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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

2. STEAM TURBINE AND AUXILIARIES

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
2.1 GENERAL 2.2 MAJOR PARTS OF THE STEAM TURBINE 2.3 TURBINE FRONT STANDARD 2.4 MAJOR STEAM VALVES 2.5 TSI
(TURBINE SUPERVISORY INSTRUMENT)

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

2.1 GENERAL

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

HP/ IP outer casing

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

HP/ IP outer casing HP inner casing

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Cross over pipe

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

LP outer casing

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

LP outer casing

LP inner casing

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Nozzle Diaphragms Nozzle Diaphragms

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Nozzle Diaphragms Nozzle Diaphragms HIP Rotor

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Nozzle Diaphragms Nozzle Diaphragms HIP Rotor LP Rotor

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TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Bearing standard

Bearing standard

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

GENERAL

Turning device

Bearing standard

Bearing standard

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS FOR STEAM TURBINE

2.2 MAJOR PARTS OF THE STEAM TURBINE


TURBINE NOZZLE TURBINE BLADES TURBINE CASING TURBINE ROTOR BEARINGS TURNING GEAR ATMOSPHERIC RELIEF DIAPHRAGM - SHAFT GROUNDING DEVICES
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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / NOZZLE

STEAM PATH OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY IMPULSE DESIGN

P3

V3 V2 V1

P2 P1

Steam Pressure Change

Steam Velocity Change

Impulse-Type Steam Path - Rugged Blade Design


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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / NOZZLE

NOZZLE BOX CONSTRUCTION

Nozzle Box & Casing Assembly


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Upper Half of Nozzle Box


TOSHIBA

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / NOZZLE

RUGGED NOZZLE DIAPHRAGMS

Wheel and Diaphragm Construction


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TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BLADE

RECESSED TENON TYPE BLADE with MULTIPLE TIP FINS and SNUBBER TYPE BLADE with Hi-Lo TYPE TIP FINS
Blade / Type Integral Cover and Shroud Recessed Tenon with Multiple Fins Snubber Type with Hi-Lo Fins Recessed Tenon with Multiple Fins Conventional Tenon and Shroud Type Cover Segment / Lng and Sleeve

FOR EXAMPLE

CONTINUOUSLY COUPLED SNUBBER TYPE BLADE (IP Stages)

COMPARISON OF TIP FINS 21

RECESSED TENONS and STEPPED SHROUDS

STAGE EFFICIENCY

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BLADE

FIRST STAGE BLADE

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BLADE

INTERMEDIATE STAGE BLADES

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BLADE

SNUBBER TYPE BLADE

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BLADE

LONGER BLADES IN THE LOW PRESSURE SECTION

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BLADE

LAST STAGE BLADE

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

IP Inner Casing Detail


There is no inner casing on the Intermediate Turbine. Disregard what the narrator says in the next slide about the inner casing. Only the HP Turbine has an inner casing.

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

HP & IP CASING
- Opposed Flow Configuration : Both the high pressure and the intermediate pressure section enclosed in one cylinder

Less thermal stress and steam leakage Compact design

High Performance and High Reliability Easy Operation, Installation and Maintenance Minimal possibility of steam leakage Lower stress and temperature gradient

- Double Shell Construction

- Centerline Support
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Easy Operation, Installation and Maintenance


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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

HP AND IP CASING SIMPLIFIED OPPOSED FLOW & DOUBLE SHELL

Double Shell Construction


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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

CENTERLINE SUPPORT AND EXPANSION CONTROL

True Centerline Support


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TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

DISASSEMBLY OF HP & IP CASING

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

HIP CASING DURING MANUFACTURING

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

HP DIAPHRAGM

IP DIAPHRAGM

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

LP CASING

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

Low Pressure Turbine Atmospheric Relief Valves


There is only one (1) atmospheric relief valve on the turbine. There are not 3 as shown in next slide.

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

LP CASING

Axial Key

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

LP CASING

Atmospheric relief diaphragms

Rupture Pressure is 34.5 kPag.

