ye Rasta Dhundh Liya Mene...........Aur ab ki help karke khushi milti hai......Abhi thode din pahele hi Birthday gya......23 year ka ho gya...... Aur Ji Rha Hu ......Pta Nhi Wo Msg Nhi Aaya Hota To Kya Hota......Thanks To Everyone I Am Not Ignou Student.........Thank Thank You So Much................FROM VJ

Page 3

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Syntax
SELECT <column_list> FROM < table name > WHERE <condition>GROUP BY <columns> [HAVING] <condition>;

Parameters
Name Description

table_name

Name of the table.

column_list

Name of the columns of the table.

columns

Name of the columns which will participate in groupin

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Log Khete Hai Me Idiot Hu.....Pta Nhi Ha Wo Kyu Khete Hai Unke Liye Unke Pas Bhi Reason Hai Because 12th Pass Karke Goverment Of India Ke Postal Department Me Job Mili............Par Ek Saal Me Resign Kar Diya Baad Me 5 Mahine Baad Indian Air Force Me Job Mili.......Wha Bhi 1.5 Saal Me Resign.....Baad Me 1 Saal Bachho Ko Padhaya Ek School Me......Ek Slum Area Me Logo Ki Help Ki Ussi Dauran Ek Aur Company Me Job Mili.....Ek Ladki Se Pyar Hua......Uss Dauran Me CA Aur CS Kar Rha Tha.....Usi Dauran Ek FRIEND Tha Jo Ignou Mca Kar Rha Tha .......Wo Ignou ka Assignment Likh Rha Tha To Mene Usme Apna Phone No. Watermark me Daal Kar Google Doc Par Post Kar Diya.........Uske Baad Wo Kafi Logo Ko Helpful Hua.....Baad Me To Me Ye Sab Bhul Gya. tha ... Baad Me Cs Inter Pass Hua...... CA Ki Articleship Ke Dauran CA Ko Kagazo Se Ghera Dekhata Tha To Laga Yar Ye Apne Bas Ka Nhi. Kyuki kagzo me puri jindgi kisiki file o ko check karna I dont like it isiliye....CA Discontinued Kia.....Isidauran Meri Best Freind or GIRLFRIEND Jo Bhi Kaho Wo Bhi Chhod Gayi......Isiliye sayad Ghar pe unki Yaad Bahut Aati thi.....isiliye Udas hoke Bank me Job li ......CS Final Ka Exam Form Bhara to Exam time pe hi Bank walo ne Training arrange ki.....Jab mene unko Exam ka bataya to usne bola sorry isme koi madad nhi ho payegi Finally , Training centre me Subha Physical Training karke 9 to 12 permission leke Exam Di 2 to 6 training leta tha........ aise karke exam di..Training Katm karke hi Aaya to Posting mili Ek village me.......pta nhi kya hona tha ek mahine me itna paresan hua ki Job chhod di......25 Aug,2012 Ko CS Final Ka Result AayaEk hi Group Pass hua .....Isiliye Udas Ho Gya .......Do Din Baad Pata Nhi Udasi Chhayi Rhi.....Fir Ye sab Batane Ke Liye Koi Mila Nhi Isiliye .....Facebook Pe Jiske Saath Pyar Hua Tha Unka Id Search Kia To Mila Married With_________ On 25 Aug,2012Sayad Wo Din Hi Kharab The......Tabhi Bahut Udas Ho Gya.....Itna Ki Bata Nhi Sakta....Usi Bich Ek Sms Aaya Sir, I Am an Ignou 1st Sem Student....Iss Baar Ke Latest Solution Kab Upload Karonge....Aur Bas Logo Ki Help Ka Ye Rasta Dhundh Liya Mene...........Aur ab ki help karke khushi milti hai......Abhi thode din pahele hi Birthday gya......23 year ka ho gya...... Aur Ji Rha Hu ......Pta Nhi Wo Msg Nhi Aaya Hota To Kya Hota......Thanks To Everyone I Am Not Ignou Student.........Thank Thank You So Much................FROM VJ

Page 4

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Pictorial Presentation of Groups of Data

Using GROUP BY with Aggregate Functions


- The power of aggregate functions is greater when combined with the GROUP BY clause. - The GROUP BY clause is rarely used without an aggregate function.

