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SRI RAMAKRISHNA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Baja SAEINDIA 2012 Design Report

BAJA SAEINDIA 2012 Design Report Team registration ID: 57991 Author: R. Raamprashaath Author email ID: r.raam91@gmail.com INTRODUCTION This event aims at challenging the budding engineers and makes them face real time challenges in designing and fabricating BAJA vehicle. Our vehicle serves its purpose by compiling with all rules set by the BAJA SAEINDIA. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OVERALL DIMENSIONS & WEIGHT Overall length Overall height Overall width Track width (front) (rear) Wheel base Ground clearance Kerb weight ROLL CAGE Material Construction Type of weld Number of welds ASTM A106 B Tubular GTAW (TIG) 62 Front 2050 mm 1535 mm 1603 mm 1400 mm 1400 mm 1476.5 mm 254mm 350 Kg Gear & gear ratio Type Gear box Model TRANSMISSION Rear wheel drive Constant mesh (4 forward + 1 reverse) Mahindra Alpha I 31.45 II 18.7 III 11.4 IV 7.35 R 55.08 SUSPENSION Parallel unequal wishbones Type Model Displacement Maximum power Maximum torque Mounting ENGINE Four stroke petrol engine Briggs & Stratton 305 cc 10 HP @ 4000 rpm 18.65 Nm @ 2600 rpm Rear transverse Co-author: B.Prasanth

Rear Shock absorbers Travel

Parallel unequal wishbones Monotube inverted gas shocks 100 mm STEERING Centre of gravity Static stability factor Roll over probability

SAFETY 488 mm 1.51 15 %

Type Model Steering ratio Turning radius Lock to lock turns

Variable rack and pinion Maruti 800 14:1 to 20:1 4m 3 BRAKES

3D VIEW

Front Rear Braking distance Bias

Disc brakes (200 mm) Disc brakes (200 mm) 10 m 70:30 PERFORMANCE

Acceleration Grade ability Maximum speed

0.55 m/s2 26.430 41.25 kmph

ROLL CAGE DESIGN The objective of the roll cage is to accommodate the driver and other components of vehicle and protect them under collisions. The overall roll cage geometry is guided by strict rules which are constantly referred to ensure rule book compliance and the driver safety is given top priority. The initial design was made using the guidelines given in rulebook. A PVC prototype was made to ensure the space proficiency. This design is developed considering the aesthetics and safety. This structure is then modified to make it easy to manufacture. The entire design was done using Pro/E software.

This PVC model is further developed into a structure with the help of finite element analysis.

MATERIAL SELECTION

TENSILE AVAILA COST/ WELDA MATERI STRENGT BILITY m BILITY AL H (Scale (Rs.) (Scale 5) (N/mm2) 5) AISI 1018 AISI 4130 IS 1239 ASTM A106 B 370.2 448.8 407.45 463.7 600 2200 765 273 5 1 4 4 4 1 5 5

MATERIAL PROPERTIES Material Yield strength Ultimate strength Youngs modulus Outer diameter Wall thickness Welding preferred ASTM A 106 B 463.77 N/mm2 552.43 N/mm2 205 GPa 33.4 mm 3.38 mm TIG

ANALYSIS The roll cage designed is finite element analyzed using ANSYS software and features are added suitably to strengthen the structure.
TEST Front impact Rear impact Side impact Roll over test Heave test Front bump test Rear bump test LOAD 22540 N 22540 N 11500 N 9000 N 4500 N 5250 N 5250 N RESULTS STRESS 221.336 205.49 219.347 211.462 159.07 75.53 95.599 F.S 2.03 2.19 2.05 2.13 2.83 5.95 4.7

REAR IMPACT TEST The impact force to be applied is given by F = * 460 * 142 * 1/1 = 22540 N This load is applied on the roll cage and the stress values and deflection are found satisfactory.

FRONTAL IMPACT TEST The dynamic energy of the masses under impact is given by E = 0.5 * {m1m2/m1+m2} * (u2-u1)2 The impact force is given by F = E/t Where t is the impact time; t = 1s Mass of vehicle = 460 kg Relative velocity = 50 kmph F = * 460 *142 * 1/1 = 22540 N The above determined load is applied on the frontal area of roll cage and the stresses and deflection values are found satisfactory. SIDE IMPACT TEST The impact force to be applied is given by F = * 460 * 102 * 1/1 = 11500 N This load is applied on the roll cage and the stress values and deflection are found satisfactory.

