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Transféré par Cristian Ghindea

RESPONSE OF FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES
WITH TUNED MASS DAMPERS ACTED BY
WIND

RESPONSE OF FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES
WITH TUNED MASS DAMPERS ACTED BY
WIND

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5 (54) - 2012

Series 1: Special Issue No. 1

RESPONSE OF FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES

WITH TUNED MASS DAMPERS ACTED BY

WIND

C. L. GHINDEA

1

M. A. POPESCU

2

Abstract: Different types of structures like chimneys, high rise buildings or

large openings floors can be considered as vibration sensitive structures.

Beside classical measures applied to decrease the vibration sensitivity, a

modern solution to control those vibrations is to endow the structure with

special damping devices. This category of special devices can include tuned

mass dampers, individually designed for every type of structure. Beside the

theoretical background on TMD and wind loads on structures, the paper

shows the response of a high rise chimney with TMD, acted by wind. The

structure response is obtained from different analyses in time and frequency

domain.

Key words: wind load generation, vibration damping, harmonic excitation

1

Centre of Advanced Research in Strength of Materials, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest

2

Department of Strength of Materials, Bridges and Tunnels, Technical University of Civil Engineering

Bucharest.

1. Introduction

Usually the vibration sensitivity of a

structure can be caused by a combination

between a low natural frequency and a

small damping capacity. For flexible

structures, with great heights or openings,

the outcome of vibration sensitivity can lead

to different results, from simple discomfort

of the occupants, the disruption of

functionality or, in severe cases, the

structural failure due to fatigue

phenomenon.

Modern solutions can be applied to

reduce the effect of the structure vibrations.

In the world, for the last decades, different

special devices are used as vibration

dampeners. In this category can be found a

number of acceleration dependent devices,

individually tuned to the dynamic

characteristics of each structures for that are

used, called tuned mass dampers (TMD)

A theoretical response of a structure

endowed with TMD is shown in figure 1.

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.5 1 1.5

x/x

ref

f/f

resonance

with TMD without TMD

Fig. 1. Theoretical response of a structure

with and without TMD

Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 5 (54) - 2012 Series 1

148

2. TMD characterisation

A TMD device consists, under a

simplified form, in a weight, a spring and a

damper, all these endowed to a structure,

usually in a area with the greatest

displacements.

The tuned mass damper characterisation

can start from a simple case of a two

degrees of freedom system at which the

first degree of freedom corresponds to an

equivalent SDOF system and the second

DOF represents the tuned mass damper

[4].

2.1. Mathematical model and optimum

characteristics

The motion equation of the two degrees

of freedom system is generally depicted in

equation (1):

. P F F X M

e d

= + +

(1)

where, M is the mass matrix, X is the

absolute displacement vector,

d

F is the

dampening forces vector,

e

F is the elastic

resistant forces vector, P is the loads

vector.

After the decomposition of the two

equation system and naming the

parameters according to figure 2, the final

equations are shown in expression (2).

( )

( )

= + + +

= + + +

0

0

0

y k y c kx x c u x m

y k y c x y m

d d

d d d

(2)

These equations are the same with the

ones introduced by Den Hartog and Rana

R. [1] [3] and can be considered as the

basic mathematic model of the tuned mass

damper system.

The principal dynamic characteristics of

the TMD device can be described in terms

of the phase ratio, f f k

d

= , representing

the ratio between the natural frequency of

the device and natural frequency of the

structure, the mass ratio, m m

d

= , and

the damping ratio of the device,

d

.

Fig. 2. SDOF system with TMD

Depending of the approached used to

analyse the equations (2), in the technical

literature there are a number of optimal

values of some of these characteristics.