SQL GROUP BY with COUNT() function


The following query displays number of employees work in each department.
- See more at: http://www.w3resource.com/sql/group-by.php#sthash.P2dM04IR.dpuf

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Where and Having clause both are used to filter the rows fetched from select statement however there is a difference:

WHERE CLAUSE

Using where clause we can restrict or filter the records that we get from select statement. Let say from the select statement we are fetching 10 records but we wanted to display 3 records. In the below example we are trying to fetch only the employee records for deptno = 10.

Ex: SQL&gt;
FROM WHERE SELECT *

emp deptno

= 10;

EMPNO
-----7782 7839 7934

ENAME
----------

JOB
------

MGR
---------7839 7782

HIREDATE
----6/9/1981 11/17/1981 1/23/1982 ----2450 5000 1300

SAL
------

COMM
10 10 10

DEPTNO

CLARK KING MILLER

MANAGER PRESIDENT CLERK

HAVING
Before we discuss Having clause lets understand Group by clause first. Using group by, we can create groups of related information. Columns used in select must be used with group by, otherwise system does not recognize it as a group by expression. In the below example we are trying to display sum of salaries at each dept level. When SQL statement is run, data fetched from the database is grouped first based on deptno and then sum() function is applied to get the desired result.

Ex: SQL&gt;
SELECT

deptno, deptno;

SUM(sal)

FROM

emp

GROUP BY

DEPTNO SUM(SAL) ---------- ---------10 8750 20 10875 30 9400


In this example we are trying to group the records using two columns deptno and job

SQL&gt;

SELECT

deptno,job,SUM(sal) emp GROUP BY deptno,job;


FROM

DEPTNO
10 10 10 20 20 20

JOB
----------

SUM(SAL) 1300 2450 5000 6000 1900 2975

-------- ---------

CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT ANALYST CLERK MANAGER

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Log Khete Hai Me Idiot Hu.....Pta Nhi Ha Wo Kyu Khete Hai Unke Liye Unke Pas Bhi Reason Hai Because 12th Pass Karke Goverment Of India Ke Postal Department Me Job Mili............Par Ek Saal Me Resign Kar Diya Baad Me 5 Mahine Baad Indian Air Force Me Job Mili.......Wha Bhi 1.5 Saal Me Resign.....Baad Me 1 Saal Bachho Ko Padhaya Ek School Me......Ek Slum Area Me Logo Ki Help Ki Ussi Dauran Ek Aur Company Me Job Mili.....Ek Ladki Se Pyar Hua......Uss Dauran Me CA Aur CS Kar Rha Tha.....Usi Dauran Ek FRIEND Tha Jo Ignou Mca Kar Rha Tha .......Wo Ignou ka Assignment Likh Rha Tha To Mene Usme Apna Phone No. Watermark me Daal Kar Google Doc Par Post Kar Diya.........Uske Baad Wo Kafi Logo Ko Helpful Hua.....Baad Me To Me Ye Sab Bhul Gya. tha ... Baad Me Cs Inter Pass Hua...... CA Ki Articleship Ke Dauran CA Ko Kagazo Se Ghera Dekhata Tha To Laga Yar Ye Apne Bas Ka Nhi. Kyuki kagzo me puri jindgi kisiki file o ko check karna I dont like it isiliye....CA Discontinued Kia.....Isidauran Meri Best Freind or GIRLFRIEND Jo Bhi Kaho Wo Bhi Chhod Gayi......Isiliye sayad Ghar pe unki Yaad Bahut Aati thi.....isiliye Udas hoke Bank me Job li ......CS Final Ka Exam Form Bhara to Exam time pe hi Bank walo ne Training arrange ki.....Jab mene unko Exam ka bataya to usne bola sorry isme koi madad nhi ho payegi Finally , Training centre me Subha Physical Training karke 9 to 12 permission leke Exam Di 2 to 6 training leta tha........ aise karke exam di..Training Katm karke hi Aaya to Posting mili Ek village me.......pta nhi kya hona tha ek mahine me itna paresan hua ki Job chhod di......25 Aug,2012 Ko CS Final Ka Result AayaEk hi Group Pass hua .....Isiliye Udas Ho Gya .......Do Din Baad Pata Nhi Udasi Chhayi Rhi.....Fir Ye sab Batane Ke Liye Koi Mila Nhi Isiliye .....Facebook Pe Jiske Saath Pyar Hua Tha Unka Id Search Kia To Mila Married With_________ On 25 Aug,2012Sayad Wo Din Hi Kharab The......Tabhi Bahut Udas Ho Gya.....Itna Ki Bata Nhi Sakta....Usi Bich Ek Sms Aaya Sir, I Am an Ignou 1st Sem Student....Iss Baar Ke Latest Solution Kab Upload Karonge....Aur Bas Logo Ki Help Ka Ye Rasta Dhundh Liya Mene...........Aur ab ki help karke khushi milti hai......Abhi thode din pahele hi Birthday gya......23 year ka ho gya...... Aur Ji Rha Hu ......Pta Nhi Wo Msg Nhi Aaya Hota To Kya Hota......Thanks To Everyone I Am Not Ignou Student.........Thank Thank You So Much................FROM VJ