Axial Key

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TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

LP CASING

Atmospheric relief diaphragms

Hand holes

Axial Key

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

LP CASING DURING MANUFACTURING

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / CASING

LP CASING DURING MANUFACTURING

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / ROTOR

ROTOR

HP-IP Rotor and LP Rotor


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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / ROTOR

MULTI-SPAN CRITICAL SPEED MODE DIAGRAM FOR EXAMPLE

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / ROTOR

TURBINE ROTOR DURING MANUFACTURING

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BEARING

BEARINGS
- Arrangement of Bearings and Design Specifications HPIP ST#1 Type Mounted on DTP Front Stand ST#2 DTP Middle Stand ST#3 EL LP CSG Cone LP ST#4 EL LP CSG Cone GEN#5 EL BRG Pedestal GEN#6 EL BRG Pedestal

- DTP: Double Tilting Pad

EL: Elliptical Type

- Bearing Pressure = Bearing Load / (Diam.Length) for Journal Bearings

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BEARING

TILTING PAD BEARING

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TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BEARING

ELLIPTICAL BEARING

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

ELLIPTICAL BEARING

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

ELLIPTICAL BEARING

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / BEARING

BEARING SYSTEM WITH ENSURED STABILITY

Tapered-land Thrust Bearing


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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / TURNING GEAR

TURNING GEAR Speed for Turning Gear is 5.1 rpm at this project!
(1) Location of Turning Device
The cap - mount - type turning device is located on the LP turbine generator end pedestal. - The required driving force has been minimized due to the maximum spacer gear diameter at the ST&G coupling. - The space around the ST&G coupling is more stable as a turning gear location because it will be the coldest, and the rotor alignment change is relatively smaller than other spaces.

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TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / TURNING GEAR

TURNING GEAR

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / TURNING GEAR

TURNING GEAR

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / TURNING GEAR

TURNING GEAR

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / TURNING GEAR

TURNING GEAR

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

Turning Gear Operations


It Can Be Engaged 3 Ways:
Manually by means of a hand lever Remotely by use of a pushbutton at DCS Automatically by engaging mechanism driven by an air operated solenoid valve.
A zero speed indicator will actuate the device and engage the turning gear when the rotor is completely stopped.

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / OTHERS

ATMOSPHERIC RELIEF DIAPHRAGM

Cutting Knife

A Diaphragm (Copper Plate)

Rupture Pressure is 34.5 kPag. Detail of B


(Copper Plate)

View A-A

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / OTHERS

GROUNDING DEVICE ASSEMBLY


Bracket

Copper Braid

Spring

Rotation

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / OTHERS

GROUNDING DEVICE ASSEMBLY

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

MAJOR PARTS / OTHERS

GROUNDING DEVICE ASSEMBLY

Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TURBINE FRONT STANDARD

2.3 TURBINE FRONT STANDARD

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TURBINE FRONT STANDARD

LOCATION OF FRONT STANDARD

CROSS OVER PIPNG

FRONT STANDARD

HP / IP TURBINE

LP TURBINE

GENERATOR

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TURBINE FRONT STANDARD

FRONT STANDARD (SIDE VIEW)


No Speed Indicator in Front Standard
#1 Bearing oil Pressure Indicator Differential Expansion Detector #1 Bearing Returned oil Temperature Indicator Eccentricity Detector Vibration Detector Oil Deflector

Sole Plate

#1 Bearing Supplied oil Temperature Indicator

Oil Drain Pipe

#1 Bearing

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TURBINE FRONT STANDARD

FRONT STANDARD (TOP VIEW)


No Speed Indicator in Front Standard
Speed Detector for TSI Speed Detector for EHC Shell Expansion Detector HIP Rotor #1 Bearing

Bearing Oil Feed Pipe

No Shell Expansion Detector in Front Standard


TOSHIBA

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

2.4 MAJOR STEAM VALVES

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

LOCATION OF MAJOR STEAM VALVES


Only One (MSV) Main Stop Valve
MSV HP Turbine CV

LP Turbine IP Turbine CRV

Generator

Two CVs/Upper and Lower/Shell Mounted Type


TOSHIBA

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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

MSV (Side view)


Valve Bypass Valve

Steam Inlet

Steam Outlet

HYD Cylinder

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

MSV (Top view)


Steam Outlet Steam Outlet

Steam Inlet

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

SHELL MOUNT TYPE CV


CV CV CRV

HIP Turbine

CV CRV Side View

CV Front View

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

CONTROL VALVE (CV) ASSEMBLY


HYD Cylinder

Valve stem

Valve

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

COMBINED REHEAT VALVE (CRV) ASSEMBLY

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

COMBINED REHEAT VALVE (OUT LINE)

IV Hydraulic Actuator

IV Yoke

Steam Outlet RSV Yoke RSV Hydraulic Actuator

Steam Inlet

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

STEAM VALVES

COMBINED REHEAT VALVE (ASSEMBLY)


IV Yoke

IV Actuator

Cover

No IV Bypass Valve on This Project!

