Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 43

Zuba-Dan Inverter

New Mr.SLIM Inverter for colder climate regions

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Shizuoka Works

2007 JSRAE Technology Award

Mr. SLIM Zuba-Dan Inverter models 1. Development background 2. Features of Zuba-Dan models 3 Flash Injection Cycle & its characteristics 4. Improvement on Start-up & Defrost 5. Field Test Result 6. Summary

1. Development Background

1. Development Background
<Min. Temp. in January>
(average of 1991 to 2000)
-15 to -20oC in Northern part of Hokkaido. Around -10oC in Southern part of Hokkaido and in Tohoku region

1. Development Background <in case of Standard Heat Pump air conditioner>


1. 2

Capacity is reduced at low ambient temperature.

Electric heater assisted indoor unit Burner assisted indoor unit

0. 8

Liquid injection Heat Pump


0. 6

0. 4
-15

Capacity is reduced by defrost operation which leads to poor comfortability.


-10 -5 0 5

10

Heating Peformance Curve

1. Development Background
Challenges for Heat Pump
*Poor performance at low ambient temperature. *Room temperature goes down during defrost. Slow in starting up. *Not adequate for use in northern part of Hokkaido.

Required functions for A/C for cold climate regions


(1)No periodical servicing is required. (2)Keeps good performance even at low ambient temperature. (3)Highly efficient operation at low ambient temperature. (4)No drop in room temperature while defrosting. (5)Can be used in all areas in Hokkaido.

Electric Heater assisted A/C


> Low in operation efficiency.

Burner assisted A/C


> Periodical servicing is required for burner. > Requires big installation space. > Big amount of the initial investment.

Liquid INJ COMP mounted A/C


> Limited in injection amount (discharge temperature goes down too much) > Operation efficiency should be improved during injection.

solution: Zuba-Dan

2. Features of Zuba-Dan models

2. Features of Zuba-Dan models


(1)High heating capacity at low ambient temperature
Our Flash Injection cycle (patent to be filed) enables to keep the maximum heating capacity even at -15oC.

(2)Comfortability
*Improved defrost control: Defrost duration is reduced to one third of the conventional model. *Quick start-up: Required time to reach the air blowing temperature of 40oC is halved.

(3)Wider operation range <Industry First!>


Heating operation even at -25oC is possible. (conventionally only to -20oC) > Possible to be used in all areas in Hokkaido.

(4)Easy and quick installation <Industry First!>


The Activated carbon filter and the Wide strainer enable the reuse of existing piping even when the compressor is broken and the refrigerant oil is contaminated.

3. Flash Injection Cycle & its characteristics

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Flash Injection + Power Receiver Circuit>
Outdoor unit Outdoor HEX 4-way valve C Injection Compressor B A K H HIC G J F E Power Receiver (Heat recovery type liquid pool) Indoor unit

Indoor HEX

LEV A

LEV C

LEV B

<Characteristics> *Flash Injection of refrigerant. Refrigerant heat is recovered by HIC circuit. *Power Receiver circuit without inlet accumulator (good in start up / inlet dry control) *3 LEVs optimally control evaporator, condenser and discharge temperature.

: Refrigerant flow in heating mode

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Zuba-Dan refrigeration cycle (Pressure-Enthalpy diagram)>
10
Heat Exchange by heat recovery type receiver
Increased refrigeration effect

D F G E B

Pressure[MPa]

Heat Exchange by HIC


H

K
Injected Gas gets drier >>> Injection amount is increased. (To prevent discharge SH to decrease.)