ROLL OVER TEST This test is performed to analyze the structure under rollover impact conditions. The vehicle is pretended to roll and the load is applied on the top members of structure. The impact force is given by F = 2 * 460 * 9.81 = 9000 N

BUMP TEST This test is conducted to check the structure when the vehicle lands on a single wheel after a bump. The impact force for both front and rear bump test is given by F = * 460 * 9.81 *2.32 = 5250 N FRONT BUMP TEST

HEAVE TEST This test is performed to strength of the base of vehicle. The static force applied is given by F= 460 * 9.81 = 4600 N

REAR BUMP TEST

MATERIAL PROPERTIES Material Yield strength Ultimate strength Youngs modulus Outer diameter Wall thickness Welding preferred ASTM A 106 B 288.81 N/mm2 428.56 N/mm2 205 GPa 26.7 mm 2.87 mm TIG

MANUFACTURING METHODOLOGY The joints that are to be welded are edge prepared prior to welding process. The profile on the edges is drawn using TUBEMITER software. The cut tubes are held by clamps on a firm base and are welded in order to ensure accuracy. The welded regions are immediately covered with sand to prevent air cooling of the welds. This decreases the internal stresses that would result due to welding. SUSPENSION DESIGN The suspension gives the driver the comfort and isolates the components from shocks that arise due to road conditions. The suspension used is parallel unequal double wishbones (both front and rear) as this could perform better than many other types. The suspension is set to perform well in the off-road conditions.

The initial design of the arms is then modified to have to have no bends to increase its strength. The arms are finite element analyzed using ANSYS software. Initial design

This design is analyzed using ANSYS and found that it doesnt possess adequate strength during impact. Hence a new model is developed and analyzed using ANSYS. FINAL DESIGN

Lower arm

Upper arm

ANALYSIS Weight of vehicle including driver = 460 kg = 4512.6 N Number of arms = 4*2 = 8 Assuming equal forces on each arm, static upward force on each arm is F = 4512.6/8 = 564.075 N The dynamic load on each arm is Fd = 2*564.075 = 1128.15 N Hence it is taken as 1200 N. Also due to rolling motion and friction, there is a load in the direction of motion which is estimated as 0.3 times the normal load. Fr = 0.3*1200 = 360 N These loads are applied on the end of arm and stress values are found out. ARM CONDITION All DOF = 0 at mounting points; Fd, Fr at rod end All DOF = 0 at mounting points; Fd, Fr at rod end STRESS F.S

MANUFACTURING METHODOLOGY

Upper

136.874 2.11 N/mm2 The A arms are TIG welded with the help of fixtures and holding equipment. The welded regions are immediately covered with sand to

Lower

139.352 2.08 N/mm2

prevent air cooling of the welds. This decreases the internal stresses that would result due to welding. SHOCK ABSORBER The shock absorber absorbs the impact loads that act on the vehicle. The shocks that are light with considerable travel are chosen for the purpose. The custom made shocks dont suit the purpose as it has lower elasticity than that of automobile springs. Hence readymade springs are used in the shocks. They are mono tube inverted gas filled shocks. STEERING The steering system gets the vehicle into the desired direction. The steering system used must avoid over steer and must be rugged to perform in off-road conditions.
WEI GHT Less High Less EASE OF MOUN TING High Low Mediu m SENSITI VITY Medium Very high High

STEERING CALCULATIONS The steering geometry and mounting points are given in Susprog 3D and the lock angles are found out. Inside lock angle, = 18.230 Outside lock angle, = 26.840 Rear wheel track, a = 1400 mm Wheel base, b = 1476.5 mm Distance between pivot centers, c = 1120 mm Turning radius of inside front wheel = (b/sin ) + (a-c)/c = 3300 mm Turning radius of outside front wheel = (b/sin ) + (a-c)/c = 4700 mm Steering ratio = 14:1 to 20:1 Lock to lock turns = 3 Overall turning radius = 4 m The manual variable rack and pinion steering of Maruti 800 is used in our vehicle. BRAKES The disc brake of TVS Apache is chosen for all wheels. The discs are light in weight and provide a good braking performance. The master cylinder of Maruti 800 is used to provide the necessary braking force to all discs. Discs used: 200 mm discs

TYPE Variable rack and pinion Recircula ting ball type Central roller and rack

COST

Less High Mediu m

The steering chosen is variable rack and pinion as it suits the purpose better and is easily available.

L = length of wheel base Front axle dynamic load = 2712.03 N Rear axle dynamic load = 1800.5 N Brake biasing F:R 60:40 Braking torque T=RPA*2n - coefficient of friction R -effective radius of discs BRAKING CALCULATIONS Maximum speed of vehicle, V = 41.25 kmph = 11.46 m/s Target braking distance = 10 m Weight of vehicle = 460 kg = 4512.6 N Kinetic Energy = mv2/2 = 30206.27 Nm Braking force needed=KE/10 = 3020.63 N Deceleration, d = Fb/mg = 6.57 m/s2 P pressure applied by TMC A-area of caliper of disc brakes n- number of disc pads The braking torque is found to be sufficient to lock the wheels. The braking circuit is diagonal split (X type) to reduce the chances of skidding. Stopping time, t = v/d =11.46/6.57=1.75 s Stopping distance, S= *t 0.5*d*t2 = 10 m