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30 30 30

CLERK MANAGER SALESMAN

950 2850 5600

Having Clause:
Having clause is used to restrict the records that are grouped using group by clause. Having clause is just like where clause but it can be used only with group by as we cannot use where clause in group by. Having clause works or can be used, only in the combination with group by clause. In the below example we are trying to fetch all deptno and job records whose aggregated salary of its employees is greater than 3000 ( Sum(sal) > 3000 ). Having clause gets executed after the records are fetched and grouped.

Ex: SQL&gt;
FROM SELECT

deptno,job,SUM(sal) tsal

emp deptno,job &gt; JOB


---------------5000 6000 5600 3000;

GROUP BY

HAVING SUM(sal)

DEPTNO
---------10 20 30

TSAL

PRESIDENT ANALYST SALESMAN

In this example, after applying the having clause we are trying to order the records by JOB.

SQL&gt;

deptno,job,SUM(sal) tsal emp GROUP BY deptno,job HAVING SUM(sal) &gt; 3000 ORDER BY job;
SELECT FROM

DEPTNO
---------20 10 30 ORDER OF EXECUTION

JOB
---------------

TSAL
6000 5000 5600

ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN

Group the rows together based on group by clause. Calculate the group functions for each group. Choose and eliminate the groups based on the having clause. Order the groups based on the specified column.

