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2012

Enterprise Network Systems


DHCP LAB (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
Professor: G.Papamichail

TRUNGU XHANI 1/29/2012

PART 1
QUESTIONS:

How many DHCP servers are required for each subnet in your organisation? (Section 1.6 - Design Goals)

DHCP should not require a DHCP server on each subnet. This is done for scale and economy, as DHCP must work across Routers (with DCHP/BOOTP relay enabled), which will examine the DCHPDISCOVER message and its header to see if the gateway IP address field is 0.0.0.0. Then the router fills it with the relay agent or routers IP address and forwards the message to the remote subnet 1 where the DHCP server is located. Next step, is for the DHCP server to see if the IP address belongs to the scope it has in order to supply an IP address lease.

Make a table of the messages that may be sent by either the DHCP client or server. Make brief notes concerning the use of the message. (Section 3.1 Client-server interaction - allocating a network address)
DHCPDISCOVER DHCPOFFER Client broadcast to locate available servers Response of server, after DHCPDISCOVER from client, offering configuration parameters. Client -> server message a)requesting parameters and declining offers from other servers b)confirming correctness of previously allocated address Server -> client message with configuration

DHCPREQUEST

DHCPACK

DHCPNAK DHCPDECLINE DHCPRELEASE DHCPINFORM

parameters and committed network address Server-> client indicating clients notion of network address is incorrect Client-> server indicating network address already in use Client -> server relinquishing network address and cancelling remaining lease Client -> server asking local configuration parameters, as its externally configured network address

Draw a timeline diagram of the messages exchanged between DHCP client and servers when allocating a new network address. Choose the option Server Selected. (Section 3.1 Clientserver interaction - allocating a network address)

Which transport protocol does DHCP employ? (Section 4.1)


DHCP uses UDP as its transport protocol.

Give one reason why you think this protocol is used by DHCP over the other available option(s).
DHCP is a protocol included in the Application layer (the topmost layer), while UDP is a protocol included in the Transport layer. Application layer protocol uses the services provided by the lower layers (in this case is UDP, Transport Layer) to transmit their data. UDP is defined in RFC 768. UDP offers a limited amount of service on top of IP and provides a procedure for application programs to send messages to other programs with a minimum of protocol mechanism. The protocol is transaction oriented, and delivery and duplicate protection are not guaranteed. UDP provides two services not provided by the IP layer. It provides: a) Port numbers to help distinguish different user requests and, b) Optionally, a checksum capability to verify that the data arrived intact.

What are the numbers of the client and server ports used by DHCP? (Section 4.1)
The DHCP server port is (67) and the DHCP client port is (68).

Which type of address is sent by the client to the DHCP server at the beginning of the configuration process?
The client sends its Client Hardware Address and Client Hardware Type if it matches with the client identifier message, which has been sent on a previous DHCPREQUEST message with the previously allocated network address.

Which type of address is supplied by the DHCP server to the requesting client?
The DHCPOFFER message includes an available network address in the yiaddr field (and other configuration parameters in DHCP options).

If a client no longer requires its assigned network address, describe the process that takes place between the client and DHCP server.
In order to relinquish its lease on a network address the client has to send a DHCPRELEASE message to the server. The client identifies the lease to be released with its client identifier, or chaddr and network address in the DHCPRELEASE message. If the client used a client identifier when it obtained the lease, then it should use mandatorily again the same client identifier in the DHCPRELEASE message.

Describe TWO instances when a client should make use of DHCP (section 3.7)
First case is, when a DHCP client wants to reacquire or verify its IP address and network parameters whenever the local network parameters may have changed. For instance at a system boot , or a disconnection from the local network. Second case is, when a DHCP client has knowledge of previously allocated network address and wants to reuse it. Then the client may continue to use the previous network address until the lease expires. But if the lease has already expired, the client must immediately discontinue the use of previously allocated network address and may inform local users of the problem.

PART 2
When we enter the address www.ens.com the browser does not respond to our request as we do not have assigned any addresses to our servers. So we have firstly to assign any addresses to the: DHCP Server IP address 192.168.0.2/24 WEB Server IP address 192.168.100.3/24 DNS Server IP address 192.168.100.2/24

Now we can see that each of the PCs has obtained an IP address and all the configurations needed in order for us to be able to browse the www.ens.com from each of them.

But still we cannot enter the web site. And we get an error message : HOST NAME UNRESOLVED. This try was unsuccessful because we have not configured the web server,whose Ethernet interface is off, as well as not configured the DNS server.

On the picture above we have pinged the Web Server 192.168.100.3 and we had a total reply. So, according to the successful communication between the PCs and the Web Server we would be able to connect to the Web. We go to the DNS server and specify for the A-record the IP address (192.168.100.3 www.ens.com ) to which the user would be sent for each domain or subdomain.

So we are able to visit the www.ens.com web page, as shown below.

If we omit the www on the address then the browser responds with a message host name unsolved. This is caused due to the fact that on the A-record we have not added the name ens.com in the domain name and map it to the IP address 192.168.100.3. This means that our local DNS server does not have map for this domain name, and it tries to contact another that might have it. But since we do not have our DNS server connected to another network with another DNS server, it stops there and responds that cannot resolve the domain name.