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NTU coursenotes

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NTU coursenotes

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Evaluation of Shear Lag in Standard H I Sections
- Moment Connection Calculation Type-A_SK EC
- 4 Unrestrained Beams - 2011
- Non Uniform Bending
- Composite Slab
- Steel Frame Classification
- 08 Chapter 3
- Structural Engineering Imperfections
- From BS5950 to EC3
- Shear Conn - Extended Fin Plate
- 04a QUTStudentBeam
- Composite Beam Design
- Scia - Aluminium Code Check Theory
- Stability Analysis and Parametric Study of Pre-stressed Stayed Columns
- Lateral Torsional Buckling Analysis of i Beams Using Shell Finite Elements and Nonlinear Computation Methods (1)
- Design of Beams
- BS Structural Sections
- Steel Tub-Girder Bridge
- designofcompressionmembers-160410152041.pdf
- Quick Joint

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9 Introduction 9 Buckling g Resistance 9 Buckling Curves 9 Design Procedure 9 Comparison of BS5950 and EC3 9 Example E l Compression C i Member M b

Introduction

C Compression i members b (columns ( l and d struts) t t ) subject bj t to t Axial compression only No bending In practice, practice real columns are subject to Eccentricities of axial loads Transverse forces Compression members must be checked for Section resistance Buckling g resistance

Stocky y Columns

The characteristics of stocky columns are:

y overall buckling g Unaffected by

Slender Columns

Slender columns present a quasi buckling behaviour Euler critical stress

2E f cr = 2 = Lcr i

where, is the columns slenderness i is the radius of gyration Lcr is the buckling length

7

Two upper pp bounds: Yielding g and Buckling g Failure by yielding Failure by buckling

Lcr

Buckling of Strut

When

f cr = f y , = 1

2E fy = 2 1

1 = E f = 93.9 y

= 235 f y

Where, 1 is equal to 86 for steel Grade S275 76 for steel Grade S355

10

The design value of the compression force NEd shall be checked against the design buckling resistance:

N Ed N b , Rd

Compression buckling resistance Nb,Rd: For Class 1, 2 & 3

N b , Rd N b , Rd

Af y = M1 Aeff f y = M1

For F Cl Class 4

M1 = 1.00, , in NA to SS EN 1993-1

11

Buckling g Curves

=0

Non-dimensional slenderness

12

Buckling g Curves

Column C l strength t th is i defined d fi d by b a reduction factor applied to the yield strength fy

The European p buckling g curves p plot Reduction factor versus Non-dimensional slenderness ratio, p factor, , For different imperfection

13

Non-dimensional slenderness ratio used in EC 3 is defined as:

= = = 1 E fy Ef cr

1 1 f cr fy = fy f cr = Af y N cr

N cr

i 1 Aeff f y N cr

2 EI

Lcr

2

14

Reduction Factor

The curves, the reduction factor, can be expressed mathematically as:

=

1 1. 0

+ 2

= 0.5(1 + ( 0.2) + )

Where,

15

Imperfection p Factor

Imperfection factor a depends on : the shape of the column cross-section the direction of buckling (y or z axis) the fabrication process (hot-rolled, welded or coldformed) Imperfection factors given in Table 6.1

Table 6.1: Imperfection factors for buckling curves

a0 0.13

a 0.21

b 0.34

c 0.49

d 0.76

16

17

18

Lcr: effective length in BS 5950 No guidance given in EC 3 Use same factors as BS 5950

Nonswaymode Swaymode

19

20

Design procedure for column buckling: 1. Determine design axial load Ned 2. Select section and determine geometry 3. Classify y cross-section ( (if Class 1~3, , no account need be made for local buckling) 4 Determine effective (buckling) length Lcr. Calculate 4. buckling lengths for both principal axes based on: length bet between een restraints connection details

21

5. Calculate Ncr and Afy

= 6 Non-dimensional 6. N di i l slenderness l d which hi h based b d on N cr

Af y

7. Select appropriate buckling curve and determine imperfection factor 8. Calculate buckling reduction factor

22

9 Design buckling resistance 9.

N b , Rd

Af y = M1 Aeff f y = M1

N b , Rd

10. Check

N Ed N b , Rd

23

BS 5950 Compression section capacity (for stocky struts) Ps = py.A Ag

Where, , py design strength of steel Ag gross cross-section area of the section i

N c, Rd =

Af y

M0

N c,Rd = A eff f y M0

24

BS 5950 Member buckling resistance For Class 1, 2, 3 cross-sections

Pc = Ag p c

EC 3

For Class 1, 2, 3 cross-sections

N b, Rd = Af y M1

Pc = Aeff p cs

Where, pc is the compressive strength, strength pc is based on strut curve, slenderness & design strength py pcs is the value of pc for a reduced slenderness of Aeff Ag Ag is the gross cross-section area of the section Aeff is the effective cross-section area

=

1 +

2 2

1 .0

2 = 0,51 + 0,2 +

Af y N cr

L = cr i

1 1

25

A Grade S275 steel column with a 6 6.0m 0m effective length for both axes is to carry pure axial load from the floor above. If a 254 x 254 UC 89 section is available, check the ultimate load that can be applied on this column. Its self weight may be neglected.

6.0m

26

Section Properties p

BS 5950

Try 254 x 254 x 89 UC. D = 260.4 mm B = 255.9mm d = 200.3 mm t = 10.5 mm T = 17.3 mm rx = 11.2 cm ry = 6.52 cm Ag = 114 cm2

Eurocode 3

Try 254 x 254 x 89 UC. h = 260.4 mm b = 255.9 mm tw = 10.5 mm tf = 17.3 mm r = 12.7 mm d= 200.3mm iy = 11.2 cm iz = 6.52 cm A = 114 cm2 E = 210000 N/mm2

27

Cross-Section Classification

BS 5950

For steel grade S275, T = 17.3 17 3 mm > 16mm py = 265 N/mm2 (Table 9 ) Cross sectional classification:

= 275 / p y = 275 / 265 = 1.02

Eurocode 3

For S275 Steel, since nominal thickness t = 17.3 17 3 mm t 40mm yield strength fy = 265 N/mm2 (EN 10025)

= 235 / f y = 235 / 265 = 0.942

(Table 11)

cf = cf tf = b t w 2r 255.9 10.5 2(12.7) = = 110mm 2 2 110 = 6.36 17.3

cf tf 9 = 9 0.942 = 8.48

Outstand element of compression flange (rolled section), b/T = 7.41 < 9 Class 1 Plastic Flange is class 1 Plastic.

28

Cross-Section Classification

BS 5950

Web (axial compression), Since d/t = 19.40 19 40 40 Class 3 semisemi compact Web is class 3 semi-compact. Section is Class 3.

Eurocode 3

Web subject to compression, cw = d = 200.3 mm

cw 200.3 = = 19.08 10.5 tw

cw 33 = 33 0.942 = 31.09 tw

Web W b is i class l 1 under d compression. i Section is class 1. P ti l factors Partial f t for f resistance: it M0 = 1.0 M1 = 1.0 10

29

Section Resistance

BS 5950

No cross-sectional resistance.