For a harmonic excitation, the optimal

phase ratio is considered as follows [3]:

( ) 1 1 1 < + =

opt

k (3)

Also, the optimal damping ratio of the

device can be retrieved as a function of the

mass ratio [6]:

C. L. GHINDEA et al.: Response of flexible structures with tuned dampers acted by wind 149

( )

3

1 8

3

+

=

opt d

(4)

2.2. Design principles for tuned mass

dampers

Starting from the equation (2) and

considering that the structure is acted by an

harmonic excitation, different correlations

between the behaviour of the structure and the

dynamic characteristics of the TMD can be

made, related to the optimal values.

Should be noted that a major influence in

the response structure with TMD it is

represented by the structure own damping

capacity. For example it was considered

that the SDOF system is represented by a

steel structure, for which was considered a

damping ratio of 2%.

0.82

0.84

0.856

0.884

0.912

0.94

1.06

1.084

1.108

1.128

1.14

1.156

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.7 1 1.3

/e

Effective

frequency

range

Fig. 3. Frequency efficiency interval

related with the increase of the mass ratio

The frequency efficiency interval can be

enlarged by an increase of the mass ratio,

as is shown in figure 3.

Beside the narrow effective frequency

range, small mass ratio conducts to larger

displacements of the TMD, as depicted in

figure 4. On the other side, a greater

additional mass means a greater vertical

load on the structure, for which the

reduction of the displacement amplitude is

no longer significant. As one can observe

from figure 4, and also the technical

reviews shows that, the usual interval of

mass ratio is between 4% and 8% from the

mass of the structure [6].

0

50

100

150

200

250

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

=m

d

/m

max y/yref max x/xref

max y/max x

0.01 5.763

0.02 4.181

0.04 3.044

0.06 2.553

0.08 2.267

0.1 2.075

0.12 1.936

max(y)/x

ref

max(x)/x

ref

Optimal

range

Fig. 4. The influence of the mass ratio on

structure and TMD displacement

The deviation from the optimal phase

ratio, shown in figure 5, can conduct to

greater displacements of the structure,

meaning a smaller reduction of the

displacement amplitude related to the

structure without TMD.

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

x/x

ref

k/k

opt

md/m=0.01 md/m=0.02

md/m=0.04 md/m=0.06

Fig. 5. The impact of the deviation from the

optimal phase ratio

Small damping ratios of the TMD,

related to the optimal value from equation

(4), can conduct to a large increase of the

TMD displacement, compared with the

increase of the structure displacement, as

Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 5 (54) - 2012 Series 1

150

shown in figure 6. Using damping ratios

greater than the optimal value conducts to

almost null differences in structure

displacement, but a small reduction of the

TMD oscillations.

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

/opt

max y/yref max x/xref

=0.04

opt

=11.55%

max(y)/x

ref

max(x)/x

ref

Fig. 6. Structure and TMD displacement

related with de TMD damping ratio

3. Wind loading

As previously stated, tuned mass

dampers are acceleration dependent

devices.

In this case, a time-history analysis is

required to evaluate the behaviour of the

structure with TMD

Usually, the wind action design codes,

provides the wind loading as a static force

acting on the structure, equivalent to the

extremes effects of a turbulent wind.

For numerical analysis, two methods can

be used to provide a time-history record of

the wind force.

First method presumes the use of real

records of the wind pressure or velocity

individually determined for a certain site or

provided by specific wind data bases.

The second method that can be used, it is

to artificially generate a wind velocity

record.

It is used to describe wind velocity

pressure and forces, as stationary random

processes, accepting that due the

complexity of nature, the forces generated

by wind action can not be described or

predicted deterministically. However, by

using probabilistic average quantities, such

as standard deviation, correlation and

spectral analysis, one can describe the

main characteristics of both excitation

force and the structural response [5].

Thus, wind velocity, pressure on the

structure and the structural response being

treated as stationary random processes, it

can be considered a separation of the

averaged values, over a period of time, to

fluctuating components of the same

quantities.

Such separation can be described

mathematically by the following general

relation

( ) ( ) t A A t A

g fluctuatin average

+ = (5)

where

average

A is the average value of the

action and ( ) t A

g fluctuatin

is the time-history

of the fluctuating component.