Weight distribution F:R = 40:60 Front axle dynamic load = W1+(d*W*h)/(g*L) Rear axle dynamic load = W1- (d*W*h)/(g*L) Where W1 = static weight on front axle W2 = static weight on rear axle W = total weight of vehicle D = deceleration of vehicle POWER TRAIN DESIGN The real wheel drive is used in our vehicle as it could provide the balance and avoid torque steer. The transmission system used must suit the transverse orientation of the engine. The

transmission system of Mahindra Alfa is chosen for the purpose. The gearbox used is 4 speed manual constant mesh gearbox with 1 reverse. The gear ratios are Gear I - 31.45:1 Gear II 18.7:1 Gear III 11.4:1 Gear IV 7.35:1 Reverse 55.08:1 Transmission efficiency = 0.8 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS ACCELERATION (Power available to acceleration) = (brake power * transmission efficiency) (power required to overcome total road & air resistance at max speed & top gear) (We*V*a)/(1000*G) = (P * 0.8) (Rr +Ra)V We equivalent weight of vehicle V Velocity of vehicle a Acceleration of vehicle G Gear ratio P - Brake power Rr Rolling resistance Ra air resistance We = W = (If * 0.8 * G 2 + Is)/r2 If = 1.265 Nm2; I s = 3.12 Nm2; G = 7.35; r = 0.2794 m We = 5252.9 N Hence (5252.9*a*11.46)/1000*7.35=6.6*0.8 0.775 Therefore acceleration, a = 0.55 m/s 2

Time to reach 0 to maximum speed (41.25 kmph) is 20.84 s. MAXIMUM SPEED V = {(N*r)/(2.65*G)} * transmission efficiency Where N is engine rpm r is wheel radius in m G is gear ratio Maximum speed = 41.25 kmph @ 2800 rpm TRACTIVE EFFORT Tf = 3603 * 0.8 * Pe/V ROLLING RESISTANCE Rr = (a+bV) W a = 0.015; b = 0.0016 AIR RESISTANCE Ra = ka * A * V2 ka = 0.045; A= 0.15125 m2 GRADE RESISTANCE Rg = Tf Rr Ra GRADE = sin-1 (Rg/W) Using the above stated formula the maximum grad ability of our vehicle is 26.430.

WHEELS AND TYRES The tires must suit the off-road conditions. Hence ATV tires are chosen. Specifications 22 x 11 x 8 The four plied tires provide good durability. The tread width, side wall width, load handling capacity of the tires provides greater advantages with considerable less weight.

team with adequate clearance from walls. The racing seats with racks are purchased which provides the driver good comfort even during action.

SAFETY EQUIPMENTS The vehicle is equipped with a temperature sensory circuit which stops the engine during any fire accidents. This system automatically actuates kill switch if the local temperature increases beyond a certain limit which may lead to fire. The temperature sensors and thermocouples attached at various points on vehicle constantly measure the local temperature. If the temperature exceeds the predefined value the sensor actuates the kill switch and stops the engine. This prevents the further fire accidents. Temperature sensor Controller

BODY PANELS The rear roll hoop (RRH) and the base members are supported with the MS sheets. The side panels are covered with the polycarbonate sheets to decrease the weight of the vehicle and improve aesthetics. These sheets provide good visual effects and ease the painting works. DRIVERS ERGONOMICS The driver is provided a good room for his works. The driver cabin is designed to accommodate the largest member of our

Engine

Kill switch

HORN CIRCUIT The following block diagram gives the horn circuit being installed in our vehicle. Steering Suspension Frame Body

Rack and pinion Steering column Steering wheel A-Arms Shock absorbers ASTM A106 B tubes MS sheet Lexon polycarbonate Discs Caliper TMC Brake lines Temperature sensor Fire extinguisher Lights (brake & reverse) Horn Kill switch Rims Tires Fasteners Bushes Accessories

Brakes LIGHTING CIRCUIT The following diagram gives the lighting circuit which includes a reverse light being installed in our vehicle. Safety Equipment Electrical Equipment Wheels Clamps Miscellaneous

ENGINEERING BILL OF MATERIALS PART/SYSTEM Engine Transmission Drive Train SUB-SYSTEM Fuel tank Air filter Exhaust Gearbox Clutch Half Shaft Hub

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Team phoenix would like to express sincere gratitude to the following persons for their guidance and support. Mr.C.Natarajan, Faculty advisor Dr.P.Karuppuswamy, HOD Dr.R.Radhakrishnan, Principal BAJA SAEINDIA selection committee

REFERENCES BAJA SAEINDIA Rule book 2012 Design of Machine Elements by R.S.Khurmi & J.K.Gupta Automobile Engineering by Dr.Kirpal Singh Race car vehicle dynamics by Milliken Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics by Thomas D Gillespie Tune to win by Carroll Smith