E Eurocode d 3

Cross-sectional resistance: Th design The d i resistance i of f the h cross-section i for f uniform compression is,

N c , Rd = N c , Rd = Af y

M0

Af fy

M0

30

Member Buckling g

BS 5950

Effective length of the pin-ended column: LEY = 6000 mm Compressive Strength: y-y axis(the minimum axis) Slenderness ratio, y = Table bl 23 Thickness < 40 mm F rolled For ll d H-section H ti buckling b kli about b t y-y axis i strut curve (c)

LEy ry = 6000 = 92.0 6.52(10)

Eurocode 3

Member buckling resistance: Buckling length, Effective length = Lcr = 6000 mm Flexural buckling resistance: Th resistance The it to t flexural fl l buckling b kli about b t the th axis with the smallest is the critical case. The design buckling resistance is, Af y N b , Rd = (Class 1, 2 & 3)

M1

1

+

2

but 1.0

2

]

31

Member Buckling g

BS 5950 Eurocode 3

L 1 = cr N cr i 1 1 = 93.9 = 93.9 0.942 = 88.5

Af y

2 N/mm /

cr = y = = 0.605 i 112 88 . 5 y 1

L 1

6000 1

Pc = Agpc = 11.4 x 136.96 = 1549.98 kN The ultimate load that can be imposed on the column 1549.98 KN.

cr z = 1 04 i = 65.2 88.5 = 1.04 z 1 > 0 .2

L 1

6000 1

32

Member Buckling g

BS 5950

Table 6.2,

Eurocode 3

h 260.4 = = 1.018 < 1.2, t f = 17.3mm 100mm & S 275 steel b 255.9

buckling curve about major axis (y-y) to consider is b. buckling curve about minor axis (z-z) to consider is c. Table 6.1, For buckling curve b imperfection factor = 0.34 For buckling curve c imperfection factor = 0.49 Buckling about major axis (y-y),

y = 0.5 1 + ( y 0.2) + y 2

= 0.5 1 + 0.34(0.605 0.2) + 0.605 2 = 0.75 1 1 y = = = 0.84 < 1.00 2 2 2 2 0.75 + 0.75 0.605 y + y y

33

Member Buckling g

BS 5950 Eurocode 3

Buckling about minor axis (z-z

z = 0 .5 1 + ( z 0 .2 ) + z 2

= 0.5 1 + 0.49 (1.04 0.2) + 1.04 2 = 1.25 1 1 z = = = 0.51 < 1.00 2 2 2 2 1.25 + 1.25 1.04 z + z z

Nb, Rd =

The ultimate load that can be imposed on the column l 1585 1585.84 84 KN. KN

34

35

9 Introduction 9 Buckling g Resistance 9 Elastic Critical Buckling Moment 9 Design Procedure for LTB 9 Comparison of BS5950 and EC3 9 Example E l - Unrestrained U t i d Beam B

36

Introduction

Sl d structural t t l elements l t Slender loaded in a stiff plane tend to fail by y buckling g in a more flexible plane (out-of-plane buckling) Clamp at root

Unloaded ii position

37

L Lateral t lt torsional i lb buckling kli i is the th member b buckling b kli mode d associated with slender beams loaded about their major axis and without continuous ( (full) ) lateral restraint. If continuous lateral restraint is p provided to the beam, then lateral torsional buckling will be prevented and failure will occur in another mode, generally by in-plane bending (and/or shear). shear) LTB involves both lateral deflection and twisting rotation. rotation

38

9 Perfectly elastic, initially straight, loaded by equal and opposite end moments about its major axis. 9 Unrestrained along its length. M L Elevation Section M

Plan

9 End Supports Twisting and lateral deflection prevented. Free to rotate both in the plane of the web and on plan. plan

39

major axis moment My

Cross-section of the deflected free end of the cantilever IF subjected to minor axis moment

Cross-section of the free end of the cantilever that undergoes LTB when subjected to MAJOR axis moment

40

Member subjected to MAJOR axis moment

Elements under compression prone to buckling

Beam would deflect laterally in the same direction as minor axis buckling because the compressive section has a weak axis which coincides with the minor axis of beam. beam

41

When member is subjected to MAJOR axis moment, the upper flange & web are in compression and act as a strut.

Being g free to move, , the compression p elements would tend to move laterally (the same lateral movement if the beam is subjected to minor axis moment).

However, , the tension flange g and web are reluctant to move, , creating resistance to lateral movement. As such, the crosssection twists when it deflects, with the tension flange and web dragging behind. behind

42

Lateral torsional buckling can be ignored in the design when:

minor axis (z-z axis) bending CHS, SHS, circular or square bar fully laterally restrained beams

LT < 0.2 for welded sections LT < 0.4 for hot rolled sections

43

Buckling g Resistance

Ch Checks k should h ld b be carried i d out t on all ll unrestrained t i d segments t of f beams (between the points where individual lateral restraint exists). )

44

Buckling g Resistance

Diagram of lateral torsional buckling on an I-section beam under load from cross-beam

Lateral restraint

Lateral restraint

Lateral restraint

45

46

Buckling g Resistance

Each segment between intermediate lateral restraints or between the end supports of a member subject to major axis bending should be verified against lateral torsional buckling using the following:

M Ed 1.0 M b , Rd

Where, MEd is the bending moment design effect. Mc,Rd is the design lateral torsional buckling resistance of a cross-section

47

Buckling g Resistance

Eurocode 3 design approach for lateral torsional buckling is analogous l t to th the column l buckling b kli The design buckling resistance moment, moment Mb,Rd of a laterally unrestrained beam should be taken as :

Wyf y M b,Rd = LT M1

where h , LT is i the th reduction d ti f t for factor f LTB Wy is the appropriate section modulus Wy = Wpl,y for Class 1 and 2 cross cross-sections sections l Wy = Wel,y for Class 3 cross-sections Wy = Weff,y for Class 4 cross-sections For stocky beams, LT = 1.0 (LT = 0.2 or 0.4)

48

Base Method - General Case/Rolled Sections or Equivalent Welded Sections EN 1993-1-1 (Cl 6.3.2.2, 6.3.2.3) The primary method adopts the lateral torsional buckling curves given by equations 6.56 and 6.57. Simplified Method - Beams with Restraints in Buildings EN 1993-1-1 (Cl 6.3.2.4) This method utilizes a simplified assessment approach for beams with restraints in buildings given by equations 6.59 and 6.60. for info only General Method for Structural Components EN 1993-1-1 (Cl 6.3.4) This method may be used when the above methods do not apply. for info only

49

For the g general case, , the value of cLT for the appropriate pp p nondimensional slenderness is given as follows:

LT =

1 LT +

2 LT

2 LT

1.0 10

LT = W y f y / M cr

0.2 is a limiting value

aLT is an imperfection factor from Table 6.3 Mcr is the elastic critical moment for LTB

50

Table 6.3:Recommended 6 3:Recommended values for imperfection factors for lateral torsional buckling curves

Buckling g curve Imperfection factor LT a 0.21 b 0.34 c 0.49 d 0.76

Cross-section Rolled I-sections Welded I-sections Other cross-sections Limits h/b 2 h/b > 2 h/b 2 h/b > 2 Buckling curve a b c d d

51

4 beam buckling g curves for LTB ( (a, , b, , c and d) )

