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Al-Balqa' Applied University

Faculty of Engineering Technology

Electrical Machines Lab.


Time of lab.: Monday 17:00-20:00 class number: 4

Report on: Experiment no. 1 Open circuit and short circuit testing of a three phase transformer Prepared by:
30715018502

Supervised by: . Date of doing the experiment: 2009-10-19 Date of submission: 2009-11-02

# Introduction:
In the academic part of Electrical Machine we learned that we can determine the parameters of equivalent circuit of the transformer in thee ways: 1. Mathematical way: by using different equations such as Lc L N Rm = R= L= XL = L
A i

2. Experimental method: which is the subject of our experiment. 3. Phasor diagram method. Purpose of the experiment (Objects): 1- To study the voltage and the current ratio of a transformer. 2- To obtain the transformer exiting current. 3- To determine the magnetic circuit parameters values; ( Rm , Xm ) , and to determine the electrical circuit parameters values; ( Rsc , Xsc ) of the transformer. 4- To determine the values of the magnetic losses and electrical losses. 5- To determine the impedance voltage value and loading factor.

# Theory:
Open circuit (no-load) test: In the open circuit test a transformers secondary winding is open circuited and its primary winding is connected to a full-rated line voltage. Under these conditions all the no-load current must be flowing through the magnetic circuit of the transformer. The input voltage, input current and the input power applied to the transformer are measured, from this information we can calculate: a) Transformer ratio K = V1 V2 = I 2 I 1 Pnl b) The reluctance Rm = where Pnl = w1 + w2 2 3 I nl The magnetic impedance
Zm = Vnl . ph I nl . ph

The magnetizing inductor Xm = Zm 2 Rm 2 Pnl 1 The no-load power factor = cos 3 V I nl nl c) The magnetization current Inl d) The measured power in O.C. test gives the magnatic losses (Pcore) e) The referred parameters from side to the other is obtained as follows:

Rm1 = K 2 Rm 2 Xm1 = K 2 Xm 2 I nl 1 = I nl 2 K2

Short circuit (loading) test: In the short circuit test the secondary winding of the transformer are short circuited and the input voltage on the primary is adjusted until the current equal to rated value. The input voltage, input current and input power are measured, from this information we determine: a) The impedances referred to the primary side of the transformer using these equations:
Z sc = V sc. ph I sc. ph

The resistance

Rsc =

Psc 3 I sc. ph
2

2 2 X sc = Z sc Rsc The inductance b) The measured power on S.C. test gives the electrical losses Pcu.losses c) The impedance voltage ( Vsc ); Vsc% = (Vsc/VN)* 100% I sc Psc = And the loading factor = I scN PscN d) The referred parameters from side to the other are obtained as follows: Rsc 1 = K 2 Rsc 2

X sc 1 = K 2 X sc 2

# Experimental Method:
Open circuit (no-load) test procedure: 1- We connected the transformer as shown in figure (1):

2- The measured values (blue title) of the input voltage (Vnl1) , the output voltage (Vnl2) , the input current (Inl1) , the input power (Pnl1) , are listed in (table 1). The calculation to find the parameters are shown under (table 1).

Table (1) Vnl1 (V) 380 300 220 140 60


cos =

Vnl2 (V) 401 315 235 150 73

Inl1 (A) 0.289 0.102 0.055 0.038 0.020

Pnl1 (W) 15 6 2 2 1

cos
1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0

(degree)

K 0.948 0.952 0.936 0.933 0.822

Rm () 59.7 192 220 461 833

Zm () 1315 2941 4000 3733 3000

Xm () 1314 2935 3994 3703 2882

Pnl 3 Vnl I nl

Pnl = cos 1 3 V I nl nl Pnl Rm = 2 3 I nl


Zm =
Xm =

From the experiment we find that K=0.948

Vnl . ph I nl . ph
Zm 2 Rm 2

Short circuit (loading) test procedure: 1- We connected the transformer as shown in figure (2):

2- The measured values (blue title) of the input voltage (Vsc) , the input current (Isc1) , the input power (Psc) , are listed in (table 2). The calculations to find the parameters are shown under (table 2).

VSC (V) 13 9.7 8.1 5.3

ISC1 (A) 4.60 3.65 2.81 1.52

ISC2 (A) 4.13 3.28 2.53 1.37

PSC (W) 25 14 10 4

RSC1 () 0.394 0.350 0.422 0.577

Table (2) ZSC1 () 2.83 2.66 2.88 3.49

XSC1 () 2.80 2.64 2.85 3.44

cos SC

1 0.793 0.550 0.298

1 1 1 1

RSC2 () 0.438 0.389 0.470 0.642

XSC2 () 3.12 2.94 3.17 3.83

Rsc1 =

Psc 3 I sc. ph
Vsc. ph I sc. ph
2 2

Z sc1 =

X sc1 = Z sc Rsc

cos =

PSC 3 VSC I SC Psc PscN

I sc = I scN

RSC1 = K 2 R SC 2 X SC1 = K 2 X SC 2 I SC1 = I SC 2 K2

Plotting of the no-load (magnetization) curve:

The equivalent circuit of the transformer referred to the primary side:

The equivalent circuit of the transformer referred to the secondary side:

# Conclusions and Recommendations:


1- The open circuit experiment and the shot circuit experiment where done on the primary side. 2- As the name plat of the transformer show : V rated = 380 V I rated = 4.6 V 3- From the open circuit experiment, we calculated the magnetic parameter of the transformer and found that: Rm = 59.7 referred to primary Xm = 1314 referred to primary K = 0.948 4- From the short circuit experiment, we calculated the electrical parameter of the transformer and found that: RSC = 0.394 referred to primary XSC = 2.80 referred to primary

# Reference:
Electric Machinery Fundamentals, 4th Ed., by Stephen J. Chapman