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List of Postulates, Theorems, and Definitions used in Geometry

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t at only one point *Postulate 2 Three collinear points are contained in at least one plane and three noncollinear points are contained in exactly one plane *Postulate 3 If two distinct planes intersect, then their intersection is a line *Postulate 4 If two points of a line are in a plane, then the line is in the plane *Theorem 1-2 If a line not contained in a plane intersects the plane, then the intersection contains only one point *Theorem 1-3 Exactly one plane contains a given line and a point not on the line *Theorem 1-4 Exactly one plane contains two intersecting lines *Postulate 5 Angle Measurement Postulate To every angle there corresponds a unique real number r where 0 < r < 180 *Postulate 6 The Angle Construction Postulate *Postulate 7 Angle Addition Postulate If D is in the interior of ABC, then mABC = mABD + mCBD *Theorem 1-5 The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180 *Theorem 1-6 The sum of the measures of the exterior angles of a convex quadrilateral, one at each vertex, is 360 *Theorem 1-7 The sum of the measures of the interior angles of a convex polygon with n sides is (n - 2) 180 *Corollary 1-7.1 The sum of the measure of the interior angles of a regular polygon with n sides is equal to (n 2) 180 *Corollary 1-7.2 The measure of each interior angle of a regular polygon with n sides is ( )

*Corollary 1-7.3 The measure of each exterior angle of a regular polygon with n sides is *Postulate 8 The Area Postulate Every polygonal region has an area, which is a unique positive real number *Postulate 9 Area Addition Postulate If two polygonal regions do not overlap, then the area of their union is equal to the sum of their individual areas *Postulate 10 The Ruler Postulate There is one-to-one correspondence between the points of a line and the set of real numbers such that the distance between any two points of the line is the absolute value of the difference between the corresponding numbers *Postulate 11 *Theorem 2-1 On ray , there is exactly one point P that lies at a distance x from A *Theorem 2-2 Every segment has exactly one midpoint *Reflexive Property of Equality (RPE) x = x, for every real number x *Symmetric Property of Equality (SymPE) For any real numbers x and y, then y = x *Transitive Property of Equality (TPE) For any real numbers x, y, and z, if x = y and y = z, then x = z *Addition Property of Equality (APE) For any real numbers x, y, and z, if x = y, then x + z = y + z *Subtraction Property of Equality (SPE) For any real numbers x, y, and z, if x = y, then x - z = y - z *Multiplication Property of Equality (MPE) For any real numbers x, y, and z, if x = y, then xz = yz *Substitution Property of Equality (SubsPE) For any real numbers x and y, then x and y may be substituted for each other in any equation *Definition of Angle Bisector is the bisector of BEH if and only if T is in the interior of BEH and BET HET *Theorem 2-3 Congruence for angles id reflexive, symmetric and transitive

*Definition of Adjacent Angles Adjacent angles are two angles which have a common vertex and a common side but have no interior points in common *Definition of Complimentary Angles Angles are complementary if the sum of their measures is 90. *Theorem 2-4 If two angles are complements of congruent angles, then the two angles are congruent *Corollary 2.4.1 If two angles are compliments of the same angle, then they are congruent *Definition of Supplementary Angles Two angles are supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180. *Theorem 2-5 The Supplement Theorem If two angles are supplements of congruent angles, then the two angles are congruent *Corollary 2.5.1 If two angles are supplementary to the same angle, then the two angles are congruent *Theorem 2-6 If two angles are both congruent and supplementary, then each is a right angles *Definition of Linear Pairs Two angles form a linear pair if and only if they meet these conditions: (a) they are adjacent angles, and (b) their uncommon sides are opposite rays *Postulate 12 Linear Pair Postulate If two angles form a linear pair, then they are supplementary *Definition of Vertical Angles Two angles are vertical angles if and only if they are nonadjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines *Theorem 2-7 The vertical Angle Theorem Vertical Angles are congruent *Definition of Perpendicular -Two lines are perpendicular if and only if they intersect to form right angles -Segments or rays are perpendicular if and only if they are contained in perpendicular lines -A line is perpendicular to a plane if and only if it intersects the plane in a point and every line lying in the plane containing that point of intersection is perpendicular to the line

