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Jun Park Per.

1 10/19/13

Chapter #13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy

American System An economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which fabricated a high tariff in order to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the US to grow and prosper exclusively; this would help America industrialize and become an economic power Corrupt Bargain Referred to the presidential election of 1824 when Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House at that time, convinced the House of Representatives to elect John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson Tariff of Abominations Also known as the Tariff of 1828. It heavily 1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. Nullification The failure or refusal from a US state to aid the enforcement of a federal law within its state limits Force Bill The bill authorized President Andrew Jackson to use whatever force necessary to execute laws. For example, this bill would allow the president to use the military to collect taxes from states who didnt want to pay them; furthering the power of the presidency. Five Civilized Tribes Five tribes: Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. These tribes were embraced by their new understanding of civilization due to their intermarriage with the Whites culture. These tribes would be forced out of their homelands due to insatiable expansion by the Americans. Trail of Tears The forced movement of Cherokee Indians in 1838. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas to the Indian territory reservations. The journey lasted 116 days and was more than 800 miles. More than 4000 Cherokees died of malnutrition, cold, and disease during the trek. Nicholas Biddle He was an American financier and president of the Bank of the United States. He was known for his bribes and was in charge during the bank fray when Jackson refused to deposit federal funds catalyzing the bleeding of the bank dry. He struggled to keep the National bank functioning when President

Jackson tried destroying it and revealed its corruption Democrats vs. Whigs A standoff between two political parties during Jacksons presidency. The Whigs part was formed in the 1830s in order to oppose Jackson and the Democrats. They stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements. South Carolina Exposition and Protest In 1828, Calhoun anonymously wrote and published a widely circulated book in which he spelled out his argument against the tariff of 1828 by claiming it was unconstitutional and it aggrieved states, therefore granting the right to nullify the law within their borders Martin Van Buren He served as secretary of state during Andrew Jacksons first term, VP during Jacksons second term, and won the presidency in 1836. He was known as the Little Magician as he was responsible for the destruction of the Second Bank of the United States, blocked the annexation of Texas, and liberated the Panic of 1837 and the Free Soil Party. Specie Circular This was issued by Jackson in 1836 and was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing the value. It required that the purchase of land be through specie instead of paper money. It severely hampered land speculation and the sale of public land. The panic of 1837 shortly followed. Hayne-Webster Debate Debate over state rights between Hayne of South Carolina and Webster of Massachusetts that instigated with a resolution to restrict Western land sales and engaged the tariff issue by exploring sectional differences. Hayne believed the North was bringing disunity to which Webster denied. In the South, Calhoun revealed his adherence to states rights when Jackson rejected the ideal of state sovereignty causing Calhoun and Jackson to split, with Jackson looking at Van Buren. The Alamo Remember the Alamo was the rallying cry of the Texans in their rebellion against General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana. 200 Texans made a heroic stand against 3000 Mexicans. 1. What was unusual about John Quincy Adams's victory in the presidential election of 1824? Andrew Jackson had the strongest personal appeal, especially in the West, where his campaign against forces of corruption and privileges in government resonated. Despite having as many popular votes as his next two rivals combined, he failed to win a majority of the electoral vote. In the

deadlock, the House of Representatives, directed by the 12th amendment, were forced to choose the presidential candidate. The influential Clay, as Speaker of the House, out of hatred for the military chieftain Jackson influenced his peers to elect Adams as President clandestinely. Jacksons supporters believed Adam had bribed Clay with the position to make Adams, the peoples second choice, victorious over Jackson, the peoples first choice and was known as the Corrupt Bargain. John Randolph of Virginia publicly assailed the alliance between the Puritans (Adams) and Clay. 2. Was John Quincy Adams well suited to be president? Explain. John Adams was a closeted thinker rather than a politician, he was irritable, sarcastic, and tactless. He arrived in office ranking as one of the most successful secretaries of state, yet was one of the least successful presidents. He did not possess many of the usual arts of the politician and scorned those who did. He achieved high office by commanding respect rather by garnering popularity. He advocated for the construction of roads and canals. He also renewed Washingtons proposal for a nation university and advocated federal support for an astronomical observatory which were seen as a scandalous waste of public funds. Adams land policies antagonized the westerners as they clamored for wide-open expansion and resented the presidents well-meaning attempts to prevent feverish speculation within public lands. Adams attempted to deal candidly with the Native Americans instead of threatening eviction from their lands. This would ultimately set Adams political coffin as the Georgia governor threatened to resort to arms and successfully resisted the federal governments attempt in enforcing federal authority on behalf of the cherokees. 3. Describe the tone and tactics used in the 1828 election. Prior to the election of 1828, the united Republican split into two camps: one was the National Republicans with Adams as their leader and the other Democratic-Republicans with the fiery Jackson as their leader. Jacksons followers adopted the hickory pole for their hickory-tough hero and the Adamsites adopted the oak as the symbol for their oakley independent candidate. The Jacksonians denounced Adams as a corrupt aristocrat and argued that the will of the common people were thwarted by the corrupt bargain of Adams and Clays. They argued the only way to right the wrong was by electing Jackson who would bring reform and sweep the dishonest Adams gang. Mudslinging reach new lows as electorates developed a taste for bare-knuckle politics. Adams followers gleefully adopted these gutter tactics as they described Jacksons mother as a prostitute and his wife an adulterer. They printed black-bordered handbills shaped as coffins that recounted his numerous duels, brawls, and trumpeted his hanging of six mutinous militiamen. Jacksonians referred to Adams purchasing of a billiard table and set of chessmen as gaming tables and gambling furniture for the presidential palace. Adams was also accused of procuring a young servant girl for the lust of the Russian tsar. Jacksons strongest support came from the West and South. The middle states and the Old

