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Volume 71 • No. 2
August – September 2009


Great Opportunities for Research and Information Exchange

at the OSU/OTF Turfgrass Research Field Day August 12


TurfNews distributes useful and timely advice, information and
research from Ohio’s most knowledgeable experts and professionals
to OTF members and those in the turfgrass industry.

Vol. 71 • No. 2 August – September 2009

TurfNews is produced by the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation

1100-H Brandywine Blvd, Zanesville, Ohio 43701-7303
1-888-OTF-3445 and is available to all members
Back issues of OTF TurfNews are available on our website at www.OhioTurfgrass.org.

The purpose of the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation is to promote the turfgrass industry in Ohio, to encourage the further research and education
in turfgrass science and to speak on matters of policy affecting the turfgrass industry – all of which provide better turf for everyone.

This Issue Sponsored By:

Inside 09 Calendar OF Events

Message From The OTF President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OSU/OTF Turfgrass Research Field Day
August 12, 2009
Ohio Turfgrass Economic Impact Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
OTF Research & Education Facility
Legislative Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Columbus, OH
Green Industry News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Ohio Turfgrass Research Trust Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Ohio Lawn Care Outdoor Summer Seminar
August 13, 2009
Industry Support Of Turfgrass Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
OTF Research & Education Facility
OTF Golf Tournament Registration Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Columbus, OH
Residential Lawn Care Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

OTF Golf Tournament

Golf Course Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
October 6, 2009
Sports Turf Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Toledo Country Club
Toledo, OH
New Growth & Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The Wild And Wacky Turfgrass Pests! – Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Ohio Turfgrass Conference & Show
Protecting Employees During The Summer Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 December 7 – 10, 2009
Graduate Student Spotlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Greater Columbus Convention Center
Columbus, OH
Corporate Sponsor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 888-683-3445

We are just about half way through the summer season and half way through the year. I hope the weather is cooperating in your area, from my
standpoint in Southern Ohio, it has been a pleasant surprise compared to the last two summers. We have had adequate moisture and cooler than
normal temperatures, therefore from the turf standpoint, everything has been great. However, when speaking to fellow OTF member and golf course
superintendent Greg Goedde, he was on the dry side and not experiencing the moisture we have had in Southern Ohio. It reminds me that while
things may be good in my neck of the woods, it’s not always the case with the unpredictable weather and mother nature, who has her own agenda.
Our daily lives are impacted by the weather and the end result of how our turfgrass is performing. It’s amazing how much impact the grass plant
has on all OTF members and their daily lives. We here at OTF realize that and encourage you to view and pass along the Economic Impact Survey

We are constantly striving to make the Conference & Show, Field Day, and Golf Tournament, etc. a better experience, and this year will not be
different. The upcoming event that we are asking for your support is the OTF Field Day on August 12, 2009. This is a worthwhile event and a wealth
of knowledge can be gained by attending. Please mark your calendar. In addition, for all of you Buckeye football fans, we will be raffling off a pair of
tickets to the OSU v. USC game, however, you must be present to enter the drawing.

In just a few years, the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation will be celebrating its 50-year anniversary. Planning has begun and we look forward to having a
gala event for this special occasion. It is hard to imagine some of the individuals, such as Harry Murray and Gene Probasco are still going strong and
supporting the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation.

In addition, all OTF members and others in the Green Industry will be receiving a very important survey. We look forward to your feedback regarding
the progress of the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation in the future. As you know, these times are changing and we need to change with them.

We look forward to seeing you at the special events and look for information on the upcoming golf outing in October at Toledo Country Club. Enjoy
the rest of the summer season and we look forward to a pleasant fall.

Thank you,
Dan Walter

Ohio Turfgrass Industry Makes $4.6 Billion Economic Impact

equivalents) who either had turfgrass maintenance responsibilities

or were employed by turfgrass-dependent organizations.