LT

0.2

Non-dimensional slenderness LT

52

For rolled or equivalent welded sections in bending bending, the value of LT for the appropriate non-dimensional slenderness is given as follows:

LT =

1 LT +

2 LT

2 LT

1.0 2 1 / LT

Equation (6.57)

LT ,0 = 0.4 (rolled sections, hot finished and cold formed hollow sections) = 0.2 0 2 (welded sections) = 0.75 (rolled sections, hot finished and cold formed hollow sections) = 1.00 (welded sections)

53

LTB Curves & Imperfection p Factors Rolled Sections or Equivalent Welded Sections

Recommended values for lateral torsional buckling curves for general cross-section (using equation 6.57)

Table 6.5: Recommended lateral torsional buckling curves for cross-sections Cross-section Rolled I-sections Welded I-sections Limits h/b 2 h/b > 2 h/b 2 h/b > 2 Buckling curve b c c d

54

LTB Curves & Imperfection p Factors Rolled Sections or Equivalent Welded Sections

In NA to SS EN 1993-1-1: 2010, Table 6.5 should be replaced with the following table: Cross-section

Limits

h/b 2

Buckling curve

b c d d

Rolled I- and H- sections, and hot-finished hollow sections Angles (for moments in the major principal plane) l ) and d other th hot-rolled h t ll d sections ti Welded sections and cold-formed hollow sections ti

h/b > 3.1

h/b 2

c d

55

Comparison p of Curves

9 Comparison p between g general curves and curves for rolled, , hot-finished and cold-formed sections

LT

Reduction factor

0.4

Non-dimensional slenderness

LT , 0

56

Non-Dimensional Slenderness

Calculate lateral torsional buckling slenderness:

LT =

Wy f y M cr

57

Effect of Slenderness

Stocky St k b beams (LT <0,4) 0 4) unaffected by lateral torsional buckling g Slender beams(LT > 1.2) resistance close to theoretical elastic critical moment Mcr. Intermediate slenderness adversely affected by inelasticity and geometric i imperfections. f ti

M Mpl

1,0

Stocky y

0

Intermediate

1,0

Slender

LT= M pl

Mcr

58

For typical end conditions, and under uniform moment the exact analytical l i l solution l i of f elastic l i critical i i l lateral l l torsional i l buckling moment Mcr is given by

Mcr =

Includes:

EI l

2

z w 2 cr z

L GI EI

2 cr 2

T z

0 .5

Lateral flexural stiffness EIz T i l and Torsional d warping i stiffness iff GIt and d EIw where, G = shear modulus, IT = torsional constant, constant Iw = warping constant, Iz = minor axis second moment of area Lcr = buckling length of the beam

59

N Numerical i l solutions l ti have h been b calculated l l t d for f a number b of f other loading conditions. For uniform doubly-symmetric cross-sections, , loaded through g the shear centre at the level of the centroidal axis, and with the standard conditions of restraint described, Mcr may be calculated by:

Mcr = C1

EI l

2

z w 2 cr z

L GI EI

2 cr 2

T z

0.5

60

9

The elastic critical moment for a beam under uniform bending moment is

M cr =

EI z GI t 1 +

2 EI w

L2 GI t

The elastic critical moment (mid-span moment) for a beam with t a central ce t point po t load o d is s

M cr

2 EI w 4,24 EI z GI t 1 + 2 = L L GI t

M

9 which is increased from the basic (uniform moment) case by a factor C1=4.24/ = 1.365

61

C1 values for transverse loading g

= 1.0 corresponds to the most severe case loading condition of constant bending moment)

C1 1.0

(C1

62

For end moment loading C1 may be approximated by the equation below, though other approximations also exist. C1= 1.88 1.40 + 0.522 but C1 2.70

where is the ratio of the end moments ( (defined in the following g table) )

63

64

Tabulated and approximate pp values of C1 for varying y g

C1 = 1.88 1.4+0.522

65

Basic case assumes end conditions which prevent lateral movement and twist but permit rotation on plan. End conditions which prevent rotation on plan enhance the elastic buckling resistance. Can include the effect of different support conditions by redefining the unrestrained length as an effective length Lcr. Lcr = kL where k is the effective factor. factor EC 3 recommends k values of 0.5 for fully fixed ends, 0.7 for one free and one fixed end, end and 1.0 1 0 for two free ends. ends

66

67

1 Determine 1. D t i BMD and d SFD from f d i design actions ti 2 Select section and determine geometry 2. 3 Classify cross-section 3. cross section (Class 1, 1 2, 2 3 or 4) 4 Determine effective (buckling) length Lcr depends on 4. boundary conditions and load level 5. Calculate Mcr and Wyfy 6 Non-dimensional 6. N di i l slenderness l d

LT =

Wy f y M cr

68

7. Determine buckling curve (a, b, c, or d) from Table 6.4 or Table 6.5. 8. Determine imperfection factor LT from Table 6.3 after identifying the buckling curve. curve 9. Calculate buckling reduction factor LT

11. Check

M Ed M b, Rd

1.0

69

EC 3 General method for General Case & Rolled or Equivalent Welded Case.

M b ,Rd = LT Wy

LT = 1 LT + 2 LT

2 LT

fy M1

Mb = PbSx Mb = PbZx

but LT 1,0 10

2 LT = 0,51 + LT LT 0,2 + LT

LT =

Wy f y M cr

70

EC 3

General method for General Case & Rolled or Equivalent W ld d Case. Welded C

BS 5950

Rigorous method Mb = PbSx 2 Mb = PbZx Mb = PbSx,eff Mb = PbZx,eff for Class 4 For rariable moment or unequal end d moment: t Mx Mb/mLT and Mx Mcx Where, Pb determined by LT = uv(w)0.5LE/ry or for Class 1 & f for Class Cl 3

2 EI z k I w (kL ) GI t M cr = C1 + 2 2 (kL ) k w I z EI z

2 2

71

A simply supported steel beam of 6m span is required to carry a uniform dead load of 40kN/m and an imposed load of 20kN/m. The floor slab system does not provide any lateral restraint to the beam. If a 533x210 UB138 Grade S275 steel is available for this purpose purpose, check its adequacy in terms of bending, shear and deflection.

w = 88kN/m

6m

72

Section Classification

BS 5950

Section Classification (BS, Table 11): Flange: g Outstand element of compression flange, Rolled section. py = 265 N/mm2 (T<40mm, Table 9)

275 = py

275 = 265 = 1.02

EC 3

Section Classification (EC, Table 5.2): Flange: Stress distribution in parts (compressive positive) fy = 275 N/ N/mm2 (T<16mm) (T 16 )

=

235 fy

235 275

= 0.92

Cf tf = 86.9 = 3.7 9 = 9(0.92) = 8.46 23.6

73

Member Properties p

BS 5950

Grade S275 Steel Section: 533x210x138 UB E = 205,000 N/mm2 py = 265 N/mm2 (T > 16 mm, Table 9) b/T = 4.53 d/t = 32.4 t = 14.7 14 7 mm T = 23.6 mm D = 549.1 mm Sx = 3610x103 mm3 Zx = 3140x103 mm3 Ix = 86100x104 mm4 ry = 46.8 mm