North-west were divided, while Adams won New England and the better elements of the North east. Jackson trumped Adams by an electoral count of 178 to 83. 4. What was there about Andrew Jackson which made him a man of the people? Jackson was the first president from the West. He was the second president without a college education and he rose from the masses as he was brought up without parental restraints. He was a hard fit into the proper and courteous court of America and epitomized the harsh Western frontier. 5. Defend Andrew Jackson's use of the Spoils System. Jackson utilized the spoils system which awarded political supporters with public office. He defended the spoils system on democratic grounds by stating, Every man is as good as his neighbor, He believed the routine of office was simple enough for any upstanding American to learn quickly and argued each generation deserved a turn at the public trough. The spoils system was created as a method of replacing members of opposing parties with fresh members of the ruling party. However, illiterates, incompetents, and conspicuous crooks were given positions of public trust and often exploited them for spoils. Samuel Swartwout, in particular, was a notorious blemish as he was the first to steal a million from the Washington government. However, despite its abuse the spoils system was an important element of the emerging two-party order and the promise of patronage convinced Americans to pick a party and stick with it through thick and thin. 6. What circumstances led to the passage of the Tariff of Abominations? Tariffs were passed as a method of protecting American industry against competition from European manufactured goods, but also drove up prices for all Americans. In 1820s, influential New Englanders such as Daniel Webster gave up their traditional defense of free trade to support higher tariffs. With wool and textile industries booming, the foresighted Yankees believed that their prosperity would flow from factories than from the sea. In 1824, Congress increased the general tariff significantly, but wool manufacturers bleated for still-higher taxes. Arden Jacksonites promoted the bill expecting the bill to be defeated and simultaneously bolstering Jacksons support from the North-east. To their surprise, the tariff passed incensing anger from the Southerners as they were heavy consumers of manufactured goods with little manufacturing industry of their own. Hotheads branded the tariff as the Tariff of Abomination because they believed the North was discriminating against them as they experienced a boom in manufacturing while the South fell on hard times. Southerners sold their cotton and other farm produce in a world market completely unprotected by tariffs but were forced to buy their manufactured goods in an American market. Protectionism protected Yankee and middle-state manufacturers, leaving farmers and planters of the Old South stuck with the bill.

7. Describe the nullification crisis. The South Carolinians, or Nullies, strenuously tried to muster a twothirds vote in order to nullify the Tariff. In order to tip the balance, Congress passed the Tariff of 1883, which though it pared away the worst of the abominations presented previously, did not completely placate the southerners. Tensions flared up between the two sections, and in order to ease this, Henry Clay stepped up with a compromise . He proposed to lower the Tariff by 10% over the course of 8 years, which was essentially a procrastination technique. At the same time, Congress passed the Force bill, which allowed the president to use military force to ensure the collection of taxes. 8. What was particularly unfair about the treatment of the Cherokee Tribe? For their efforts to embrace the white civilization and culture, the Cherokee tribe, along with the Creek, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and the Seminoles were numbered among whites as the five civilized tribes. Jackson clearly wanted to open Indian lands to white settlement, and had Congress pass the Indian Removal act, which uprooted and moved over 100,000 Indians. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1836 in order to administer relations with the Indians, but this proved to be unsuccessful. As a result, these Indians were forced to walk on the trail of tears, where many Indians perished, to a land that would be permanently free of white influence. 9. Do you agree or disagree with Nicholas Biddles nickname, Czar Nicholas I? Explain. Nicholas Biddle was the president of the Bank of the United States, and held an immense and very unconstitutional amount of power of the financial affairs of the United States. He was therefore nicknamed the Czar Nicolas 1, and the bank was described as a hydra of corruption, after the mythological creature the hydra, which grew new heads whenever one was cut off. 10. What two things were unique about the election of 1832? During this election, for the first time, there was a third political party amidst the other two. The newborn Anti-Masonic party was centered on opposition against the influence and fearsome secrecy of the Masonic Order. However, since Jackson was also a Mason, the Anti-Masonic party was also an anti-Jackson party as well. A further novelty would be the calling of national nominating conventions to name candidates. Added to this was the adaptation of formal platforms, which publicized their positions on any given issue. 11. "Andrew Jackson's killing of the BUS forced him to issue the Specie Circular." Assess. In 1833, President Jackson decided that he had been provided a mandate by his voters to deplete the bank by removing all of its federal deposits. To do this, he would no longer deposit funds and slowly drain the bank of its existing funds. This would give rise to wildcat and pet banks, or state institutions. These banks eventually flooded the country with unreliable money, in which Jackson issued the Specie Circular in response. This declaration forced all public land purchases to be completed with metallic money, or coins.