(1)Increased refrigeration effect (improved refrigerant cycle theory) (2)Quick recovery from defrosting with no accumulator. (3)Inlet gas super heat >>> to secure compressor high efficiency (to avoid liquid compression efficiency to be lowered)

0.1 100

150

200

250 300 350 Enthalpy[kJ/kg]

400

450

500

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Flash Injection Cycle>
Outdoor unit 4-way valve C B A H K HIC F J LEV A LEV C E LEV B
(1)Increased refrigeration effect (improved refrigerant cycle theory) (2)Quick recovery from defrosting with no accumulator. (3)Inlet gas super heat >>> to secure compressor high efficiency (to avoid liquid compression efficiency to be lowered) Power Receiver
(heat recovery type liquid pool) Increased refrigeration effect
G

Indoor unit

10

Heat Exchange by heat recovery type receiver


D F E B J K C

Outdoor HEX G

Indoor HEX

Pressure[MPa]

Injection Compressor

Heat exchange by HIC


H I A

D
0.1 100 150 200 250 300 350 Enthalpy[kJ/kg] 400 450 500

: refrigerant flow in heating mode

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Comparison with conventional injection>
Injection Compressor

Discharge temperature increases >>> capacity cannot be increased a lot = not suitable for a/c for cold regions.

Evaporator

Condenser

Gas/Liquid separator

HIC

X=0.2

X=1.0

X=0.2 1.0

Liquid INJ

Gas INJ

Flash INJ

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Comparison of Flash INJ with Liquid INJ (same capacity basis)>
10
Inside HEX without HIC Conditions: Ambient-15oC / COMP 120rps / Heating capacity 14kW
Qc Pd

Pressure[MPa]

Liquid INJ (w/o HIC)

COMP input = 7.13kW 1 Gi


Pinj Ge Ps Qe

Big amount of liquid injection >>> discharge temperature decreases.

0.1 100

150

200

250 300 350 Enthalpy[kJ/kg]

400

450

500

Flash INJ
Pr essur e[ MPa]

10 Inside HEX M HI C L with HIC

F O C -15 A k o@ COMP ] 120rps g A \ [ 14kW Conditions: Ambient-15 C/ 120rps / Heating capacity 14kW
Qc

COMP input = 6.14kW @ k =6.14kW


1

Inlet gas gets drier >>> discharge SH can be secured.

Qe

0. 1 100

150

200

250 300 350 Ent hal py[ kJ/kg]

400

450

500

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Flash Injection circuit>
HIC 10 Inside HEX M without HI C
oC F O C -Ambient-15 15 A k / @ ] 120rps g A \ [ 14kW Conditions: COMP 120rps / Heating capacity 14kW

Qc

Pr essur e[ MPa]

Liquid INJ (w/o HIC)

Pd

@ k =7.13kW COMP input = 7.13kW

Gi Pinj Ge Ps

0. 1 100

10

Ge Gi SH f o 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 discharge Ent hal py[ kJ/kg] COMP rotation k @ ] Qc HEX M HI CHIC L Inside with F O C -15 A k o@ ] 120rps g A \ [ 14kW Conditions: Ambient-15 C / COMP 120rps / Heating capacity 14kW Q e Qc input
Qe

kg/h kg/h deg r ps W kW kW

HI C HIC HI L C HIC with w/o 168. 4 174. 2 84. 4 137. 4 20 0 120 120 14. 00 14. 00 8. 03 7. 01 6. 14 7. 13

Flash INJ
Pr essur e[ MPa]
@ k =6.14kW

cop
1

2. 28( 116%)1. 96( 100%)

Qe

0. 1 100

150

200

250 300 350 Ent hal py[ kJ/kg]

400

450

500

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Theoretical characteristics: calculation conditions>
Sub cool 10deg Condenser refrigerant amount Ge+Gi T5:HIC inlet liquid temperature T7:HIC outlet liquid temperature 0.908MPa 0.269MPa(-30 ) Tm: Injection refrigerant temp. Injection amount Gi Super heat 10deg Evaporator refrigerant amount Ge Equal entropy compression

3.063MPa(50 )

*Pomer mnostiev =Gi/Ge *HIC temperature efficiency =(T5-T7)/(T5-Tm)

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Theoretical characteristics: temperature efficiency influence>
1.35 Ratio of Heating COP & Capacity (base condition = =0 ) 1.30 ratio of Capacity 1.25 1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 ratio of COP 1.00 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 HIC T emperature Efficiency

As HIC temperature efficiency increases, heating capacity and COP also increase.