EC 3

Grade S275 Steel Section: 533x210x138 UB E = 210,000 N/mm2 py = 275 N/mm2 (T < 40mm, Table 3.1) cf/tf = 3.68 cw/tw = 32.41 tw = 14.7 14 7 mm tf = 23.6 mm h = 549.1 mm Wy,pl = 3610x103 mm3 Wy,el = 3140x103 mm3 Iy = 86100x104 mm4 iz = 46.8 mm

74

BS 5950

Dead load = 40 kN/m Imposed load = 20 kN/m

w = 1.4(40 ) + 1.6(20 ) = 88kN / m

EC 3

Dead load = 40 kN/m Imposed load = 20 kN/m

w = 1.35(40 ) + 1.5(20 ) = 84 kN / m

M max

wl 2 = 8 2 ( 88)(6 ) = 8 = 396kNm

Vmax =

wl 2 (88)(6) = 2 = 264kNm

M max

wl 2 = 8 2 ( 84 )(6 ) = 8 = 378kNm

Vmax =

wl 2 (84)(6) = 2 = 252kNm

Mmax

Vmax

75

Section Classification

BS 5950

Web: Web of an I-, , H- or Box section, , neutral axis at mid-depth.

d = 32.4 80 = 80(1.02 ) = 81.6 t

EC 3

Web: parts (compressive ( p Stress distribution in p positive)

C w = 549.1 2(23.6 ) 2(12.7 ) = 476.5mm

76

BS 5950

Buckling Resistance Moment (LTB) General Method: Equivalent slenderness LT For an II or H Hsection member the equivalent slenderness LT should be obtained using:

EC 3

Elastic Critical Lateral Torsional Buckling Moment Determination:

M cr = C1

EI z I w

2

Lcr

Iz

Lcr GI T 2 EI z

2

1 2

LT = uv W

W = 1.0

u = 0.873 x = 25

L = E ry

= (1.132)

(6000)2

2

267 x10 (6000) (81000) 250 x10 + 4 2 4 ( ) 3860 x 10 210 , 000 3860 x 10

10 4

( (

) )

1 2

= 1007kNm

LT =

Wy f y M cr

3 6

6000 = 128.2 46.8

= 0.99 LT , 0 = 0.4

Must M check h kf for LTB LTB.

77

BS 5950

v= 1 1 + 0.05 x

2 0.25

EC 3

= 1

2 0.25

LT = uv W

= (0.873)(0.81)(128 ) 1.0 = 91

pb = 141 N / mm 2

LT = 0.5 1 + LT ( LT 0.2 ) + LT 2

]

]

LT =

=

M b = pb S x

LT + LT LT 1

2

1.0

3

2

1 .0

78

BS 5950

Buckling Capacity check (BS, Clause 4.3.6.2): ) (from Table 18)

M b , Rd = LT Wy f y

EC 3

m LT = 0.925

M1

(M1 = 1.0)

Mx

396kNm

79

Shear

BS 5950

Shear Check (BS, Clause 4.2.3): For rolled I-, H- and Channel sections, load parallet to web.

Av = t D

EC 3

Shear Check (EC, Clause 6.2.6): For rolled I and H sections, load parallel to web.

Av = A 2bt f + (t w + 2 r )t f hwt w

= (14.7)(549.1) = 8072mm 2

Pv = 0.6 p y Av

7378mm 2

V pl , Rd

fy Av 3 =

M0

( M 1 = 1.0)

80

Shear

BS 5950

High or Low Shear :

0.6 Pv > Fv

0.6(1283 ) = 770 kN > 264 kN

EC 3

High or Low Shear Check :

0.5(V pll , Rd ) > Vmax

0.5(1342 ) = 671kN > 252 kN

d = 32.4 62 = 62(1.02) = 63.24 t

No N reduction d ti of f Moment M t resistance it is i required. Shear Buckling Check: Shear buckling need not be considered provided hw 72 (for unstiffened web)

tw [549.1 2(23.6)] (0.92) 72 14.7 (1.0)

34 .14 66 .24

81

Moment

BS 5950

Moment Capacity : For Class 1 section:

EC 3

Bending Resistance Determination :

M c , y , Rd = W pl , y f y

( M 0 = 1.0)

M c = pySx

M0

= 396kNm

General(BS, Clause 4.2.5.1): Mc should h ld be b limited li it d to t 1.2p 1 2 yZ in i the th case of f a simply supported beam.

1.2 p y Z = 1.2(265)(3140 x103 )(10 6 )

= 999 kNm > M c = 957 kNm

82

Deflection

BS 5950

Deflection Check (BS, Table 8): Assuming beam is carrying plaster or other b i l finishes. brittle fi i h

Limit =

6000 L = 360 360 = 16.7 mm

4

EC 3

Deflection Check (Singgapor National Annex): Assuming beam is carrying plaster or other brittle finishes.

Limit =

L 360

6000 360 = 16.7 mm =

83

BS 5950

Buckling Resistance Moment (LTB) Simple method:

W = 1.0 (Class 1 or Class 2 cross section)

LE = 1.0 LLT = 1.0(6000) = 6000mm

ry = 46.8mm

EC3

Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance Determination For rolled section or equivalent welded section:

LT , 0 = 0.4 = 0.75

LT =

Wy f y M cr

=

3 6

= 0.99

3.1 >

pb = 134 N / mm 2

Use buckling curve c (from Table 6.5) LT = 0.49 (from Table 6.3)

84

BS 5950

M b = pb S x = (134)(3610 x10 3 )(10 6 )

EC 3

LT = 0.5 1 + LT ( LT LT , 0 ) + LT 2

]

]

= 484 kNm

Mx Mb mLT

396kNm k

= 0.5 1 + 0.49(0.99 0.4 ) + 0.75(0.99) 2 = 1.01 1.0 1 LT = 1 2 2 LT + LT LT 2 LT 1.0 1 = 1 1.01 + 1.012 0.75(0.99) 2 2 (0.99)

= 0.65

1.0,1.02

M b , Rd = LT

Wy f y

M1

LTB Check is satisfied. R ll d section Rolled ti method th d gives i a less l conservative result.

85

86

Introduction

Members subject to combined bending and compression are also l known k as beam-columns. b l Members subject to axial load and moments should be checked for:

Section capacity (Strength) buckling capacity (Buckling-flexural and LTB ) Annex A A Annex B

For members subject to combined bending and tension, the effects of tension can be safely ignored in the check for buckling capacity.

87

Beam-columns bending g about the major j axis only y

88

Cross-Section Behaviour

No overall buckling Axial compression reduces moment resistance

Where, MN,Rd N Rd is the design plastic moment resistance reduced due to the presence of axial force NEd.

No allowance necessary if

89

Various combinations of bending moment (M) and axial load (N): N = 0, 0 M = Mply,Rd, the f full ll plastic moment, moment to M =0, N = Nply,Rd, the squash load M-N relationship depends on Shape of the section Position of the neutral axis (web or flange) Consider general loading condition for symmetrical I and H sections bending about major j axis.