*Theorem 2-8 Any two right angles are congruent *Definition of Perpendicular Bisector The perpendicular bisector of a segment is a line, ray, segment, or plane that is perpendicular to the segment at its midpoint *Definition of Exterior Angle An exterior angle is an angle which is adjacent and supplementary to one of the angles of the triangle *Definition of Remote Interior Angle The remote interior angles are angles which are not adjacent to the given exterior angle of the triangle *Definition of Adjacent Interior Angle An adjacent interior angles is an interior angle which forms a linear pair with the given exterior angle *Theorem 2-9 Exterior Angle Equality Theorem The measure of an exterior angle is equal to the sum of its remote interior angles *Theorem 2-10 The whole is greater than any of its parts *Theorem 2-11 Exterior Angle Inequality Theorem The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is greater than the measure of either of the two remote interior angles *Theorem 2-12 Triangle Inequality Theorem In any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two of its sides is greater than the length of its third side *Theorem 2-13 The Pythagorean Theorem In any right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs ( ) *Definition of Parallel Lines Parallel lines are coplanar lines that do not intersect *Definition of Skew Lines Skew Lines are noncoplanar lines *Postulate 13 The Parallel Postulate Through a point outside a line, there is one and only one line parallel to the given line *Definition of Transversal A transversal is a line that intersects two or more coplanar lines at two or more distinct points

*Definition of Alternate Interior Angles Alternate interior angles are two nonadjacent interior angles on the opposite sides of the transversal *Definition of Alternate Exterior Angles Alternate exterior angles are nonadjacent exterior angles on opposite sides of a transversal *Definition of Corresponding Angles Corresponding angles are two nonadjacent angles, one interior, and one exterior on the same side of the transversal *Postulate 14 Parallel-Alternate Interior Angle Postulate If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then any pair of alternate interior angles are congruent *Theorem 2-14 Parallel-Alternate Exterior Angle Theorem If parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then any pair of alternate exterior angles are congruent *Theorem 2-15 Parallel-Corresponding Angles Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the corresponding angles are congruent *Theorem 2-16 Parallel-Interior Angles-Same Side Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the interior angles on the same side of a transversal are supplementary *Theorem 2-17 Parallel-Exterior Angle-Same Side Theorem If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the exterior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary *Theorem 2-18 Perpendicular Parallel Lines Theorem In a plane, a line perpendicular to one of the two parallel lines is perpendicular to the other *Postulate 15 Alternate Interior Angle-Parallel Postulate If two lines are cut by a transversal and a pair of alternate interior angles are congruent, then the lines are parallel *Theorem 2-19 Alternate Exterior Angles-Parallel Theorem If two lines are cut by a transversal and a pair of alternate exterior angles are congruent, then the lines are parallel *Theorem 2-20 Corresponding Angles-Parallel Theorem If two lines are cut by a transversal and a pair of corresponding angles are congruent, then the lines are parallel

*Theorem 2-21 Interior Angles Same Side-Parallel TheoremIf two lines are cut by a transversal so that the interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary, then the lines are parallel *Theorem 2-22 Perpendicular Same Line-Parallel Theorem In a plane, if two lines are perpendicular to the same line, then they are parallel to each other *Definition of Congruent Triangles Two triangles are congruent if their corresponding parts are congruent *CPCTC - Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent *Theorem 3-1 Congruence for triangles is reflexive, symmetric and transitive *Postulate 16 The SSS Congruence Postulate If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of another triangle; then the triangles are congruent *Postulate 17 The SAS Congruence Postulate If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to two sides and the included angle of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent *Postulate 18 The ASA Congruence Postulate If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to two angles and the included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent *Theorem 3-2 The SAA Theorem If the two angles and the non included side of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of another triangle, respectively, then the triangles are congruent *Theorem 3-3 The Angle Bisector Theorem Every angle has exactly one bisector *Theorem 3-4 - The Isosceles Triangle Theorem If two sides of a triangle are congruent, then the angles opposite these sides are congruent *Corollary 3-4.1 Ever equilateral triangle is equiangular *Corollary 3-4.2 Each angle of an equilateral triangle has a measure of 60 *Theorem 3-5 -Converse of Isosceles Triangle Theorem If two angles of a triangle are congruent, then the sides opposite these angles are congruent

