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August 2012 This month's newsletter is the first in a multi-part series on using the ANOVA are using are

shown in the table below.


Part 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

3.29 2.44 4.34 3.47 2.2 3.08 2.53 4.19 3.01 2.44 3.04 1.62 3.88 3.14 1.54

Results 3.41 2.32 4.17 3.5 2.08 3.25 1.78 3.94 4.03 1.8 2.89 1.87 4.09 3.2 1.93

3.64 2.42 4.27 3.64 2.16 3.07 2.32 4.34 3.2 1.72 2.85 2.04 3.67 3.11 1.55

The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R

In most cases, you will use computer software to do the calculations. Since this is a relatively simple Gage R&R, we will show how the calculations are done. This helps understand the process better. The software usually displays the results in an ANOVA table. The basic ANOVA table is shown in the table below for the following where k = number of operators, r = number of replications, and n= number of parts.

The first column is the source of variability. Remember that a Gage R&R study is a study of variation. There are five sources of variability in this ANOVA approach: the operator, the part, the interaction between the operator and part, the equipment and the total. The second column is the degrees of freedom associated with the source of variation. The third column is the sum of squares. The calculations with these two columns were covered in the first part of this series. The fourth column is the mean square associated with the source of variation. The mean square is the estimate of the variance for that source of variability (not necessarily by itself) based on the amount of data we have (the degrees of freedom). So, the mean square is the sum of squares divided by the degrees of freedom. We will use the mean square information to estimate the variance of each source of variation this is the key to analyzing the Gage R&R results. The fifth column is the F value. This is the statistic that is calculated to determine if the source of variability is statistically significant. It is based on the ratio of two variances (or mean squares in this case).

The ANOVA Table Results

The data was analyzed using the SPC for Excel software. The results for the ANOVA table are shown below. Source Operator Part Operator by Part Equipment Total df 2 4 8 30 44 SS 1.630 28.909 0.065 1.712 32.317 MS 0.815 7.227 0.008 0.057 F 100.322 889.458 0.142 p Value 0.0000 0.0000 0.9964

Note that there is an additional column in this output the p values. This is the column we want to examine first. If the p value is less than 0.05, it means that the source of variation has a significant impact on the results. As you can see in the table, the operator by part source is not significant. Its p value is 0.9964. Many software packages contain an option to remove the interaction if the p value is above a certain value most often 0.25. In that case, the interaction is rolled into the equipment variation. We will keep it in the calculations here though it has little impact since its mean square is so small. The next column we want to look at is the mean square column. This column is an estimate of the variance due to the source of variation. So, MSOperators = 0.815 MSParts = 7.227 MSOperators*Parts = 0.008 MSEquipment = 0.057 You might be tempted to assume, for example, that the variance due to the operators is 0.815. However, this would be wrong. There are other sources of variation present in all put one of these variances. We must use the Expected Mean Square to find out what other sources of variation are present. We will use 2 to denote a variance due to a single source.

Expected Mean Squares

As stated above, the mean square column contains a variance that is related to the source of variation in the first column. To find the variance of each source of variation, we have to use the expected mean square (EMS). The expected mean square represents the variance that the mean square column is estimating. There are algorithms that allow you to generate the expected mean squares. This is beyond the scope of this newsletter. So, we will just present the expected mean squares. Lets start at the bottom with the equipment variation. This is really the within variation (also called error). It is the repeatability portion of the Gage R&R study. The expected mean square for equipment is the repeatability variance. The repeatability variance is the mean square of the equipment from the ANOVA table.

Now consider the interaction expected mean square which is given by:

Note that the EMS for the interaction tern contains the repeatability variance as well as the variance of the interaction between the operators and parts. This is

what is estimated by the mean square of the interaction. The parts expected mean square is shown below.

Note that the EMS for parts contains the variances for repeatability, the interaction and parts. This is what is estimated by the mean square for parts. And last, the expected mean square for the operators is given by:

The EMS for operators contains the variances for repeatability, the interaction and operators. This is what the mean square for operators is estimating.

The Variances of the Components

We can solve the above equations for each individual 2. Repeatability is already related directly to the mean square for equipment so we dont need to do anything there. The other three can be solved as follows:

We can now do the calculations to estimate each of the variances.

Note that the value of the variance for the interaction between the operators and parts is actually negative. If this happens, the variance is simply set to zero.

% Gage R&R

The Measurement Systems Analysis manual published by AIAG (www.aiag.org) provides the following definition: The measurement system variation for repeatability and reproducibility (or GRR) is defined as the following: GRR2=EV2 + AV2 where EV is the equipment variance and AV is the appraiser (or operator) variance. Thus:

The total variance is the sum of the components:

We can use the total variance to determine the % contribution of each source to the total variance. This is done by dividing the variance for each source by the total variance. For example, the % variation due to GRR is given by:

The results for all the sources of variation are shown in the table below. Source GRR Equipment (Repeatability) Operators (Reproducibility) Interaction Parts Total % of Variance Total Variance 0.1109 12.14% 0.0571 0.0538 0.0000 0.8021 0.9130 6.25% 5.89% 0.00% 87.86% 100.00%

Based on this analysis, the measurement system is responsibility for 12.14% of the total variance. This may or may not be acceptable depending on the process and what your customer needs and wants. Note that this result is based on the total variance. It is very important that the parts you use in the Gage R&R study represent the range of values you will get from production. One of the major problems people have with Gage R&R studies is selecting samples that do not truly reflect the range of production. If you have to do that, you can begin to look at how the results compare to specifications. We will take a look at that next month as we compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for analyzing a Gage R&R experiment. You could also use a variance calculated directly from a month's worth of production in place of the total variance in the analysis.

In this newsletter, we continued our exploration of the using ANOVA to analyze a Gage R&R experiment. We completed the ANOVA table, presented the expected mean squares and how to use those to estimate the variances of the components, and showed how to determine the %GRR as a percent of the total variance. In the next newsletter, we will compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for Gage R&R.

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