Fluctuating component of wind is

modelled as a stationary random process of

zero mean, considering Gaussian

distribution of generated values.

In figure 7 are shown the fluctuating

components of the wind velocity, at

different highs of a structure, used later in

the case study. The time-history records

were generated with an online wind

generation software "NatHaz On-line

Wind Simulator (NOWS)" [7]

Using the calculation relations for global

assessment of the wind force, described in

norm NP 082-04 [8], and neglecting the

factors that take into account the shape of

the structure and the variation of average

velocity on the height of the structure

(which is generated automatically by the

software), can be considered that the time

variation of the total force wind to level z,

( ) t F

z

, is described by the equation (6):

C. L. GHINDEA et al.: Response of flexible structures with tuned dampers acted by wind 151

( )

( ) t U U A .

+ U A (t)=. + F =F t F

z avg,z ref,z

avg,z ref,z f,z avg,z z

+ 612 0

612

2

(6)

where,

avg,z

F is the average wind force al z

level, (t) F

f,z

is the fluctuating component

of the wind force at z level,

ref,z

A is the

reference area of the structure at z level,

avg,z

U is average wind velocity al z level

and ( ) t U

z

is fluctuating wind velocity at z

level.

-20

-10

0

10

20

0 50 100 150 200

V

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

[

m

/

s

]

Time [s]

-10

0

10

20

0 50 100 150 200 V

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

[

m

/

s

]

Time [s]

-10

0

10

20

0 50 100 150 200 V

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

[

m

/

s

]

Time [s]

11 m

103 m

200 m

Fig. 7. Wind velocities at different levels of

the structure

Another approach for the wind response

of the structure is an analysis in the

frequency domain.

In some cases, the wind induces in the

structure vibrations with narrowband

frequency. In this case, an example is the

response of structures with low vibration

frequencies, on the direction parallel to

wind. For such cases, the stresses variation

over time can be considered as a quasi-

sinusoidal variation with randomly varying

amplitudes [5].

Based on previous observation, one can

consider that the most adverse response

shall be recorded when fluctuating

component of wind force at level z of the

structure is described by a harmonic

function with a frequency near the natural

frequency of the structure, according to the

following relationship:

( ) ) + t sin( F = t F

w fz z f,

e (6)

where

fz

F is the fluctuating component

amplitude of the oscillation,

w w

f t = e 2 is

the pulsation of the wind oscillation for a

frequency

w

f and is the phase shift of

the oscillation.

3. Study case

To study the behaviour of TMD devices

in structures sensitive to wind loads the

study case was made on a concrete

chimney with 200 m height [2]. The study

aimed the comparison of the structure

response, with and without TMD, to wind

action.

3.1. Structure description and modelling

The analysed chimney is made from

reinforced concrete, with a 200 m height

and the shape of the structure like a

truncated cone with variable wall thickness

(figure 8). The class of the concrete is

C25/30.

The foundation and the upper chimney

structure consists of a series of cylindrical

and conical shapes. The foundation depth

is considered from -11.20 m to -2.70 m.

The base section, from -11.20 m to -8.00

m, is shaped like a cylindrical tube with an

outside diameter of 32.64 m. The next

section, between the depth -8.00 m and

+27.00 m level, is a truncated cone with

the upper outside diameter of 15.86 m.

Between +27.00 m i +33.00 m the

structure is again a cylindrical tube. The

wall, for all these three sections, has a 50

cm thickness.

Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 5 (54) - 2012 Series 1

152

The last variation of the shape is from

+33.00 m to +200.00 m. The wall has a

variable thickness from 50 cm to 18 cm, at

the top of the chimney. The thickness

varies with 2 cm at every 10 m.