IV Stem Intercept Valve Strainer Reheat Stop Valve RSV bypass valve RSV Stem

RSV Yoke Steam Inlet RSV Hydraulic Actuator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

2.5 TSI
TURBINE SUPERVISORY INSTRUMENT

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

CONTENTS
2.5.1. Outline of the TSI 2.5.2. System Description 2.5.3. Principles 2.5.4. TSI Sensor Outline Drawings

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

2.5.1.OUTLINE OF THE TSI


The function of the turbine Supervisory Instrument System is to monitor and control turbine condition including factors such as speed, vibration, differential expansion, expansion, eccentricity, etc. Recently Eddy Current type sensors (in accordance with API std670) have benn developed and are being used widely. These sensors have high accuracy and wide range frequency characteristics, and anti-noise characteristics.

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

VIBRATION
Shaft vibration is one of the most important factors to monitor for safe operation of a rotating machine. In general, increased shaft vibration will result from factors such as rotor imbalance, friction, and instability of lubricating oil, etc These problems can be detected and remedied at an early stage by supervising shaft vibration. In the case of steam turbines, absolute shaft vibration is monitored.The vibration of each bearing in vertical and horizontal directions to the shaft is monitored. High vibration levels will trigger an alarm signal. Should the vibration exceed the high trip level, a turbine trip-signal will be initiated.

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TSI

SHELL EXPANSION
The relative positions between the foundation of the turbine and the shell are monitored and shell elongation in the direction of the shaft is measured using a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). Excessive shell expansion will trigger an alarm signal.

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION
The relative differential expansion between the casing and the rotor is measured. Pickups are installed in the HP/IP turbine and the LP turbine to facilitate this. Excessive differential expansion will activate the alarm.

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TSI

ECCENTRICITY
The eccentricity of the turbine rotor is measured and is important for monitoring rotor bow, particularly during the turning operation.

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TSI

THRUST POSITION
The mobility in the axial direction of the rotor is measured. An alarm and trip signal will be given, if the mobility exceeds preset values. This monitoring system is a duplicate system in the sence that it comprises 3 sets of detectors, drivers and monitors.

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TSI

ZERO SPEED
Turbine speed is monitored, turning interlocks will be initiated if the speed drops below the preset value.

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

INSTRUMENT LIST FOR MAIN TURBINE/GENERATOR


M.T Vibration Detector / 12sets(6sets of X/Y) Vibration Detector Extension Cable Vibration Driver Vibration Monitor Shaft Eccentricity / 1set Eccentricity Detector Extension Cable Shaft Eccentricity Driver Shaft Eccentricity Monitor Main turbine Zero Speed / 1set Main turbine Zero Speed Detector Extension Cable Main turbine Zero Driver Main turbine Zero Monitor Shell Expansion / 1set Shell Expansion Detector Shell Expansion Monitor
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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.


HP (HIP)Turbine Differential Expansion / 1 set HP (HIP)Turbine Differential Expansion Detector Extension Cable HP (HIP)Turbine Differential Expansion Driver HP (HIP)Turbine Differential Expansion Monitor LP Turbine Differential Expansion / 1 set LP Turbine Differential Expansion Detector Extension Cable LP Turbine Differential Expansion Driver LP Turbine Differential Expansion Monitor Thrust Position / 3 sets Thrust Position Detector Extension Cable Thrust Position Driver Thrust Position Monitor Keyphasor /1 set Keyphasor Detector Extension Cable Keyphasor Driver System Monitor
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Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

TSI

TOSHIBA

STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

GENERAL LOCATION OF TSI SENSORS


VE SE ZE1 ZE2 ZE3 ZE4 ZE5 ZE6

VIBRATION DETECTOR ZERO SPEED DETECTOR ECCENTRICITY DETECTOR HIP DIFF. EXPANSION DETECTOR SHELL EXPANSION DETECTOR KEYPHASOR DETECTOR THRUST POSITION DETECTOR LP DIFF. EXPANSION DETECTOR
ZE5

SE ZE1 ZE2

#1 E3

VE VE

Y X

VE VE

ZE5
Y X

VE
Y

VE
Y

ZE6 ZE6
X

E4
KEYPHASOR

ZE5

VE
X

VE
DIFF. EXPAN.

DIFF.EXP AN

SPEED

POSTION

ECC

X+Y
BRG.#1

VIB.