90

91

92

For bi-axial bending, g, the following g criterion shall be satisfied: N

M y , Ed M z , Ed + 1 M N , z , Rd M N , y , Rd

where

My

Type yp of Section

Mz

where n =

2 2

5n 1 2

N Ed and N pl , Rd = N pl , Rd M0

93

Doubly symmetrical I and H sections Reduced moment resistance about yy axis

M N , y , Rd 0.5hw t w f y M for n 0.25 & N Ed pl , y , Rd M0 = 1 n M pl , y , Rd otherwise e se M pl , y , Rd ot 1 0.5 a

where a =

( A 2bt f ) A

0.5

M N , z , Rd M pl , z , Rd = n a 2 M pl , z , Rd 1 1 a for N Ed

w w

M0

hwt w f y

for N Ed >

M0

where a =

( A 2bt f ) A

0.5 05

94

Rectangular g hollow & welded box sections of uniform thickness Reduced moment resistance about yy axis

M N , y , Rd 1 n = M pl , y , Rd 1 0.5a M pl , y , Rd w

A 2bt a = 0.5 0 5 for hollow sections w A where A 2bt f aw = 0.5 for welded box sections A

M pl , z , Rd M N , z , Rd = M pl , z , Rd 1 0.5a f A 2ht a 0.5 for hollow sections = f A where A 2ht w a f = 0.5 for welded box sections A

95

Rectangular g solid sections of Reduced moment resistance about yy axis

M N , y , Rd = M pl , y , Rd (1 n 2 )

Reduced moment resistance about zz axis

M N , z , Rd = M pl , z , Rd (1 n 2 )

N Ed n= N pl , Rd

96

Check at critical locations:

N Ed M y , Ed M z , Ed + + 1 N Rd M y , Rd M z , Rd

Where N Rd = Where,

Af y

M0

, M y , Rd =

Wel , y f y

M0

, M z , Rd =

Wel , z f y

M0

This check can also be used as a conservative approximation for Class 1 & 2 cross-sections where NRd, My,Rd and Mz,Rd are defined as follows:

N Rd =

Af y

M0

, M y , Rd =

W pl , y f y

M0

, M z , Rd =

W pl , z f y

M0

97

Check at critical locations:

N Ed M y , Ed + N Ed eN y M z , Ed + N Ed eN z + + 1 N Rd M y , Rd M z , Rd

Where, , N Rd =

Aeff f y

M0

, M y , Rd =

Weff , y f y

M0

, M z , Rd =

Weff , z f y

M0

eN = shift in the relevant centroidal axis when the effective cross section is subjected to compression only.

98

N When the design value of the shear force VEd exceed 50% of the design plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd, the yield strength fy should be reduced by (1 r).

My Mz Vz Vy

f yr = (1 ) f y

2VEd 1 where = V pl , Rd Av ( f y / 3 ) V pl , Rd =

2

M0

99

Overall stability must also be checked Two design approaches used in EC 3 Interaction equations (Clause 6.3.3) Alternative methods for calculating kyy, kyz, kzy and kzz factors Annex A and B General method (Clause 6.3.4)

100

Interaction Equations q

Combinations of NEd and MEd As a proportion of corresponding member resistance, NRd and MRd NRd determined as for columns in axial compression MRd determined as for beams in bending Biaxial bending is also including in EC 3

101

Interaction Equations q

For Class 1, 2 & 3, both relationships must be satisfied: Biaxial bending g combined with flexural buckling g about major axis (y-y axis):

M y , Ed M z , Ed N Ed + k yy + k yz 1 N b , y , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd

Eqn. (6.61)

Biaxial bending combined with flexural buckling about minor i axis i (z-z ( axis): i )

M y , Ed M z , Ed N Ed + k zy + k zz 1 N b , z , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd

Eqn. (6.62)

102

NEd,My, = design compression force and bending y,Ed,Mz,Ed , moments Nb,y,Rd and Nb,z,Rd = design buckling resistances about major and minor axes Mb,Rd = design buckling resistance moment of a laterally unrestrained column Mcb,z,Rd (Class1&2) ) cb z Rd=Wpl,zfy pl zfy/M1( Mcb,z,Rd=Wel,zfy/M1(Class3) kyy,kyz,kzy,kzz = interaction factors

103

Interaction Equations q

For Class 4, both relationships p must be satisfied: Biaxial bending combined with flexural buckling about major axis (y-y axis): M y , Ed + M y , Ed M z , Ed + M z , Ed N Ed + k yy + k yz 1 N b , y , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd

Biaxial bending combined with flexural buckling about minor i axis i (z-z ( axis): i )

M y , Ed + M y , Ed M z , Ed + M z , Ed N Ed + k zy + k zz 1 N b , z , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd

My,Ed, Mz,Ed = moments due to shift of the centroidal axis for class 4 sections.

M y,Ed = N Ed eN y , M z,Ed = N Ed eN z

104

Depend p on Non-dimensional slenderness NEd / Nb,Rd Equivalent uniform moment factor, cm Whether or not member susceptible to torsion Alternative methods allowed Annex A (French/Belgium method) Annex B (German/Austrian method) U.K. approach Simplified approach often adopted (Annex B)

105

k factors-Appendix B

Table B.1:Interaction factors kij for members not susceptible to torsional deformations

Interaction Type of factors sections Design assumptions elastic cross-sectional properties plastic cross-sectional properties class 3, class 4 class 1, class 2

Design assumptions Interaction elastic cross-sectional properties plastic cross-sectional properties factors class 3, class 4 class 1, class 2 kyy kyy from Table B.1 kyy from Table B.1

kyz kyz from Table B.1

N Ed 1 0.05 z (C 0.25) N mLT b , z , Rd for z 1.0

kyy

I-sections RHS-sections

N Ed C my 1 + 0.6 N b , y , Rd

otherwise

0.1 z N Ed 0.6 + z 1 (C 0.25) N mLT b , z , Rd for z 0.4 0.1 z N Ed 1 (C 0.25) N mLT b , z , Rd for 0.4 z 1.0

otherwise C my 1 + 0.8 N Ed N b , y , Rd

kyz kzy

N Ed 1 + 0.6 C mz z N b , z , Rd for z 1.0

N Ed C mz 1 + 0.6 N b , z , Rd

0.6kzz 0.6kyy

N Ed C mz 1 + (2 0.6) z N b z Rd , , for z 1.0

otherwise

kzy

kzz kzz from Table B.1 kzz from Table B.1

I-sections

kzz

otherwise C mz 1 + 1.4 N Ed N b , z , Rd

RHS-sections

N Ed Cm mz 1 + 0.8 N b , z , Rd otherwise

For I- and H- sections and rectangular hollow sections under axial compression and uniaxial bending, kyz may be 0.