-11.20

-8.00

-2.70

0.00

+27.00

+33.00

+163.00

+173.00

+183.00

+193.00

+200.00

+43.00

+53.00

+63.00

+73.00

+83.00

+93.00

+103.00

+113.00

+123.00

+133.00

+143.00

+153.00

+11.00

Fig. 8. Concrete chimney used for the

study case

The numerical model of the chimney,

shown in figure 9, was made with shell

finite elements, in SAP2000. The model

complies with the chimney wall thickness

variation.

As result of the height of the chimney

structure, the restraints section was

considered at -9.00 m, instead of the

ground level section, at 0.00 m .

To simplify the modelling process, the

wind load was applied in the same cross-

sections as the change in thickness of the

wall. In this way, 20 cross-sections where

considered for the wind load.

3.2. Wind force distribution

For the time history analysis a dataset of

velocities records for wind fluctuating

component was generated, for every level

of calculating sections of the chimney.

Fig. 9. Finite elements model of the

chimney and typical vibration modes

In the same time were generated also the

values for the average wind velocities. For

three sections, in figure 7 is shown the

variation of the wind velocity.

Using the procedure described in the

previous chapter, the global wind forces

where obtained. To mobilize the whole

mass of the chimney the distribution of

wind force along the perimeter of the

cross-section was chosen according with

NP 082-04 [8], and is shown in figure 10.

1.0

1.5

1.2

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

1.2

1.5

1.0

0

0.4

1.0

0.4

0

Fig. 10. Distribution of wind force along

the perimeter of the cross-section

For the frequency domain analysis,

starting from the values generated by the

NOWS software [7], the fluctuating wind

C. L. GHINDEA et al.: Response of flexible structures with tuned dampers acted by wind 153

component was considered as a single

frequency harmonic oscillation with a

random phase shift of 2 t at different z

levels, but with the same amplitudes and

values as the fluctuating forces and,

respectively, the average forces

3.3. TMD modelling

Following the idea of minimizing

additional weight that increases the vertical

load on the structure, a TMD with a mass

ratio of 2% was chosen, the mass was

about 187 tons. According to the natural

period of the structure equal to 2.99 s,

resulted form modal analysis, for the

TMD device was considered a vibration

period of 3.05 s and a damping ratio of

8.4%, according to the following

relationship:

| |

| |

( )

% .

.

.

=

s . =

f

= T

Hz . f

= f

. / = /m = m

TMD,opt

TMD

TMD

str TMD

str TMD

407 8

02 0 1 8

02 0 3

05 3

1

328 0

1

1

02 0 187 9371

3

=

+

=

+

~

(6)

For modelling, a infinitely rigid beam is

used. The beam is circular shaped, in plane

and is located at the top of the chimney.

The beam is supported by 20 link type

elements. The additional mass is

distributed along the length of the beam.

.

3.3. Numerical analysis results

Comparison of the results of time-history

analysis was done in terms of displacement

(figure 11) and acceleration (figure 12) at

the top of the structure. All quantities were

considered in the direction of the wind,

making a comparison between response of

the structure with and without TMD.

-0.25

-0.2

-0.15

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

D

e

p

l

a

s

a

r

e

a

l

a

v

r

v

[

m

]

t [s]

-0.25

-0.2

-0.15

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

D

e

p

l

a

s

a

r

e

a

l

a

v

r

v

[

m

]

t [s]

without TMD d

RMS

=0.082m d

max

=0.245m

with TMD d

RMS

=0.079m d

max

=0.219m

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

[

m

]

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

[

m

]

Fig. 11. Displacement at the top of the

chimney subjected to the wind generated

action

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

A

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

i

a

a

v

r

v

[

m

/

s

2

]

t [s]

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

A

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

i

a

a

v

r

v

[

m

/

s

2

]

t [s]

without TMD a

RMS

=0.34 m/s

2

with TMD

a

max

=1.24 m/s

2

a

RMS

=0.23 m/s

2

a

max

=0.85 m/s

2

A

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

[

m

/

s

2

]

A

c

c

e

l

e

r

a

t

i

o

n

[

m

/

s

2

]

Fig. 12. Horizontal acceleration at the

top of the chimney subjected to the wind

generated action

For the frequency domain analysis the

displacement response curves were

obtained, also for the structure with and

without TMD.