#1

VIB.

HP

IP

X+Y

X+Y
BRG.#3

LP

LP

X+Y
BRG.#4

FRONT STANDERD

BRG.#2

THRUST BEARING
SHELL EXPANTION CASING ANCHOR POINT

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TSI

LOCATION OF VIBRATION DETECTORS


VE

VIBRATION DETECTOR

VE VE

Y X

VE VE

Y X

VIB.

X+Y
BRG.#5

VIB.

GENERATOR

X+Y
STEADY SUPPORT

BRG.6

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TSI

2.5.2.Schematic Diagram of TSI - 1


ZERO SPEED ECCENTRICITY
ZERO SPEED DETECTOR FIELD ZERO SPEED DRIVER ECCENTRICITY DRIVER KEYPHASOR DRIVER ECCENTRICITY DETECTOR KEYPHASOR DETECTOR

TSI

ZERO SPEED MONITOR

MONITOR

EHC Cabinet

EHC

EHC

EHC

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TSI

Schematic Diagram of TSI - 2


TURBINE VIBRATION DETECTOR

VIBRATION DETECTOR (BRG.#1-X) FIELD VIBRATION DRIVER

VIBRATION DETECTOR (BRG.#1-Y) VIBRATION DRIVER

VIBRATION DETECTOR (BRG.#2-X) VIBRATION DRIVER

VIBRATION DETECTOR (BRG.#2-Y) VIBRATION DRIVER

TSI

TRIP(BRG.#2,3,4,5,6)

VIBRATION MONITOR-1

VIBRATION MONITOR-2

TRIP

EHC Cabinet
TRIP EHC

EHC

EHC

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TSI

Schematic Diagram of TSI - 3


SHELL EXPANSION TURBINE DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION
SHELL EXPANSION DETECTOR FIELD HIP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION DRIVER LP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION DRIVER(A) LP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION DRIVER(B) HIP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION DETECTOR LP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION DETECTOR(A) LP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION DETECTOR(B)

TSI

SHELL EXPANSION MONITOR

HIP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION MONITOR

LP DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION MONITOR

EHC Cabinet

EHC

EHC

EHC

EHC

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TSI

Schematic Diagram of TSI - 4


THRUST POSITION
THRUST POSITION DETECTOR (A) FIELD THRUST POSITION DRIVER (A) THRUST POSITION DRIVER (B) THRUST POSITION DRIVER (C) THRUST POSITION DETECTOR (B) THRUST POSITION DETECTOR (C)

TSI

TRIP(B)/(C)

THRUST POSITION MONITOR (A) TRIP

THRUST POSITION MONITOR (B) TRIP

THRUST POSITION MONITOR (C)

TRIP

EHC

EHC Cabinet

EHC

EHC

EHC

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TSI

2.5.4.PRINCIPLE VIBRATION DETECTOR

DETECTOR SLEEVE DISPLACEMENT DETECTOR

SHAFT Advantages: NO contact with the shaft surface NO moving parts NO wear Easy calibration Good frequency response Disadvantages: External power supply required Sensitive to material properties and imperfections

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TSI

Sensor signal output

Toward/Away

DC COMPONENT AVERAGE GAP

AC COMPONENT DYNAMIC MOTION

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TSI

Sensor system response

OUTPUT SIGNAL(Vdc)

-25 LINEAR RANGE (2.2mm) -20

-15 INITIAL OUTPUT -10 NEW OUTPUT

-5 NEW GAP INITIAL GAP

0.3

0.5

0.8

1.0

1.3

1.5

1.8

2.0

2.3

2.5

2.8

3.0

3.3

3.6

GAP (mm)

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TSI

2.5.4. TSI SENSOR SYSTEM OUTLINE

REFERENCE DRAWINGS OF THE INSTRUMENTS

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

Detector

Sensor Side

Connection Side

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TSI

Extension Cable

Sensor Side

Driver Side

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

Driver

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TSI

Connection Diagram

Terminal Block

Vibration Detector Extension Cable Driver

Shield Cable

CAUTION
To avoid electrical shock, do not apply power source to the monitor when wiring. 90
Classroom Lecture Series for Steam Turbine Generator

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STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.

TSI

CAUTIONARY NOTE: Instruction manuals are provided for installation, maintenance and troubleshooting of the TSI. The person responsible for the TSI should review these manuals carefully before commencing any of these activities.

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END STEAM TURBINE AND AUX.


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