What is so alluring about being associated with the common man? Throughout the 1830s, there began to emerge new political parties. Jacksons Democratic - Republican Party began to become known as merely the Democrats, despite the autocratic nature of Jacksons presidency. Those who opposed him eventually became known as the Whigs, which eventually came to represent and protect the goods of the common man. This also led to the fact that they would have the popular vote of the people, as the common man consisted of the majority of the nations population. 13. Describe the development of the second party system from 1828-1836. In the elections of 1836, Jackson strongly desired his successor to be Martin van Buren. He even went to the extent of rigging the convention to make his views clear. However, the Whigs planned on sending out several delegates, or favorite sons, from each region in America in hopes that it would scatter the votes. The leading Whig candidate from this deadlock decision would be William Henry Harrison. This plan would not work though, as Van Buren would barely win the popular vote, yet draw most of the electoral votes. 14. Why was Martin Van Buren unpopular? As Martin Van Buren inherited the seat of president, he also inherited with it all of the opponents of the Jackson administration as well. From the start of his presidency, Buren was already hated as a machine-made candidate seated by the democrats. His term as president was filled with problems, such as a near war with Britain in 1837 over a rebellion in Canada. Buren was also burdened with the economic difficulties that had been passed to him from Jacksons term as president. 15. What caused the Panic of 1837, and what was done by the president to try and end it? The Panic of 1837 was caused by the over speculation in western lands, as well as the result of large amount of gamblers investing on borrowed capital. This panic was also caused by factors from the Jackson era, such as the Bank War and his issued Specie Circular. In an effort to alleviate things, Martin Van Buren passed the Divorce Bill, which would call for a divorce between the government and banking. It created an independent treasury in which the government could lock its money in, and would prevent government funds from being used as reserves. 16. What made Texas so appealing to Americans? Texas was essentially a large plot of cheap land for the ever land hungry Americans. Although Spain had originally intended to populate Texas, revolution in Mexico granted the Mexicans their freedom. In a plan that was decreed afterwards, a large plot of land was given to Stephen Austin, who would lead 300 American families into the lands of Texas. These new immigrants would come to populate Texan lands. Among these immigrants were Davy Crockett and Jun Bowie. 17. How did Texas, a part of Mexico settled by Americans, become

independent of both? In 1836, Texas formally declared its own independence, and as a result named the commander in chief as Sam Houston. The dictator of Mexico at the time, Santa Anna, fought the Texans at the battle of the Alamo and killed all 200 of them. Soon afterwards, a group of American volunteers were surrounded at Goliad, where they were killed by pirates. This is the same place that Sam Houston led his small army to, as a trap for Santa Anna. There, the Texans defeated the Mexican forces and captured Santa Anna, who was forced to recognize the independence of the Lone Star Republic. 18. Did Texans ever really intend to become Mexican citizens, or did they feign allegiance to get land? In order to achieve his dream of acquiring cheap land and freedom, Moses Austin immigrated to Texas to ask the Spanish authorities for some land and the permission to establish a small colony of immigrants. However, his goal ended with his death in 1821. His son, Stephen Austin, was left to complete his legacy. Although the Texans did come for the notion of freedom and land, they did apply for Mexican citizenship. However, the Anglo-Texans were hostile to authority and did not comply with the Mexican government. 19. What does the election of 1840 tell you about politics and voters in America at that time? In the election of 1840, Martin van Buren was once again nominated as a presidential candidat4e. The Whigs on the other hand nominated the war hero William Henry Harrison under the pretense that he would have less political opposition and would receive popularity vote. Harrisons campaign was also helped by a write that enounced that he would live with only a pension, a log cabin, and a barrel of hard cider. The Whigs capitalized and soon rolled huge balls from village to village that represented Tippecanoe, and Tyler too. This election showed that the appeal of common man was necessary to win an election. 20. Who were the Democrats and what did they believe? The Whigs? The Democrats were the political party that supported. They believed in the liberty of the individual and their actions were to appeal to the common man. They advocated state rights over federal administrations. The Whigs were the opponents of the Democrats and Jacksons beliefs. They believed that harmony in society could be obtained only through governmental interference. They thought that Jacksons presidential beliefs and acts contradicted with his statements that he would make America a more liberal country.