In figure 13 are depicted the normalised

displacement response curves for a point at

the top of the chimney.

4. Conclusions

From the numerical analysis can be

highlighted a few observations.

In the case of the action of the generated

fluctuating force, the TMD device with an

mass ratio of 2%, has a small reduction of

the peak of the fluctuating displacement

Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov Vol. 5 (54) - 2012 Series 1

154

values of the structure up to 4%, for the

average amplitude, respectively, of 10.6%,

for maximum values. A significant

reduction is recorded for peak

accelerations. This is approximately 30%.

16.93 17.77

33.19

67.06

100.00

68.73

23.22

2.88

3.60

17.10

21.29

51.97

25.57

6.96

14.59

24.48

4.19

1.59

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

N

o

r

m

a

l

i

s

e

d

t

o

p

d

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

f

wind

/f

structure

without TMD with TMD

d

top

d

ref

d

MAX, without TMD

=100.0 d

ref

d

MAX, with TMD

=52.0 d

ref

d

RMS, without TMD

=48.6 d

ref

d

RMS, with TMD

=23.5 d

ref

R

d

MAX

=48%

R

d

RMS

=51.6%

Fig. 13. Normalized displacement response

spectrum at harmonic excitation of the

chimney with and without the TMD (d

ref

=

0.119 m)

While the TMD has a narrow band of

frequencies for which the device is tuned

to the structure, it is still effective when the

prevailing wind vibration frequency

coincides with the frequency of the

structure. In this case was recorded a

reduction of the amplitude over 90 %.

In general, the wind, having a large

frequency range, both in the efficiency

bandwidth and beyond, a comparison of

the average displacements for the structure

with and without TMD, can give an order

of magnitude about the mitigation capacity

of the device. In this case the mean

attenuation of the oscillations is closer over

50%.

Given the observations above,

notwithstanding the fact that the case study

presented in this paper does not cover a

sufficient number of parametric analysis, it

can be concluded that the TMD device can

be an effective way to mitigate vibrations

induced by wind action.

References

1. Calado L., Proena J.M., et al.:

Innovative materials and techniques

for seismic protection. In: Earthquake

Protection of Historical Buildings by

Reversible Mixed Technologies -

PROHITECH, WP5_proj.no.INCO-

CT-509119, 2004.

2. Creu, D.: Influence of height

reduction of a concrete chimney on the

seismic safety factor, In: Bulletin of

the Technical University of Civil

Engineering Bucharest (2002), no. 1,

p. 56-67

3. Den Hartog, J. P.: Mechanical

Vibrations. New York, USA , McGraw-

Hill Book Company Inc., 1947.

4. Ghindea, C. L.: Studiul unor metode de

atenuare a aciunii seismice asupra

construciilor (Study of some methods

to mitigate seismic action effect on

buildings). In: Ph.D. Thesis, Technical

University of Civil Engineering

Bucharest, Bucureti, Romania, 2009.

5. Holmes J. D.: Wind Loading of

Structures. New York, USA, Taylor &

Francis Group, 2007

6.

***

Maurer Tuned Mass Dampers.

Available at: http://www.maurer.co.uk/

doc/TMD-INfo-28072003.pdf.

Accessed: 02.02 2012;

7.

***

NatHaz On-line Wind Simulator

(NOWS). Available at: http://

windsim.ce.nd.edu/int_winsim.html.

Accessed: 10.01 2012;

8.

***

NP 082-04: Cod de proiectare.

Bazele proiectarii si actiuni asupra

constructiilor. Actiunea vantului.

(Design Code. Basis of design and

actions on buildings. Wind action).

Accessed: 10.01 2012.

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