*Corollary 23-5.1 Every equiangular triangle is equilateral *Theorem 3-6 - Side Angle Inequality Theorem If one side of a triangle is longer than the second side, then the measure of the angle opposite the longer side is greater than the measure of the angle opposite the shorter side *Theorem 3-7 - Angle Side Inequality Theorem If one angle of a triangle is larger than another angle, then the side opposite the larger angle is longer than the side opposite the smaller angle *Theorem 3-8 - The Hinge Theorem If two sides of one triangle of one triangle are congruent to two sides of a second triangle and the included angle of the first triangle has a greater measure than the included angle of the second triangle, then the third side of the first triangle is longer than the third side of the second triangle *Theorem 3-9 - The Converse of the Hinge Theorem If two sides of one triangle are congruent to two sides of a second triangle, and the third side of the first triangle is longer than the third side of the second triangle, then the included angle of the first triangle is larger than the included angle of the second triangle *Theorem 3-10 - Leg-Leg Congruence Theorem If two legs of a right triangle are congruent to the corresponding legs of another right triangle, then the two right triangles are congruent *Theorem 3-11 - The Leg-Acute Angle Congruence Theorem If one leg and one acute angle of a right triangle are congruent to the corresponding leg and one acute angle of another right triangle, then the two right triangles are congruent *Theorem 3-12 - The Hypotenuse-Leg Congruence Theorem If the hypotenuse and one leg of a right triangle are congruent to the corresponding hypotenuse and the leg of another right triangle, then the two right triangles are congruent *Theorem 3-13 - The Hypotenuse-Acute Angle Congruence Theorem If the hypotenuse and one acute angle of a right triangle are congruent to the corresponding hypotenuse and an acute angle of another right triangle, then the two right triangles are congruent *Definition of a distance from a Point to a Line The distance from a point to a line is the length of the perpendicular segment from the point to the line. If the point lies on the line, the distance is zero

*Theorem 3-14 A point on the bisector of an angle is equidistant from the sides of the angle *Theorem 3-15 A point equidistant from the sides of an angle lies on the bisector of an angle *Theorem 3-16 A point on the perpendicular bisector of a segment is equidistant from the endpoint of a segment *Theorem 3-17 A point equidistant from the endpoint of a segment lies on the perpendicular bisector of a segment *Corollary 3-17.1 If a line contains two points each of which is equidistant from the endpoints of a segment, then the line is the perpendicular bisector of the segment *Theorem 3-18 In a plane, through a given point on a line, there is exactly one line perpendicular to the line *Theorem 3-19 There is one and only one line perpendicular to a given line through an external point *Theorem 4-1 A diagonal of a parallelogram forms wo congruent triangles *Corollary 4-1.1 In a parallelogram, any two opposite angles are congruent *Theorem 4-2 In a parallelogram, any two consecutive angles are supplementary *Theorem 4-3 In a parallelogram, any two opposite sides are congruent *Theorem 4-4 The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other *Theorem 4-5 If two lines are parallel, then all points of each line are equidistant from the other line *Theorem 4-6 The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent *Theorem 4-7 The diagonals of a square bisect the vertex angle *Theorem 4-8 The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular

*Theorem 4-9 Each diagonal of a rhombus bisects the opposite angles of the rhombus *Theorem 4-10 If a parallelogram has at least one right angle, then it is a rectangle *Theorem 4-11 If the diagonals of a parallelogram are perpendicular, then the parallelogram is a rhombus *Theorem 4-12 If both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are congruent, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram *Theorem 4-13 If one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are both congruent and parallel, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram *Theorem 4-14 If both pairs of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are congruent, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram *Theorem 4-15 If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram *Theorem 4-16 The segment that joins the midpoint of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and is one-half of its measure *Definition of Isosceles Trapezoid An isosceles trapezoid is a trapezoid with congruent legs *Theorem 4-17 The base angles of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent *Theorem 4-18 The diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent *Theorem 4-19 If the base angles of a trapezoid are congruent, then the trapezoid is isosceles *Theorem 4-20 If the diagonals of a trapezoid are congruent, the trapezoid is isosceles *Definition of Median of a Trapezoid The median of a trapezoid is the segment joining the midpoints of the legs *Theorem 4-21 The median of a trapezoid is parallel to its bases *Postulate 19