Key Findings
• 3 billion dollars in direct economic output
• 4.6 billion dollars in total economic output*
• Over 41,000 employed
• Over 4 million acres of turfgrass maintained
• 841 million dollars spent on turfgrass maintenance supplies
The Ohio Turfgrass Foundation (OTF) recently released key findings • 639 million dollars in labor costs, payroll taxes
from a survey conducted in 2008 to measure the impact of the turf- • 338 million dollars in contracted services
grass industry on Ohio’s economy. This was the first comprehensive
survey of Ohio’s turfgrass industry since a 1989 survey conducted by * indirect and induced impact using the Bureau of Economic Analysis
OTF and The Ohio State University. RIMS II multipliers for Ohio, the total estimated impact of turfgrass
on Ohio’s economy is over 4.6 billion dollars and more than 60,000
Overview jobs.
Commissioned by OTF and supported by The Ohio State University’s
Turfgrass Science Program, this effort to estimate the economic Led by OTF, the survey was a collaborative effort among several
impact of Ohio’s turfgrass industry was administered by The industry organizations, including; Ohio Lawn Care Association, Ohio
Strategy Team, Ltd., a Columbus-based research firm. From June Sports Turf Managers Association, Ohio Sod Producers Association,
through December 2008, almost 1400 interviews were completed and Ohio Chapters of the Golf Course Superintendents Association.
with single-family households, lawn care service companies, golf
courses, churches, school districts, sod farms, cemeteries, and In conclusion, Ohio’s turfgrass industry provides not only aesthetic
others throughout Ohio. value but also significant economic value to the state. OTF is grateful
to the many Ohioans who took the time to share information about
Economic Impact of Ohio’s Turfgrass Industry their property or organization by completing surveys via telephone,
Defined to include those economic sectors and individuals directly fax or the internet.
engaged in the cultivation, sales, installation and maintenance of
four million acres of turf / grass / lawn in Ohio, the direct economic
output associated with Ohio’s turfgrass increased from 1.16 billion
dollars in 1989 to 3 billion dollars in 2007. To put this latter figure
into perspective, 3 billion dollars is equivalent to 54% of the 2006
cash receipts from Ohio’s agriculture commodities, including both
livestock and crops.

Furthermore, Ohio’s turfgrass industry in 2007 was directly re-

sponsible for the employment of 41,808 Ohioans (full time employee

Legislative Update

Senate Bill 51 Passed out of Senate Ag Morano reiterated her commitment to elevating the importance of
Committee; OTF and OLCA Name Senator the turfgrass industry in Ohio and she has agreed to work with her
Morano “Legislator of the Year” colleagues to see that the bill gets on the Senate floor. Morano also
made some heartfelt comments of gratitude for the award. She
indicated that it is an honor to work to raise the level of awareness of
After four hearings in the Ohio Senate Agriculture Committee, SB 51 the turfgrass industry. She also stated that our industry is full of hard
(Morano; D – Lorain), which would designate the last week in May working and honorable people.
“Ohio Turfgrass Week” has passed out of committee and is currently
pending in the Senate Rules Committee. It is OUR honor to work with Senator Morano. CONGRATULATIONS,
OTF had significant input on this bill including testifying twice before
the Senate Agriculture Committee. As the committee listened to OTF thanks everyone who participated in this important event. For
testimony provided by OTF Executive Director Kevin Thompson, it one day, turfgrass was the talk of the Statehouse.
was clear that legislators were surprised to learn of the number
of jobs provided by the turfgrass industry. Similarly, the committee
also was interested in the environmental benefits of turf. Senate
Special thanks to Amega Sciences USA for
Agriculture Committee Chairman Senator Kirk Schuring (R; Canton)
sponsoring the Turf & Lawn Care Advocacy Day
asked Senator Morano if she would be willing to amend her bill to
include some of the statistics cited in Thompson’s testimony. The
bill was amended to include a definition of turfgrass as well as some
general language about the economic and environmental benefits
of turf.

