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HIGHER 3 (Syllabus 9810) CONTENTS



1 2 2 2 2 2 3 5

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

The syllabus offers students who have a strong aptitude for, and are passionate about mathematics, an opportunity to further develop their mathematical modelling and reasoning skills. The topics included are Graph Theory, Combinatorics, and Differential Equations. Students are required to study all three topics. Opportunities abound for students to visualise and explore theorems, and to read and write mathematical proofs. Students will also learn the process of mathematical modelling for realworld problems, which involves making informed assumptions, validation and prediction. Students will have to offer H3 Mathematics together with H2 Mathematics. The general aims of the syllabus are to enable students to: 1 acquire the necessary mathematical concepts and skills for everyday life, and for continuous learning in mathematics and related disciplines; develop the necessary process skills for the acquisition and application of mathematical concepts and skills; develop the mathematical thinking and problem solving skills and apply these skills to formulate and solve problems; recognise and use connections among mathematical ideas, and between mathematics and other disciplines; develop positive attitudes towards mathematics; make effective use of a variety of mathematical tools (including information and communication technology tools) in the learning and application of mathematics; produce imaginative and creative work arising from mathematical ideas; develop the abilities to reason logically, to communicate mathematically, and to learn cooperatively and independently.

5 6

7 8

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)


There are three levels of assessment objectives for the examination. The assessment will test candidates' abilities to: AO1 AO2 AO3 understand and apply mathematical concepts and skills in a variety of contexts, including the manipulation of mathematical expressions and use of graphic calculators; reason and communicate mathematically through writing mathematical explanation, arguments and proofs, and inferences; solve unfamiliar problems; translate common realistic contexts into mathematics; interpret and evaluate mathematical results, and use the results to make predictions, or comment on the context.


The use of GC without computer algebra system will be expected. The examination papers will be set with the assumption that candidates will have access to a GC. As a general rule, unsupported answers obtained from a GC are allowed unless the question specifically states otherwise. Where unsupported answers from GC are not allowed, candidates are required to present the mathematical steps using mathematical notations and not calculator commands. For questions where graphs are used to find a solution, candidates should sketch these graphs as part of their answers. Incorrect answers without working will receive no marks. However, if there is written evidence of using GC correctly, method marks may be awarded. Students should be aware that there are limitations inherent in GC. For example, answers obtained by tracing along a graph to find roots of an equation may not produce the required accuracy.

Candidates will be provided in the examination with a list of formulae.


Notwithstanding the presentation of the topics in the syllabus document, it is envisaged that some examination questions may integrate ideas from more than one topic, and that topics may be tested in the contexts of problem solving and application of mathematics.


For the examination in H3 Mathematics, there will be one 3-hour paper marked out of 96 as follows: Section A (40 marks) will consist of 4 questions of different lengths and marks based on Differential Equations. Section B (56 marks) will consist of 2 questions from each of Combinatorics and Graph Theory. Each question is worth 14 marks. Candidates will be expected to answer all questions.

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

Familiarity with the following is required in this syllabus as the basis for Topics 1 and 2: language and notation of sets, relations and functions concepts of proposition and its converse, inverse and contrapositive, and necessary and sufficient condition methods of proof: direct proof, proof by contrapositive, proof by contradiction, disproof by counterexample, proof by construction, proof by induction, and proof by pigeonhole principle For Topic 3, mathematical modelling involves formulating and solving models, identifying the assumptions in a model, interpreting the result, and validating and refining the model. Topic/Sub-topics 1 Graph theory Content Include: proofs of properties of graphs associated with vertices and edges, simple graphs, connected graphs, regular graphs, complete graphs, trees and bipartite graphs subgraphs, complements and graph isomorphism Eulerian trails and circuits Hamiltonian paths and cycles vertex-colourings of graphs (including chromatic number, greedy colouring algorithm, and applications to scheduling problems) matchings in bipartite graphs (including simple matching problems and complete matchings)

Exclude: centre and radius of graph forest and spanning tree planar graphs searching and sorting traveling salesman problem chinese postman problem network optimisation problems system of distinct representatives digraphs and tournaments


Include: distribution problems: (i) identical objects into distinct boxes (ii) distinct objects into distinct boxes (iii) distinct objects into identical boxes (iv) identical objects into identical boxes counting using * the bijection principle * the inclusion-exclusion principle formulating recurrence relations in the context of combinatorial problems Exclude: binomial coefficient identities generating functions finding general solution of recurrence relation system of recurrence relations Ramsey numbers combinatorial geometry combinatorial problems involving graph theory and number theory

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

Topic/Sub-topics 3 Differential equations

Content Include: differential equations as mathematical models analytical solution of first order differential equations (i) separable equations (ii) linear equations of the form dy + p( x )y = q( x ) dx (iii) equations that can be reduced to (i) or (ii) by means of a given simple substitution particular and general solutions phase lines, slope fields, and sketching solution curves numerical solution of first order differential equations using Eulers method (including the use of the improved Euler formula) mathematical models of population dynamics (including logistic growth equation, equilibrium points and their stability, harvesting and bifurcation) Exclude: system of first order differential equations predator-prey model second order differential equations