106

cmy, cmz, cmLT For members with sway y buckling g mode, , cmy, cmz = 0.9 respectively For no sway members, based on shape of bending moment diagrams between relevant points of restraint

Moment factor cmy cmz cmLT Bending axis yy y-y z-z y-y Points braced in direction zz z-z y-y y-y

107

108

k Factors - Appendix pp B

k values as a function of cm Tables B1 & B2 Figures D2 D8 of SCI Concise Guide, e.g.

kyy for Class 1 & 2 Sections

N di Non-dimensional i l slenderness l d

109

Conservative approach pp based on maximum values in Annex B for members susceptible to torsion NCCI (Non-Contradictory (N C t di t Complementary C l t Information) I f ti ) simplification for columns in simple construction

Maximum values according to Annex B Class 1 & 2 1.8 cmy 0.6 kzz 0.6 kyy 2.4 cmz Class 3 1.6 cmy 1.0 kzz 0.8 kyy 1.6 cmz

110

EC3 Procedures

Determine Nb,y,Rd [6 3 1 1(3)] b Rd, Nb,z,Rd b Rd [6.3.1.1(3)] Mb,Rd [6.3.2.1(3)] Mcb,z,Rd [6.2.5] cb z Rd cmy , cmz , and cmLT based on shape of bending moment diagrams [Table B3] Select figure for k factors based on section type cross-section classification Determine k factors based on equivalent moment factor, cm non-dimensional di i l slenderness l d ratio i NEd / Nb,Rd [Table B1 or B2]

111

Verify for biaxial bending combined with flexural buckling about major axis (6.3.3(4))

M y , Ed + M y , Ed M z , Ed + M z , Ed N Ed + k yy + k yz 1 N b , y , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd

Eqn. (6.61)

Verify for biaxial bending combined with flexural buckling about b t minor i axis i (6.3.3(4)) (6 3 3(4))

M y , Ed + M y , Ed M z , Ed + M z , Ed N Ed + k zy + k zz 1 N b , z , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd

Eqn. (6.62)

112

113

Example 3: Buckling resistance of UC subjected to compression & moments P f Perform buckling b kli check h k on a steel t l column l using i 203 203x203x60 203 60 UC section ti Nc that is subjected to a compressive load of 380kN, linearly varying major My,1 & minor o axis a s moments o e s with the ee end d moments o e s be being g My, = 82.0kNm, 8 0 , y1 My,2 = 41.0kNm & Mz,1 = 35.4kNm, Mz,2 = 17.7kNm. The steel grade used is S275 and the effective length is Lcr,y = Lcr,z = L = 3.0m.

Determine design strength and section classification as per Example BC-1.

My,1= 82.0kNm My,2= 41.0kNm Mz,1= 35.4kNm

Mz,1 L

Mz, z 2= 17.7kNm

Segment Length

Segment length for y-y buckling Lcr,y = 3.0m Segment length for z-z buckling Lcr,z = 3.0m Segment length for LTB Lcr,z = 3.0m 3 0m

My,2 Mz,2 Nc

114

1 = 93.9 = 86.4

Lcr , y 1 300 1 y = = 0 388 = 0.388 i y 1 8.96 86.4

h 209.6 209 6 = = 1.02 < 1.2 & b 205.8 t f = 14.2mm < 100mm

Use buckling curve b = 0.34

2 y = 0.5[1 + ( y 0.2) + y ] = 0.607 1 y = = 0.931 0 931 2 2 y + y y

a0

b

0.34

0.13 0.21

0.49 0.76

N b , y , Rd = y

Af y

M1

115

Lcr , z 1 300 1 = = 0.668 iz 1 5.20 86.4

z =

Use buckling curve c = 0.49 0 49

z =

1 z +

2 z 2 z

= 0.744 0 744

a0

b

0.34

0.13 0.21

0.49 0.76

N b , z , Rd = z

Af y

M1

116

h < 2 Use buckling curve a b LT = 0.21

L2 cr GI T + M cr = C1 2 2 Lcr I z EI z 05 0.5 2 * 210000 * 2060 * 10 4 0.197 * 1012 30002 * 81000 * (47.2 * 10 4 ) 6 * 10 = 1700kNm = 2.70 * + 2 4 2 4 * 210000 * (2060 * 10 ) 3000 2060 * 10

2 EI z I w

0.5

41.0 C1 = 1.88 1.40 + 0.52 2 = 2.71 82.0 Since C1 2.70, Use C1 = 2.70

Limits

Buckling curve a b

0.21

b

0.34

c

0.49

d

0.76

LT =

Wy f y M cr

W pl , y f y M cr

2 LT

Imperfection factor LT

LT =

1 LT +

2 LT

2 LT

= 0.971

M b , Rd = LT

Wy f y

M1

117

M z , Rd = Wz f y

M1

41.0 41 0 = 0.5 Cmy = 0.6 + 0.4 my = 0.6 + 0.4 * ( 0.5) = 0.4 82.0 17.7 mz = = 0.5 0 5 Cmz = 0.6 0 6 + 0.4 0 4 mz = 0.6 0 6 + 0.4 0 4 * 0.5 0 5 = 0.8 08 35.4 41.0 mLT = = 0.5 CmLT = 0.6 + 0.4 mLT = 0.6 + 0.4 * ( 0.5) = 0.4 82 0 82.0

my =

118

y = 0.388 < 1.0, z = 0.668 < 1.0 N Ed 380 k yy = Cmy 1 + ( y 0.2) = 0.4 * 1 + (0.388 0.2 )* = 0.415 N 1956 b , y , Rd N Ed 380 = 0.8 * k zz = Cmz 1 + (2z 0.6) 1 (2 * 0.668 0.6) * + = 0.943 N b,z,Rd 1563

k yz = 0.6 k zz = 0.6 0.943 = 0.566

Ned My,Ed Mz,Ed Nb,y,Rd Nb,z,Rd Mb,Rd Mz,Rd kyy kyz kzy kzz (kN) (kNm) (kNm) (kN) (kN) (kNm) (kNm) 380 82.0 82 0 35.4 35 4 1956 1563 175 83.8 83 8 0 0.415 415 0 0.566 566 0 0.892 892 0 0.943 943

M y , Ed M z , Ed N Ed 380 82.0 35.4 + k yy + k yz = + 0.415 * + 0.566 * = 0.628 1 N b , y , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd 1956 175 83 8 83.8 M y , Ed M z , Ed N Ed 380 82.0 35.4 + k zy + k zz = + 0.892 + 0.943 = 1.06 > 1 N b , z , Rd M b , Rd M z , Rd 1563 175 83 8 83.8

119

120

Plate Girder

9 Shear Sh buckling b kli 9 Initial Sizing 9 Web Design 9 Comparison p of BS 5950 and EC 3 9 Tension Field Action 9 Example Plate Girder

121

Plate Girder

3 plates, fillet welded to form I-section A

End post

load

Flange

Transverse T stiffeners

W b Web

122

123

The resistance of the web to shear buckling should be checked h k d especially i ll f for welded ld d sections, ti th though h this thi is i unlikely lik l to affect standard hot-rolled sections. Shear buckling need not be considered provided:

hw tw 72

h t

w w

31

where =

235 fy

124

Initial Sizing g

1) ) span p to depth p ratio: Recommended span-to-depth ratios for plate girders in buildings

Application p y pp beams with Simply-supported concrete deck (composite or noncomposite) Continuous beams with concrete deck Simply-supported p y pp crane g girders Span-to-depth ratio 12-20

15 20 15-20 10-15

Deeper girder is preferred for heavier loads and smaller deflections and a shallower girder is preferred for lighter loads.

125

Initial Sizing g

2) ) Flange g area An initial flange area may be established on the assumption that bending moment is carried by flanges alone: Af = Mmax/hwfy Wh Where, Af Mmax hw fy

is the area of each flange is the maximum bending moment is the height of the web is the flange yield strength

126

Initial Sizing g

3) ) flange g width The flange width bf will usually in the range h/5> bf > h/3 Where, h is the clear depth between flanges.