If a line to the second side of a triangle bisects the first side, then it bisects the third side *Theorem 4-22 The median of a trapezoid is half the sum of the lengths of the bases *Theorem 4-23 If exactly one diagonal of a quadrilateral is the perpendicular bisector of the other diagonal, then the quadrilateral is a kite *Theorem 4-24 If a quadrilateral is a kite, then its diagonals are perpendicular *Theorem 4-25 The area of a kite is half the product of the lengths of its diagonals *Definition of a Ratio A ratio is a comparison of two numbers (by division). Given two numbers a and b, b , a ration is the quotient a divided by b. This ratio can be written in three ways: a to b, a: b, or . Each of these ratios is read a to b. *Definition of a Proportion A proportion is a statement of equality between two ratios. In symbols:

or a:b = c:d

where b , d *Definition of Geometric Mean The geometric mean of two numbers is the square root of their product *Theorem 5-1 If two triangles have equal altitudes, then the ratio of their areas is equal to the ratio of their bases. *Theorem 5-2 Two triangles on the same base and between two parallels are equal in area. *Theorem 5-3 - Basic Proportionality Theorem If a line is parallel to one side of a triangle and intersects the other two sides in distinct points, then it divides the sides proportionally *Theorem 5-4 - Converse of the Proportionality Theorem If a line divides two sides of a triangle proportionality, then the line is parallel to the third side. *Definition of Similar Polygons Similar polygons are polygons in which the corresponding angles are congruent and the ratios of the lengths of corresponding sides are equal *Definition Similar Triangles

Two triangles are similar if and only if the corresponding angles are congruent and the lengths of the corresponding sides are proportional *Theorem 5-5 - The AAA Similarity Theorem If there exists a correspondence between the vertices of two triangles such that three angles of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding angles of the second triangle, respectively, then the two triangles are similar. *Theorem 5-6 - AA Similarity Theorem If two angles of a triangle are congruent to two angles of the second triangle, respectively, then the two triangles are similar. *Theorem 5-7 Similarity between triangles is an equivalence relation *Corollary 5-7.1 If a triangle is similar to the second triangle and the second triangle is congruent to the third triangle, then the first triangle is similar to the third triangle *Theorem 5-8 - SAS Similarity Theorem If two pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional and the included angles are congruent, then the two triangles are similar *Theorem 5-9 - SSS Similarity Theorem If all three pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, then the two triangles are similar *Theorem 5-10 - The Right Triangle Similarity Theorem In any right triangle, the altitude to the hypotenuse divides the triangle into two right triangles, which are similar to each other and to the given right triangle *Corollary 5-10.1 - The Geometric Mean Theorem In a right triangle, the altitude to the hypotenuse is the geometric mean of the segments into which it divides the hypotenuse and each of the legs is the geometric mean of the hypotenuse and the segment of the hypotenuse adjacent to the leg *Theorem 5-11 - Isosceles Right Triangle Theorem If an isosceles right triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the length of the leg times *Theorem 5-12 - 30-60-90 Triangle Theorem In a 30-60-90 triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is twice the length of the shorter leg and the length of the longer leg times the length of the shorter leg

*Theorem 5-13 If three or more coplanar parallel lines are each cut by two transversals, the intercepted segments on the two transversals are proportional *Theorem 5-14 The bisector of an angle of a triangle separates the opposite sides into segments whose lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other two sides *Theorem 5-15 Any two corresponding altitudes of similar triangles are proportional to the corresponding sides. *Theorem 5-16 Any two corresponding angle bisectors of similar triangles are proportional to the corresponding sides. *Theorem 5-17 Any two corresponding medians of similar triangles are proportional to the corresponding sides *Theorem 5-18 The ratio of the perimeters of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of any pair of corresponding sides *Theorem 5-19 If two triangles are similar, then the ratio of their areas equals the square of the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding sides *Theorem 5-20 The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the square of the ratio of the corresponding perimeter. *Definition of The Pythagorean Theorem In a right triangle, the square of the length of its hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the length of its legs

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