Meanwhile, the Ohio Turf & Lawn Care Advocacy Day held on May
27 provided the perfect opportunity to honor the tenacious work
of Senator Morano. While her field of expertise, as a practicing
registered nurse, is health care, Senator Morano has been a stalwart
for the turf industry as she introduced the bill in the previous General
Assembly, too.

In her comments as she accepted the award, Morano admitted

that she has gotten some chiding from her colleagues who initially
were unfamiliar with the turf industry. She said that many of those
colleagues, once informed of the breadth and the magnitude of Ohio’s
rich history in turfgrass research and development have expressed
their support for the bill and have even decided to sign on as co- OTF Executive Director Kevin Thompson presents
sponsors. Legislator of the Year Award to Senator Sue Morano.


OSU/OTF Turfgrass Research Afternoon Program (1:00 – 2:00 pm)
One hour seminars will be available for those interested in earning
Field Day to be Held August 12 Category 6a credit towards ODA Pesticide License Re-Certification
All turfgrass and landscape managers interested in learning about
current research at The Ohio State University should plan to spend • Using Systemic Insecticides for Ornamental Insect Control
August 12 with OTF, The OSU Turfgrass Science Team, and hundreds (Dr. Dave Shetlar)
of fellow turfgrass professionals at the OTF Research & Education • Managing the Top 10 Tree & Shrub Diseases (Joe Boggs)
Facility in Columbus.
Online registration is available at www.OhioTurfgrass.org.
The field day provides a great forum to meet with other turf and
landscape professionals and the OSU’s team of turf experts. It is an
excellent opportunity to learn from many of the country’s best in
turfgrass research and teaching, tour the OTF Research & Education
Toledo Country Club to Host
Facility, and network with industry peers. OTF Golf Tournament
Following is a tentative listing of topics that will be covered: The Ohio Turfgrass Foundation is excited to announce it will hold
its annual Scholarship and Research fundraising scramble Tuesday,
LAWN & SPORTS October 6 at Toledo Country Club.
• Seed to Play in Four Weeks!
• Bermudagrass Establishment on a Sand Rootzone The Toledo Country Club is one of the oldest Country Clubs in the

• New Broadleaf Herbicides for Lawns Midwest, established in 1897 with the purchase of approximately
thirty acres of land along the Maumee River. A nine-hole golf course
• Annual Grassy Weed Herbicides
was constructed almost immediately while today’s Clubhouse was
• Evaluation of Turf in Shade
completed by 1901. The course was originally designed by British
• Compost Trials
Open Champion Willie Park Jr. and redesigned by Arthur Hills.

The magnificent river setting and ambiance of the Clubhouse has
• Turfgrass Ant Control Studies
made it a favorite location for many prestigious weddings, receptions
• Summer Diseases and Control Trials and social gatherings.
• Changes in Turfgrass Morphology Caused by Fungicides
and Shade The 2008 tournament, held at Westfield Group Country Club and
• Shade Tolerance and Growth Regulators generated more than $12,000 for the OTF Scholarship and Research
• Genetic Studies of Dollar Spot Disease fund. Next to the OTF Conference and Show, the Golf Tournament
• Tenacity Herbicide Studies generates the most non-dues revenue for OTF. Lawn companies,