127

Initial Sizing g

4) ) Proportioning p g of flanges g The required q flange g area Af and flange g width bf are now known. Generally proportion flanges to remain non-slender. Class 3 slenderness limit (outstand flange): cf/tf < 14 Class 2 slenderness limit (outstand flange): cf/tf < 10 cf is i the h flange fl outstand d width id h tf is the flange thickness 05 = (235/fy)0.5

128

Initial Sizing g

4) ) Proportioning p g of flanges g An initial flange g area may y be established on the assumption p that bending moment is carried by flanges alone, then:

M Rd = A f fy

M0

hw M Ed

or

A f = 2b f t f

M Ed M0 f yhw

129

Web Design g

5) ) Proportioning p g of web Web depth p is known. Generally y also p proportion p webs to remain non-slender. Class 3 slenderness limit (web in bending): cw/tw < 124 Class 2 slenderness limit (web in bending): cw/tw < 83 cw is the flange outstand width tw is i the h flange fl thickness hi k = (235/fy)0.5

130

Web Design g

6) Optimum depth Define terms:

= ratio of web depth/thickness = hw/tw Af =area of f one flange fl Wpl = plastic modulus based on the flanges only = Afhw=MRd/fy Af = Wpl/hw Aw = area of web = hwtw = hw2/ A = total area = Af+Aw=2 Wpl/hw+ hw2/

W pl h dA = -2 2 + 2 w = 0 dh w hw

dh w

=0

hw = W pl

3

or hw = 3

M Ed

fy

131

Web Design g

7) Minimum thickness of web To prevent the compression flange buckling in the plane of the web, the following criterion should be met:

hw E k f yf t AW A fc

The value of the factor k should be taken as follows: k=0 0.3, 3 where plastic hinge rotation is utilized k=0.4, where the plastic moment resistance is utilized k=0.55, 0.55, where the elastic moment resistance is utilized

132

Web Design g

Stocky webs: For unstiffened

hw 72 tw

Slender webs (beyond the above limits, for unstiffened or stiffened webs):

For o st stiffened e ed

hw 31 k tw

Vb , Rd = Vbw, Rd + Vbf , Rd

f yw hw t w

3 M 1

Failure by yielding

V pl , Rd = Av ( f y / 3 )

M0

133

Web Design g

Where, Where Vbw,Rd is the design resistance contribution from the web Vbf,Rd is i th the design d i resistance i t contribution t ib ti from f the th flanges

Vbw, Rd = w

f yw hw t w 3 M 1

Reduction factor for the shear buckling

Vbf , Rd = w

b f t f f yf c M 1

M 1 Ed M f , Rd

134

F webs For b with ith transverse t stiffeners tiff at t supports t only; l Or for webs with intermediate transverse or longit dinal stiffeners or both; longitudinal The factor w should be obtained from Table 5.1 or Figure 5.2:

135

1.076

Figure 5.2: shear buckling factor w 1 Rigid end post 2 Non-rigid end post 3 Range of recommended

136

End Supports pp

Figure 5.1 shows various end supports for girders:

137

Web Slenderness

The web slenderness w may be taken as: a) transverse trans erse stiffeners at supports s pports only: onl :

w =

h 86.4t

w =

h 37.4t k

In which k is the minimum shear buckling coefficient for the web panel.

Shear buckling coefficient k: k = 5.34 + 4.00(hw/a)2 when a/hw 1 k = 5.34 5 34 + 4 4.00(h 00(hw/a)2 when a/hw 1 a = transverse stiffener spacing; hw = web height

138

Flange g Contribution

When the flange resistance is not completely utilized for moment (MEd < Mf,Rd), the flange contribution should be obtained as:

Vbf , Rd = w b f t f f yf c M 1

2

M 1 Ed M f , Rd

(5.8)

bf and bt are taken for the flange which provides the least axial resistance, and bf 15tf on each side of the web. Mf,Rd is the bending resistance of the section consisting of the effective area of the flanges only.

M f , Rd = M f ,k

M0

2 1.6b f t f f yf c = a 0.25 + 2 th w f yw

139

Shear-Bending g Interaction

Shear-bending interaction for webs susceptible to shear buckling:

For MEd < Mf,Rd Equation (5.8) For MEd > Mf,Rd f Rd when VEd Vbw,Rd/2 then Mc,Rd = Mpl (or Mel) when h VEd > Vbw,Rd/2 then th moment t capacity it reduced d d according to Eq. 7.1. for info only

140

Design procedure for slender webs: 1. Determine the optimum p depth p & minimum thickness of web 2. Calculate web slenderness w 3. Determine web buckling reduction factor w 4 Calculate web shear resistance Vbw,Rd 4. 5. For stiffened webs, add flange contribution Vbf,Rd (when MEd<M Mf,Rd) 6. Check Vb,Rd = Vbw,Rd+ Vbf,Rd > VEd

141

EC 3 Shear Sh buckling b kli check h k when h

hw > 72 tw hw > 31 k tw

BS 5950 Sh Shear buckling b kli check h k when h d/t > 70 for a rolled section d/t > 62 f for a weld ld section ti

Vb , Rd = Vbw, Rd = w

Vb , Rd d

qw is the shear buckling strength of the web, qw can be obtained from Table 21 of BS 5950

f yw hw t w 3 M 1

f yw hw t w

3 M 1

w f yw = hw t w 3 M1

Similar to qw

142

w is determined by Table 5.1 and Equation (5.6)

w =

hw 37.4t k

(5.6)

Assumed the stiffener spacing is equal to web depth, and Steel Grade S275,

so

a/hw = 1

k = 5.34 + 4.00(hw/a)

(A.5)

= 235 f = 235 275 = 0.924 y

w =

hw 37.4t k

hw 37.4t 9.34

1 hw 105.66 t

143

= 1.0, from UK AN of EC3. Table 5.1 can be rewrote as:

w Rigid end post (hw/t)<87.70 )<87 70 87.70(hw/t)<114.11 (hw/t)<114.11 ) 114 11 1 87.70/(hw/t) 1 3 /(0 (hw/t)/105.66) 1.37/(0.7+( )/10 66) Non-rigid end post 1 87.70/(hw/t) 8 0/(hw/t) 87.70/(

144

From Table 5.1 (new) & Table 21 of BS 5950, the figure can be obtained as follow

2 Stiff Stiffener spacing i ratio, ti a/d (a/h ( /hw) = 1 1, fy = 275N/mm 275N/

180

0.6275=165

g end host TFA EC3 rigid qw (2000) TFA EC3 non-rigid end post TFA qcr (1990 & 2000) No TFA 71 61 55 7 55.7 28

80 87.7

100

114

150 200 250 300

145

146

147

Buckling stage

Ultimate stage

Tension Compression

148

A simply supported plate girder has a span of 18 m, and carries two concentrated loads on the top flange at the third points, consisting of 400kN permanent action and 300kN variable load. load In addition addition, it carries a uniformly distributed permanent load of 20kN/m, which includes an allowance for self weight and an imposed load of 10kN/m. The compression flange is fully restrained laterally. The girder is supported on a heavy stiffened bracket at each end. Th materials The t i l of fb both th web b and d fl flanges are Grade G d S275 steel. t l The web will be designed with rigid end post. post

149

The factored loads are: Concentrated actions = (1.35 400) + (1.5 300) = 990kN Distributed action = (1.35 (1 35 20) + (1.5 (1 5 10) =42kN/m 42kN/m The actions and reactions are shown in Figure 5.27(a) and the shear force diagram in Figure 5.27(b). The moments are: MC= (1368 6) (42 6 3) = 7452kNm ME= (1368 6) (990 3) (42 9 4.5) =7641kNm The bending moment diagram is shown in Figure 5.27(c).