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Log Khete Hai Me Idiot Hu.....Pta Nhi Ha Wo Kyu Khete Hai Unke Liye Unke Pas Bhi Reason Hai Because 12th Pass Karke Goverment Of India Ke Postal Department Me Job Mili............Par Ek Saal Me Resign Kar Diya Baad Me 5 Mahine Baad Indian Air Force Me Job Mili.......Wha Bhi 1.5 Saal Me Resign.....Baad Me 1 Saal Bachho Ko Padhaya Ek School Me......Ek Slum Area Me Logo Ki Help Ki Ussi Dauran Ek Aur Company Me Job Mili.....Ek Ladki Se Pyar Hua......Uss Dauran Me CA Aur CS Kar Rha Tha.....Usi Dauran Ek FRIEND Tha Jo Ignou Mca Kar Rha Tha .......Wo Ignou ka Assignment Likh Rha Tha To Mene Usme Apna Phone No. Watermark me Daal Kar Google Doc Par Post Kar Diya.........Uske Baad Wo Kafi Logo Ko Helpful Hua.....Baad Me To Me Ye Sab Bhul Gya. tha ... Baad Me Cs Inter Pass Hua...... CA Ki Articleship Ke Dauran CA Ko Kagazo Se Ghera Dekhata Tha To Laga Yar Ye Apne Bas Ka Nhi. Kyuki kagzo me puri jindgi kisiki file o ko check karna I dont like it isiliye....CA Discontinued Kia.....Isidauran Meri Best Freind or GIRLFRIEND Jo Bhi Kaho Wo Bhi Chhod Gayi......Isiliye sayad Ghar pe unki Yaad Bahut Aati thi.....isiliye Udas hoke Bank me Job li ......CS Final Ka Exam Form Bhara to Exam time pe hi Bank walo ne Training arrange ki.....Jab mene unko Exam ka bataya to usne bola sorry isme koi madad nhi ho payegi Finally , Training centre me Subha Physical Training karke 9 to 12 permission leke Exam Di 2 to 6 training leta tha........ aise karke exam di..Training Katm karke hi Aaya to Posting mili Ek village me.......pta nhi kya hona tha ek mahine me itna paresan hua ki Job chhod di......25 Aug,2012 Ko CS Final Ka Result AayaEk hi Group Pass hua .....Isiliye Udas Ho Gya .......Do Din Baad Pata Nhi Udasi Chhayi Rhi.....Fir Ye sab Batane Ke Liye Koi Mila Nhi Isiliye .....Facebook Pe Jiske Saath Pyar Hua Tha Unka Id Search Kia To Mila Married With_________ On 25 Aug,2012Sayad Wo Din Hi Kharab The......Tabhi Bahut Udas Ho Gya.....Itna Ki Bata Nhi Sakta....Usi Bich Ek Sms Aaya Sir, I Am an Ignou 1st Sem Student....Iss Baar Ke Latest Solution Kab Upload Karonge....Aur Bas Logo Ki Help Ka Ye Rasta Dhundh Liya Mene...........Aur ab ki help karke khushi milti hai......Abhi thode din pahele hi Birthday gya......23 year ka ho gya...... Aur Ji Rha Hu ......Pta Nhi Wo Msg Nhi Aaya Hota To Kya Hota......Thanks To Everyone I Am Not Ignou Student.........Thank Thank You So Much................FROM VJ

Page 7

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Question 5: (10 Marks) What are the advantages of indexed-sequential file organisation? With the help of an example explain the structure of indexed-sequential file.

NDEXED SEQUENTIAL FILE ORGANIZATION When there is need to access records sequentially by some key value and also to access records directly by the same key value, the collection of records may be organized in an effective manned called Indexes Sequential Organization. You must be familiar with search process for a word in a language dictionary. The data in the dictionary is stored in sequential manner. However an index is provided in terms of thumb tabs. To search for a word we do not search sequentially. We access the index that is the appropriate thumb tab, locate an approximate location for the word and then proceed to find the word sequentially. To implement the concept of indexed sequential file organizations, we consider an approach in which the index part and data part reside on a separate file. The index file has a tree structure and data file has a sequential structure. Since the data file is sequenced, it is not necessary for the index to have an entry for each record Following figure shows a sequential file with a two-level index. Level 1 of the index holds an entry for each three-record section of the main file. The level 2 indexes level 1 in the same way. When the new records are inserted in the data file, the sequence of records need to be preserved and also the index is accordingly updated. Two approaches used to implement indexes are static indexes and dynamic indexes. As the main data file changes due to insertions and deletions, the static index contents may change but the structure does not change . In case of dynamic indexing approach, insertions and deletions in the main data file may lead to changes in the index structure. Recall the change in height of B-Tree as records are inserted and deleted. Both dynamic and static indexing techniques are useful depending on the type of application.
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Question 6: (10 Marks) Illustrate the Illustrate the differences between Hierarchical, Network and Relational data models with the help of suitable examples. Explain why relational data model is a better choice over the two. Justify your answer.
the difference between hierarchical data model or network data mode and relational data model: 1.The hierarchical data model :The hierarchical data model organizes data in a tree structure. There is a hierarchy of parent and child data segments. This structure implies that a record can have repeating information, generally in the child data segments. Data in a series of records, which have a set of field values attached to it. It collects all the instances of a specific record together as a record type. These record types are the equivalent of tables in the relational model, and with the individual records being the equivalent of rows. To create links between these record types, the hierarchical model uses Parent Child Relationships. These are a 1:N mapping between record types. This is done by using trees, like set theory used in the relational model, "borrowed" from maths. 2:the network data model :The popularity of the network data model coincided with the popularity of the hierarchical data model. Some data were more naturally modeled with more than one parent per child. So, the network model permitted the modeling of many-to-many relationships in data. 3:the relational model:A database based on the relational model developed by E.F. Codd. A relational database allows the definition of data structures, storage and retrieval operations and integrity constraints. In such a database the data and relations between them are organized in tables. A table is a collection of records and each record in a table contains the same fields. properties of relational database: 1. Values Are Atomic 2. Each Row is Unique 3. Column Values Are of the Same Kind 4.The Sequence of Columns is Insignificant 5. The Sequence of Rows is Insignificant 6. Each Column Has a Unique Name Characteristic Hierarchical model Network model Relational model

