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Foundations on Rock

Foundations on Rock
Duncan C. Wyllie
Duncan C. Wyllie
Wyllie & Norrish Rock Engineers
Wyllie & Norrish Rock Engineers
ASCE
ASCE
Rock Mechanics Short Course
Rock Mechanics Short Course
Seattle, WA
Seattle, WA
January 12, 2007 January 12, 2007
Agenda
Agenda
1.
1.
Bearing capacity
Bearing capacity

allowable
allowable
bearing pressure
bearing pressure
2.
2.
Settlement
Settlement

layered formations
layered formations
3.
3.
Stability
Stability

foundations of bridges
foundations of bridges
and dams subject to tensile and/or
and dams subject to tensile and/or
inclined loads
inclined loads
Worked examples:
Worked examples:
-
-
settlement
settlement
-
-
stability
stability
Rock Foundation Characteristics
Rock Foundation Characteristics

Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest

Strong rock with high allowable bearing


Strong rock with high allowable bearing
capacity
capacity

Rock contains persistent discontinuities


Rock contains persistent discontinuities

Canyons often contain steep, glacial


Canyons often contain steep, glacial
-
-
cut
cut
channels
channels

Steep rock faces are relaxed, and possibly


Steep rock faces are relaxed, and possibly
unstable
unstable

Weathering can cause deterioration of


Weathering can cause deterioration of
rock strength
rock strength

Seismic ground motions can cause


Seismic ground motions can cause
displacement and instability
displacement and instability
Effects of Geology on Foundation
Effects of Geology on Foundation
Stability
Stability
Persistent, planar joint
dipping downstream
Gully cut by glacial
outwash channel
Stability Deterioration with Time
Stability Deterioration with Time
Growth of tree roots
Ice and water pressures
Tension crack at
crest of steep
rock face
Tension cracks at crest of steep
rock face
1. Bearing Capacity
1. Bearing Capacity
Bearing capacity design issues
Bearing capacity design issues

Allowable bearing capacity based


Allowable bearing capacity based
on past experience
on past experience

Bearing capacity related to rock


Bearing capacity related to rock
quality and geologic structure
quality and geologic structure

Rock quality can deteriorate with


Rock quality can deteriorate with
time due to weathering
time due to weathering

Bearing capacity can usually be


Bearing capacity can usually be
adjusted by increasing footing size
adjusted by increasing footing size

Most difficult bearing capacity


Most difficult bearing capacity
problems in
problems in
karstic
karstic
terrain
terrain
Allowable Bearing Capacity
Allowable Bearing Capacity
Bearing Capacity in
Bearing Capacity in
Karstic
Karstic
Terrain
Terrain
Preferential solution
on joints
Sinkhole
Solution of limestone
Solution of limestone
occurs preferentially
occurs preferentially
along geologic structure
along geologic structure
Examples of construction
Examples of construction
procedures for spread
procedures for spread
footings on
footings on
karstic
karstic
terrain
terrain
Influence of
Influence of
karstic
karstic
structure on pile support
structure on pile support
1. Long, supported pile;
2. Pile bent and wedged in
crack
3. Pile tip damaged on sloping
rock surface
4. Pile bearing on pinnacle
5. Pile bent and not supported
6. Short, supported pile
Drill probe hole at each pile
Agenda
Agenda
1.
1.
Bearing capacity
Bearing capacity

allowable
allowable
bearing pressure
bearing pressure
2.
2.
Settlement
Settlement

layered formations
layered formations
3.
3.
Stability
Stability

foundations of bridges
foundations of bridges
and dams subject to tensile and/or
and dams subject to tensile and/or
inclined loads
inclined loads
2. Settlement of Foundations
2. Settlement of Foundations
Microsoft
Equation 3.0
Spread footing bearing
Spread footing bearing
on very weak, massive
on very weak, massive
claystone
claystone
Allowable Bearing Capacity
Allowable Bearing Capacity
2
Settlement of
Settlement of
Foundations on
Foundations on
Layered Rock
Layered Rock
Flow contacts in basalt
Flow contacts in basalt
form low
form low
strength/compressible
strength/compressible
seams
seams
Worked Example 1
Worked Example 1
Settlement of foundation on
homogeneous or layered rock
B

1
,
1
Q

2
,
2

1
,
1
H
1
H
2

Rock mass
properties
Calculate settlement of footing with width
B and load Q bearing on homogeneous
rock, and layered rock.
Modulus of deformation
Modulus of deformation
Rock mass rating, RMR:
Intact rock strength
RQD
Joint spacing
Condition of joints
Ground water
Joint orientation
Settlement calculations
Settlement calculations

shape
shape
factors,
factors,
C
C
d d

v
= C
d
q B(1
2
)/E
Agenda
Agenda
1.
1.
Bearing capacity
Bearing capacity

allowable
allowable
bearing pressure
bearing pressure
2.
2.
Settlement
Settlement

layered formations
layered formations
3.
3.
Stability
Stability

foundations of bridges
foundations of bridges
and dams subject to tensile and/or
and dams subject to tensile and/or
inclined loads
inclined loads
3. Foundation Stability
3. Foundation Stability
a) a)
Steel arch bridge
Steel arch bridge

landslide, erosion gully


landslide, erosion gully
b) b)
Steel truss bridge
Steel truss bridge

toppling, planar sliding


toppling, planar sliding
c) c)
Tension cable bridge, Argentina
Tension cable bridge, Argentina

wedge
wedge
sliding
sliding
d) d)
Cantilevered bridge
Cantilevered bridge

compression, tension
compression, tension
foundations
foundations
e) e)
Single span bridge
Single span bridge

weak seams, slope


weak seams, slope
stability
stability
f) f)
Transmission tower
Transmission tower