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Test Result (1)>
3.1

120 110
HIC Length

Discharge Pressure[MPa]

] Discharge Temperature[

100 90 80 70 60 50 40

0m 1.5m 3m

2.9
HIC Length

2.8

0m
2.7 2.6 0 0.2 0.4 Inject ion Rat io 0.6 0.8

1.5m 3m

0.2

0.4 Injection Ratio

0.6

0.8

*Discharge pressure increases as Injection ratio increases. It has got no relations with HIC length. *Discharge temperature decreases as Injection ratio increases.

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Test Result (2)>
135 ] 130 125 120
HIC Length

110
HIC Length

105 100 95 90 85 80

0m 1.5m 3m

Heating Capacity Ratio[

115 110 105 100 0 0.2 0.4 Injection Ratio 0.6

0m 1.5m 3m

Heating COP Ratio[

0.8

0.2

0.4 Injection Flow Ratio

0.6

0.8

*Heating capacity gets bigger as the HIC length gets longer. It depends on the Injection ratio as well but not largely. *COP worsens as the Injection ratio gets bigger. 125% Heating capacity / 100% COP is realized when injection ratio is 0.4.

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Heating capacity at low ambient temp. (comparison with conventional model)>
18000 16000 Heating Capacity[W] 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 Conventional Rotational Speed 70%
FLASH Injection Rotational Speed 100% FLASH Injection Rotational Speed 70%

Outdoor Temp.m n

*Heating capacity is improved by 30% even at same COMP rotation speed (at -15oC) *Heating capacity is almost doubled with increased COMP rotation speed. (at -15oC) >>>This was impossible before due to the excessive temp.rise of discharge refrigerant.

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Flash Injection Cycle Control>

SC

Di schar ge SH

3 conditions (suction refrigerant, condenser and evaporator) is optimally controlled.


<LEV> <controls on> A: Suction refrigerant Super Heat B: Condenser Sub Cool C: Discharge refrigerant Super Heat

LEV d q cB B

LEV d q cC C

LEV d q cA A

Suct i on SH

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<LEV characteristics>
35 30 25 SH,SC[deg] SH,SC[deg] 20 15 10 5 0 100

Refrigerant distribution is analyzed when each LEV is controlled individually.


35 discharge o f SH SH 30 SC SC suction z SH SH 25 20 15 10 5 0 140 170 SH,SC[deg] 35 discharge SH o f SH SC SC 30 suction SH z SH 25 20 15 10 5 0 230 100 o f SH discharge SH SC SC suction z SH SH

110

120

130

190

210

200

300

400

LowerLEV opening (pulse) i LEV J x [ pul se]

Upper (pulse) LEV LEV opening i J x [ pul se]

INJI LEV opening (pulse) NJ LEV J x [ pul se]

Only suction SH responds to lineSH shape.

Influence on refrigerant distribution.

Discharge SH responds SH acutely.

Suction Super SH Heat control

Sub SC Cool control

Discharge SHSuper Heat control

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Application of Quality Engineering>

<Background> *3 LEVs operates individually towards different control targets. *Does individual LEV control interfere each other resulting in unstable refrigerant cycle? *Most stable control constant is chosen.

<Purpose> We apply Quality Engineering in order to check whether the currently chosen control constant combinations (current control) is appropriate or not.

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<System Basic Functions>

*What is the stability of the refrigerant cycle?


<Definition of Basic Function> Starting from the stable condition, compressor rotation should be increased from 60 to 70rps. If the integrated value of SHs in the next 10 minutes is small, it means the stability is high.
SHs

11deg 10deg 9deg SHs time

2 =

(SHs)
t =1

600

600

SHs = SHs 9 L ( SHs < 9) SHs = SHs 11L ( SHs > 11) SHs = 0 L (9 SHs 11)

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Injection Pressure calculation method> Vst1[cc/r] = Compressors suction volume Pd Vst2[cc/r] = Compression room volume at the end of injection Pm *Point 1 Inlet refrigerant (density D1) is trapped in Vst1.
4 3 6 5

h1 Gi
9 2

*Point 1 >>> 2 Injection refrigerant (condition 9) is poured into compression room Existing refrigerant amount increases to D1 (1+).