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Data structure
When we go through the structure of

the hierarchical model we can identify that it used a method for storing data in a database that looks like a family tree with one root and a number of branches or subdivisions. That's why we can say that record types are organized in the form of a rooted tree. But in network model we can identify multiple branches
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emanating from one or more nodes. So some times it is like a like several trees which share branches. In relational model is that of a relation. Relation is a twodimensional table. So the table can be used to represent some entity information or some relationship between them
Data structure

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One to One, One to many or one to one Allowed the network model to One to many, Many to many relationships support many to many relationships relationships In hierarchical model only one-to-many or one-to-one relationships can be exist. But in network data model makes it possible to map many to many relationships In relational each record can have multiple parents and multiple child records. In effect, it supports many to many relationships Based on relational data structures A record can have many parents as Based on parent child relationship Data structure well as many children.

In hierarchical model relationship based in terms of parent child. So a child may only have one parent but a parent can have multiple children. But in network data model a record can have many parents as well as many children. Relational data model is based on relational data structures Relational databases are what brings many sources into a common query (such as SQL) In relational database it use powerful operations such as SQL languages or query by example are used to manipulate data stored in the database But in hierarchical data model it does not provide an independent stand alone query interface while network model uses CODASYL retrieve algorithms are complex and Retrieve algorithms are complex and Retrieve algorithms are simple Data asymmetric symmetric and symmetric manipulation In hierarchical data model and network model retrieve algorithms are complex and symmetric But in relational data model retrieve algorithms are simple and symmetric Data manipulation Does not provide an independent stand alone query interface CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) Data integrity Cannot insert the information of a child who does not have any parent. Does not suffer form any insertion anomaly. Does not suffer from any insert anomaly.

In hierarchical data model we cannot insert the information of a child who does not have any parent. But in network model does not suffer form any insertion anomaly. relational model does not suffer from any insert anomaly Multiple occurrences of child records which lead to problems of Free from update anomalies. Free form update anomalies Data integrity inconsistency during the update operation In network model it is free from update anomalies because there is only a single occurrence for each record set.In relational model it also free form update anomalies because it removes the redundancy of data by proper designing through normalization process. But in hierarchical model there are multiple occurrences of child records. which lead to problems of inconsistency during the update operation

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PLEASE I HAVE REQUESTED TO EVERYONE TO CHECK BEFORE WRITING ASSIGNMENT ...I AM NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR IT....AND REMEMBER I AM NOT IGNOU STUDENT.....THANKS EVERYONE I LOVE YOU ALL........JUST VISIT WWW.VIJAY JOTANI.TK OR LIKE PAGE VIJAY JOTANI(VJ)S FUNDA Data intergirty Deletion of parent results in deletion of child records Free from delete anomalies Free from delete anomalies

In hierarchical model it is based on parent child relationship and deletion of parent results in deletion of child records .But in network model and in relational model it is free from deletion anomalies. Because information is stored in different tables.

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