sheet joints
sheet joints
g) g)
Cableway tail tower
Cableway tail tower

planar sliding on silt


planar sliding on silt
filled joints
filled joints
h) h)
Spillway foundation, Sri Lanka
Spillway foundation, Sri Lanka
-
-
wedges
wedges
Mechanisms for
Mechanisms for
foundation stability
foundation stability
1. Planar
2. Wedge
3. Wedge
4. Circular
5. Buckling
6. Settlement
Stability of three
Stability of three
dimensional
dimensional
foundation block
foundation block
a) Steel Arch Bridge Foundations
a) Steel Arch Bridge Foundations
Arch bridge, south
abutment slope
excavated to remove
landside
Arch bridge, south
abutment landside
excavation
Arch bridge, north
abutment buried
channel excavated to
create bearing surface
on sound rock
Arch bridge abutment
potential modes of
instability and
movement
b) Steel Truss Bridge
b) Steel Truss Bridge
Concrete buttresses
Truss bridge, north abutment foundation containing
sheet joints reinforced with tensioned cable anchors (a)
and concrete buttress (c )
a
c
Figure 6
Figure 6
Truss bridge, north
abutment foundation
containing sheet joints
reinforced with
tensioned cable
anchors
Truss bridge, south
abutment concrete
buttress and rock
bolts supporting
retaining wall
foundation
Truss bridge, south
retaining wall
foundation containing
sheet joints. Cavity
filled with dental
concrete and rock
reinforced with rock
bolts
Truss bridge, south
abutment
c) Tension Cable Bridge
c) Tension Cable Bridge
Wedge in abutment formed by
foliation and orthogonal faults in
weathered gneiss
Face
Foliation
Bench
Fault F2
Fault F1
Line of Intersection
Tensioned Bridge
Cables, Q
MAGNI TUDE AND DI RECTI ON OF
EXTERNAL FORCES ON WEDGE
T
a
v
.
g.W
(vertical down)
a
.g.W
H
W (vertical down)
Q
Plan View Section View
W
T
Q
a
v
.
g.W
a
.g.W
H
up)
Magnitude and direction of external forces acting
on wedge
Stability of three
Stability of three
dimensional
dimensional
foundation block
foundation block
Abutment secured with tensioned multi-strand
anchors inclined at 45
Tensioning strand
anchor, with dial
gauges to measure
strain
d) Spread footings on basalt
d) Spread footings on basalt
New bridge
adjacent to
existing bridge
Stability of footing
bearing on columnar
basalt with flow
contact below water
surface
FEA - displacement
vectors showing
movement into lake
FEA displacement
vectors of foundation
reinforced with fully
grouted dowels
FEA section showing loading from both
bridges and displacement into lake
Basalt, RMR = 55, E = 13 GPa
Metadiorite, RMR = 67, E = 27 GPa
Flow Contact, RMR = 40, E = 6 GPa
c = 200 kPa
phi = 45 degs
c = 5 kPa
phi = 30 degs
BASALT
Intact rock strength:
c = 75 kPa
phi = 40 degs
Vertical joint strength:
c = 1 kPa
phi = 40 degs
Fill load = 100 kPa
Existing bridge load
= 220 kPa
Back-analysis of rock shear strengths for
a FOS = 1.3 under static conditions with
no rapid drawdown.
EXISTING BRIDGE CONDITIONS
Basalt, RMR = 55, E = 13 GPa
Rapid drawdown
condition
D
R
A
F
T
A
u
g
u
s
t

1
6
,

2
0
0
6
Stability analysis of
existing bridge to
determine rock mass
strength parameters
Stability analysis of
reinforced foundation
Foundation reinforced with
fully grouted steel bars
e) Cantilevered Bridge
e) Cantilevered Bridge
3850 kips @ -12
5080 kips @ 42
More Canyon -
south abutment of
cantilever bridge
Tension foundation a) design
of cable anchors; b) rock
reaction block
a)
b)
f) Transmission Tower Foundation
f) Transmission Tower Foundation
Figure 2
Figure 2
Transmission tower
founded on strong
granite containing
persistent sheet joints
dipping at 40 out of
slope
Figure 3
Figure 3
Reinforcement of foundation
with multi-strand cable
anchors, with drain holes
g) Revelstoke Dam
g) Revelstoke Dam

cableway
cableway
tail tower foundation
tail tower foundation
Cableway tail tower on
Cableway tail tower on
arc bench above left
arc bench above left
abutment
abutment
Tail tower arrangement showing external load on
foundation, geologic structure and backfill surcharge
Foliation planes in foundation
contain dense silt infilling
h) Spillway Foundation
h) Spillway Foundation
Wedges formed by
foliation dipping
downstream
Spillway
Spillway
-
-
dynamic load
dynamic load
condition with gate open
condition with gate open
Spillway foundation containing foliation planes
dipping downstream. Foundation treatment
comprises grout curtain, drain holes and tensioned
rock bolts
Foundation Stabilization
Foundation Stabilization
Tensioning rock bolts, with dial gauge to measure elongation
Worked Example 2
Worked Example 2
Stability of foundation supporting
inclined loads
Resolution of forces to determine normal, N and
shear, S components of forces on potential
sliding surface
) forces _ sliding (
) forces _ resisting (
FS

=
) S , forces . driving (
) tan N , forces . resisting (
FS


=
Forces acting on foundation containing planar
Forces acting on foundation containing planar
discontinuity dipping out of face
discontinuity dipping out of face
A
(
-
)

d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
+
)

d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
Q
2
Q
1

Q2

Q1
N
U
= sin(
U

p
)
S
U
= cos(
U

p
)
U

u
Calculate factor of safety against sliding of
foundation block, and direction of sliding,
up-slope or down-slope
Relationship between
friction angle and
cohesion based on back
analysis of rock slopes
The end
The end