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

The list which follows summarises the notation used in the Syndicates Mathematics examinations. Although primarily directed towards A Level, the list also applies, where relevant, to examinations at all other levels.
1. Set Notation is an element of is not an element of the set with elements x 1 , x 2 , the set of all x such that the number of elements in set A the empty set universal set the complement of the set A the set of integers, {0, 1, 2, 3, }

{x1, x2, } {x: } n( A )


+ 0

the set of positive integers, {1, 2, 3, } the set of rational numbers the set of positive rational numbers, { x : x > 0} the set of positive rational numbers and zero, { x : x 0} the set of real numbers the set of positive real numbers, { x : x > 0} the set of positive real numbers and zero, { x : x 0} the real n tuples the set of complex numbers is a subset of is a proper subset of is not a subset of is not a proper subset of

+ 0


union intersection the closed interval { x : a x b } the interval { x : the interval { x :

[a, b] [a, b) ( a, b ] (a, b)

a x < b} a < x b} a < x < b}

the open interval { x :

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

2. Miscellaneous Symbols = < Y; > [; is equal to is not equal to is identical to or is congruent to is approximately equal to is proportional to is less than is less than or equal to; is not greater than is greater than is greater than or equal to; is not less than infinity

3. Operations

a+b ab a b , ab , a . b a b, a:b
a b
, a/b

a plus b a minus b a multiplied by b a divided by b

the ratio of a to b

i =1

a 1 + a 2 + ... + a n
the positive square root of the real number a the modulus of the real number a



n factorial for n + U {0}, (0! = 1)

the binomial coefficient

n r

n! , for n , r + U {0} , 0 Y r Y n r! (n r )!

n(n 1)...(n r + 1) , for n , r + U {0} r!

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

4. Functions

f f( x ) f: A B f: x y f 1 g o f , gf

function f the value of the function f at x

f is a function under which each element of set A has an image in set B

the function f maps the element x to the element y the inverse of the function f the composite function of f and g which is defined by (g o f)( x ) or gf( x ) = g(f( x )) the limit of f( x ) as x tends to a an increment of x the derivative of

lim f(x)
x a

x ; x

dy dx
dn y dx n

with respect to

x x

the n th derivative of y with respect to

f ' ( x ) , f ' ( x ) , , f ( n ) ( x )

the first, second, n th derivatives of f( x ) with respect to x indefinite integral of y with respect to x the definite integral of y with respect to x for values of x between a and b the first, second, derivatives of x with respect to time

ydx ydx
b a

&,& &, x x

5. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

e e , exp x log a x ln x lg x

base of natural logarithms exponential function of x logarithm to the base a of x natural logarithm of x logarithm of x to base 10

6. Circular Functions and Relations

sin, cos, tan, cosec, sec, cot sin 1 , cos 1 , tan 1 cosec 1 , sec 1 , cot 1

} the circular functions } the inverse circular functions

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

7. Complex Numbers

i z

square root of 1 a complex number ,

z = x + iy = r e i , r 0

= r (cos + i sin ), r 0 Re z Im z

the real part of z , Re ( x + i y ) = x the imaginary part of z , Im ( x + i y ) = y the modulus of z , x + iy = ( x + y ), r (cos + i sin ) = r the argument of z , arg( r (cos + i sin )) = , < the complex conjugate of z , ( x + i y )* = x i y
2 2

arg z z*
8. Matrices

1 T

a matrix M the inverse of the square matrix M the transpose of the matrix M the determinant of the square matrix M

det M

9. Vectors


the vector a the vector represented in magnitude and direction by the directed line segment AB a unit vector in the direction of the vector a unit vectors in the directions of the cartesian coordinate axes the magnitude of a the magnitude of AB the scalar product of a and b the vector product of a and b

i, j, k


a.b aPb

10. Probability and Statistics

A , B , C , etc. AB AB P( A ) A' P( A | B ) X , Y , R , etc. x , y , r , etc. x1 , x 2 ,

events union of events A and B intersection of the events A and B probability of the event A complement of the event A , the event not A probability of the event A given the event B random variables value of the random variables X , Y , R , etc. observations

9810 H3 MATHEMATICS (2012)

f1 , f 2 ,

frequencies with which the observations,

x 1 , x 2 occur

p( x )
p1 , p 2

the value of the probability function P( X = x ) of the discrete random variable X probabilities of the values

x1 , x 2 , of the discrete random variable X

f(x), g(x) F(x), G(x) E(X) E[g(X)] Var(X) B(n, p) Po( ) N( , )

2 2

the value of the probability density function of the continuous random variable X the value of the (cumulative) distribution function P( X Y x ) of the random variable X expectation of the random variable X expectation of g( X ) variance of the random variable X binominal distribution, parameters n and p Poisson distribution, mean normal distribution, mean and variance population mean population variance population standard deviation sample mean unbiased estimate of population variance from a sample ,


s2 =

1 2 ( x x ) n 1

probability density function of the standardised normal variable with distribution N (0 , 1) corresponding cumulative distribution function linear product-moment correlation coefficient for a population linear product-moment correlation coefficient for a sample