150

(a)

C A 6m

990kN E

990kN D

42kN/m B

6m Loading

6m

(b)

1368kN

1318kN

1116kN 126kN

1611kNm 7452kNm

7641kNm

151

Girder Section

k=0.4 as plastic rotation is not utilized. If the flanges resist the bending moment, moment Aw=Acf. Assuming the thickness of the flange is larger than 16mm, then the yield strength fyf 265N/mm2. The critical hw/t ratio f=265N/mm is given by:

hw E AW 210000 k = 0.4 1 = 317 t f yf A fc 265 The e optimum opt u dept depth hw is sg given e by:

6 317 7642 10 hw = 3 =3 = 2090mm f yf 265 Then the thickness of web, tw, is given as

M Ed

use tw = 8mm

152

hw

Girder Section

Assuming the flange is Class 2. The maximum flange outstand c f = 10t f = 10 0.924 t f = 9.24t f Where, = 235 275 = 0.924 Use s=tw, so the flange width bf = 2cf+2s+tw=18.48tf+24mm, the fl flange area: Af = (18.48tf+24) tf F From another th equation ti

So,

t f = 26.6mm b f = 515.6mm

use a 28500mm plate.

153

Girder Section

Overall depth: h = hw + 2t f = 2090 + 2 28 = 2146mm Use h=2000mm hw = h 2t f = 2000 2 28 = 1944mm Actual web slenderness:

hw 1944 = = 243 tw 8 Maximum hw/t ratio:

hw E =k t f yf Aw 210000 1944 8 = 0.4 = 321 > 243 Acf 265 500 28

154

Girder Section

Plastic moment of resistance of the flanges:

M pl , Rd

fy

155

Web Design g

An arrangement for the stiffeners is set out as following. The design strength of web fyw is 275kN/m; the design strength of flange fyf is 265kN/m.

1200 1600 3 2000 3

II

III

Intermediate stiffener

stiffener arrangement

156

Web Design g

1) Panel I Web contribution Intermediate stiffener is 1.2m from the support, so a=1.2m.

a 1200 = = 0.62 < 1.0 hw 1944

h k = 4 + 5.34 w = 18.01 a

2

157

Web Design g

Determine the normalized web slenderness ratio w

w =

As w > 1.08

The shear resistance contribution from the web:

Vbw, Rd = w hw t w f yw = 0.58

3 M 1

158

Web Design g

Flange contribution

1.6b f t 2 f yf f c = a 0.25 + 2 t h f w w yw

2 1 . 6 500 28 265 = 1200 0.25 + = 325mm 2 8 1944 275

M Ed

M f , Rd = M pl , Rd = 7316 kNm

The shear resistance contribution from the flanges:

Vbf , Rd M bf t 2 f f yf Ed = 1 c M 1 M f , Rd

2

159

Web Design g

Verification for shear resistance

Vb , Rd = Vbw , Rd + Vbf , Rd

f yw hw t w 3 M 1

1 275 1944 8 10 3 3 M 1 2469kN

ok!

= 1432 + 304

= 1736

160

Web Design g

2) Panel II Wen contribution

VEd = 1368 - 1.2 42 = 1318kN (at the edge of panel II, x=1.2m)

161

Web Design g

Determine the normalized web slenderness ratio w

hw 1944 = = 2.04 w = 37.4t k 37.4 0.924 8 11.88

A As

w > 1.08

w =

1.37 = 0 .5 0.7 + w

3 M 1

= 0.5

162

Web Design g

Flange contribution

c = 325mm

M Ed

Vbf , Rd M bf t 2 f f yf Ed = 1 c M 1 M f , Rd

2

Vb , Rd = Vbw , Rd + Vbf , Rd

f yw hw t w 3 M 1

= 1474

2469 kN

ok! k!

163

Web Design g

3) Panel III

M Ed = 7452 kNm kN > M f , Rd = 7316 kNm kN

So the contribution of flanges should not be accounted.

The girder is satisfactory for the stiffener arrangement assumed.

164

Stiffener Design g

1) Rigid end post The design will be made using twin stiffener end post, as shown following. The end post is designed to be rigid.

200 e 1200 a

19 944

tend

tend=12

hw

146 tw=8

146

300 bend

165

Stiffener Design g

The following criteria must be fulfill:

e 0.1hw = 0.1 1.944 m = 0.1944 m

Aend = 300 12 = 3600mm 2

bend

2 hwt w 4 e 1944 8 2 4 200 2488mm 2

t end

= 300

12 (double sided)

166

Stiffener Design g

2) Intermediate stiffeners The axial a ial force from the tension field action can usually s all occur occ r in the first intermediate stiffener near support, where the shear force is the maximum. The axial force Nst,ten is given by:

N st ,ten = VEd

t w hw

f yw 3 M 1

VEd is determined at 0.5hw from the stiffener with the higher shear force.

167

Stiffener Design g

The parameter of plate slenderness w is calculated assuming the stiffener is removed, removed thus a=1200+1600=2800. =1200+1600=2800

hw 1944 = = 0.69 a 2800

2

N st ,ten = 1358

The minimum stiffness requirement for all but two panels either side of the central stiffener is given by the case a < 2hw

168

Stiffener Design g

design on the least value of a:

3 3 hw t 1944 3 83 6 4 I s = 1.5 2 = 1.5 = 3 . 93 10 mm 1200 2 a

Use a 12mm thick plate, then the total breath of the stiffener lst is g given by: y

6 12 3 . 92 10 b=3 = 157.7 mm 12

Use lst=160mm.

169

Stiffener Design g

Strength check: Effective area:

l st 160 = = 13.3 > 14 = 12.9 t s 12 l st ,eff = 14t = 14 0.924 12 = 155 mm

The axial force that can be carried by the stiffener NRd is given as fy 275 3 N Rd = Aeff = 5590 10 0 = 1537 537 kN ff , st t M0 1 .0

And resistance NRd exceeds the values of NEd of all stiffeners.

170

Stiffener Design g

Buckling check: Effective length: l = 0.75h = 0.75 1944 = 1458mm Effective area second moment:

e w

I eff ,st =

ieff , st =

I eff , st Aeff , st = 32157432 5590 = 75.8mm

ieff , st 1

lcr

= 0.5 1 + ( 0.2) + = 0.5(1 + 0.49 9(0.22 0.2 ) + 0.22 2 ) = 0.53

2

171

Stiffener Design g

=

1

+ 2

2 2

= 0.99

Th stiffener The tiff is i satisfactory ti f t .

172

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