Pinj

h2
7

Ge
Ps 1

= Gi / Ge *Point 2 >>> 3 Injection port is closed at the compression room volume of Vst2. Normal pressure rise process afterward.

By adjusting the discharge SH at point 3 by , and by adjusting Pinj to make the density at point 2 gets D2, Injection pressure can be calculated.

3. Zuba-Dan refrigerant circuit


<Injection Pressure>

Pd: stable, Ps: variation character


3.5 3 0.8 2.5 [MPa(abs)] Pd Pinj(SHd20deg) Pinj(SHd50deg) 1 INJ (SHd20) INJ ratio (SHd20) INJ (SHd50) INJ ratio (SHd50)

Pressure (MPa (abs))

2 1.5 1

INJ ratio

INJ

0.6 0.8 1

0.6

0.4

0.2 0.5 0 0 0.2 0.4 Ps[MPa(abs)] 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Ps[MPa(abs)]

Pinj is about 2.5 times of Ps. INJ amount (discharge SH) has just small influence.

The lower the Ps is, the bigger the INJ ratio gets. The smaller the discharge SH is, the bigger the gets.

4. Improvement on Start up & Defrost

4. Improvement on Start up & Defrost


<Standard Accumulator circuit>
Refrigerant is pooled in the accumulator during start up and defrosting. As a result, it takes long time to start up due to insufficient refrigerant circulation. Normal start up: Refrigerant within outdoor HEX moves into the accumulator. Defrost: surplus refrigerant is pooled in the accumulator.

<Flash Injection cycle>


(1)Start up with a bit return in liquid condition as there is no liquid pool on low pressure side. (to secure circulation amount) (2)Refrigerant pooled in the receiver during defrost is quickly let return to compressor from injection circuit. It contributes to improve start up characteristics. (3)Refrigerant circulation amount at start up is secured by Injection.

Outdoor unit

4-way valve

Outdoor unit

4-way valve

Compressor

Injection compressor

Accumulator
Slowly return to suction through oil recovery hole.

Power receiver

HIC

4. Improvement on Start up & Defrost


<Start up characteristics (at -10oC ambient)>
50 45 40 35 ( ) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 ( mi n) Time (minute) 20 25 30 10

Zuba-Dan air discharge air temp.

9 8 7

Accumulator cycle air discharge temp

6 5

Air discharge temp (oC)

Low pressure (MPa)

Zuba-Dan low pressure

4 3 2

Accumulator cycle low pressure

1 0

In accumulator cycle, the temperature does not rise rapidly due to insufficient refrigerant circulation when starting up. On the other hand in Zuba-Dan, the discharge air temperature can reach high level in short time.

4. Improvement on Start up & Defrost


<Better comfort with better defrost control>

Better comfort is achieved by Flash Injection cycle and new Defrost control. (1)Quicker start up *Optimal supply of refrigerant by receiver circuit at start up. *Refrigerant circulation amount is increased by Flash Injection. (2)Shorter defrost *Defrost is shortened by Flash Injection. (3)Less frequent defrost *Less frost on HEX with hydrophilic fins. *Estimation control on Frost formation contributes to reduce defrost frequency largely, especially in low ambient temperature (low absolute humidity).

5. Field Test Result

5. FT Result (1): Office building in Asahikawa City


<Tested units and conditions>

*Test Period: From December 2004 to February 2005 *Test Location: At an office building in Asahikawa, Hokkaido *Test Points
Outdoor class unit O @unit: 11.2kW 11. 2Kw NX Indoor unit: 2 units of 5.6kW class @ 5. 6Kw N X ~ cC z length: about 15m 15 Piping d l @ (1)with nInjection ( cold L ) Control specifications: (control for regions) A (2)w/o ( control) ) Injection (normal realized * @ *(1) , A& (2) are both { alternatively. Test *Indoor & outlet temperature points: inlet z / o x *Indoor distribution, temperature, temperature x z A O Ambient C x A } temperature, x A Energy d consumption Refrigerant

5. FT Result (1): Office building in Asahikawa City


Outdoor unit 2 Indoor units

5. FT Result (1): Office building in Asahikawa City


Heating Capacity & COP based on the different ambient temperature
Basic cycle
Heating capacity: (indoor outlet inlet) x air volume x density x specific heat

Heating Capacity

Injection cycle

g[\(kW)

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -25 -15

catalogue specifications
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 -25 -20 -15

Heating Capacity

Heating capacity (kW)

Heating capacity (kW) Basic cycle {


-10 -5

g[\(kW)

g Zuba-Dan
-10 -5 0

oC) ( ( ) Ambient temperature O C x

. ( ) C O x Ambienttemperature (oC)

without INJ >>> with INJ Capacity increases by about 30%

5. FT Result (1): Office building in Asahikawa City


<Quicker Start up in Heating operation>

60 Indoor Unit Discharge @Temp.m n


Injection Cycle Normal Cycle

50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time m min.n
45

<with Injection> *Indoor outlet temperature in stable condition >>> more than 50oC *To reach indoor outlet temperature of 45oC >>> takes only about 10 minutes (when unit starts running at the ambient temp of -15oC and at the indoor room temp of 23oC)

<Shorter start up> about of conventional model

5. FT Result (1): Office building in Asahikawa City


<Defrosting characteristics>

<data taken between 25 Jan 2004 (noon) and 26 Jan 2005 (noon)>
60 50 40 30 Temp.m n 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 Time m hourn

indoor o x outlet temp.

indoor x room

ambient O C x temp.

temp.

(1)

(2)

(1)continuous operation of more than 150 min.

<ambient temp.:

-20oC>

(2)Defrosting only for about 3 minutes.

5. FT Result (1): Office building in Asahikawa City


<Defrosting characteristics (operation ratio)>

Basic { TC N cycle 100% 98%

- Injection cycle Flash

operation ratio

^]

96%

94%

<Heating operation ratio>


92% 90% -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0

(Heating operation duration Defrost duration) / (Heating operation duration)


( O C . x ) minimum temperature in a day

As the ambient temp. decreases (below 0oC), the average heating operation ratio increases. >>> The operation ratio improves more by extending the continuous operation duration with no frost on the coil.

5. FT Result (2): Station waiting room (in Niigata pref.)


Feb 2006 (wooden building, door is opened frequently)

4HP wall mounted type indoor unit for about 30m2 room.

5. FT Result (2): Station waiting room (in Niigata pref.)


<Measured Data> From 06.20 am to 18.30 on 12 Feb 2006.
Humidity: 60 80 %
50 45 40 35 30

Exceeds 45oC in 18 min. from start up. (Room temp. at start up was about 8oC)

Outlet Temp.

Temp. (oC)

25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10
0: 00

Room Temp. lowered by 2oC during defrost

Much better comfort can be achieved by quicker start up of heating operation and improved defrost control.

( )

Indoor Temp.

Defrost (5 times in 12 hours)

Ambient Temp.
1: 00 2: 00 3: 00 4: 00 5: 00 6: 00 7: 00 8: 00 9: 00 10: 00 11: 00 12: 00 13: 00 14: 00 15: 00 16: 00 17: 00 18: 00 19: 00 20: 00 21: 00 22: 00 23: 00 0: 00

Hours (oclock)

6. Summary

6. Summary: Following functions are realized as the A/C for cold regions (1)Improved Heating Performance
*High heating performance & high COP achieved by Flash Injection. *Operation range extended down to -25oC.

(2)Better Comfort
*Start up and Recovery from defrost are improved very much by Injection together with Receiver circuit. *Defrosting frequency at below 0oC ambient is reduced to about 1/3.

(3)Exsisting piping can be reused even though the compressor was broken down.
*Since its launch in July 2005, Zuba-Dan has been highly appreciated in cold regions such as in Hokkaido. *Zuba-Dan technology has also been adopted to our City Multi (VRF) since December 2006.

ZubaDan
What do you expect from ZubaDan? For which application do you need ZubaDAN?

How do you calculate the cooling and heating capacity Can you use Zuba Dan Air to Air without cooling function?

Which price is accaptable in comparison to Power Inverter? 5% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50 %

Thank you very much!