sod producers, athletic field managers, grounds managers, golf on the OTF website at www.OhioTurfgrass.org. The deadline to apply
course superintendents and suppliers are encouraged to participate is October 23.
and support OTF’s mission of continuing to fund turfgrass research
and education. OTF’s scholarship committee is certain to see a large number of
applications, making the task of choosing scholarship recipients
“We encourage everyone to register early since we’ll undoubtedly difficult, but ensuring that OTF’s awards go to the best and brightest
sell out”, urged OTF Executive Director Kevin Thompson. “It is a great students in the green industry. Scholarships will be awarded
way to build loyalty and to reward employees for their hard work preceeding this year’s Keynote Speech on Tuesday, December 8.
– while supporting OTF”. For more information on OTF’s scholarship program, contact OTF
at 888-683-3445.
Also contributing to the success of the tournament are the sponsors.
“We’d be remiss in not mentioning the fact that sponsors play a
huge role in the success of the tournament” adds Dan Walter, OTF
Golf Tournament Committee Chair. If you are interested in a sponsor-
OTF Seeks Nominations for
ship, please contact OTF or simply fill out a sponsorship form on the Annual Awards
tournament registration form.
Do you know anyone who deserves recognition for contributions to
The Golf Tournament committee is planning social activities for turf management?
participants interested in staying overnight in the Toledo area on
Monday, October 5. If you are interested in joining the fun, watch Applications for nominating this year’s recipients of “Professional of
for details or contact the OTF office. the Year” and “Professional Excellence” awards may be found on the
OTF website or by calling OTF at 888-683-3445.
To reserve your spot in this year’s tournament, please register early
as space is limited to the first 144 golfers. The registration form Nominees for “Professional of the Year” awards are judged on the
can be found on page 11, www.OhioTurfgrass.org or please call following attributes:
888-683-3445 for more information.
• Fellowship – willingness to share knowledge with and help train
fellow turf personnel.

2009 OTF Scholarship • Inventive Ingenuity – leadership in developing new ideas and new
trends in turfgrass management.
Applications Accepted • Membership/activity in turf related and other civic organizations.
• Length of dedicated service to the turf industry.
OTF is committed to improving turfgrass through research and
education. One of the best ways to foster this commitment is by Professional Excellence awards are based upon similar criteria, and
providing scholarships to students pursuing green industry studies. are awarded to those deserving special recognition for significant
Last year, along with the Ohio Turfgrass Research Trust and the contributions to the turfgrass industry. Awards and scholarships will
Ronald D Baker, Sr. Memorial Scholarship, OTF provided $22,000 in be presented right before the Keynote Speech, Tuesday, December 8,
scholarships to turf students. at the Ohio Turfgrass Conference & Show.

To solicit qualified candidates, OTF will send letters and scholarship The 2008 Professional of the Year was awarded to Steve Jurick,
applications in September to the faculty of turfgrass programs at Miami Valley Golf Association. A Professional Excellence Award was
Ohio colleges. In addition, OTF members are asked to recommend presented to the late Rick Tyler, Blackhawk Golf Club.
any of their student summer employees who they feel would be
qualified. OTF scholarship information and applications are available The deadline to submit your nomination is October 23.

Founders Club Continues to Grow
OTRT continues to grow its turfgrass research endowment through Founders Club Memberships. The Founders Club, launched in 2004,
has steadily grown to include 70 members. Following is the current list of members, alphabetical by membership level:

Diamond Level Bronze Level Danny Cochran

Dr. Chuck Darrah Dr. Karl Danneberger Mike Dietrich
Dr. Mike Boehm Jim Dillard
Platinum Level Al Brant Bill Easterday
Fairmount Minerals (Best Sand) Robert Deeks Joe Enciso
John Fitzgerald Double Eagle Club Dr. Susan Everett
Paul Jacquemin Ed Eaton Kyle Frederick
Joseph Motz George Furrer Don Furterer
Bob O’Brien Tim Glorioso Dr. David Gardner
Syngenta Professional Products Greater Cincinnati Chapter GCSAA Randy Kehres
Randy Tischer, Green Velvet Sod Farms Mark Jordan Kim Kellogg
Don Lawrence Keith Kresina
Gold Level Ted Mercer Kevin Kroll
Central Ohio Chapter GCSAA Harry Murray Rick Kucharski
Joe Duncan Ed Odorizzi Paul Latshaw
Doug Gallant Gene Probasco John Meyer
Mark Grunkemeyer Rattlesnake Ridge Golf Club Dr. Harry Niemczyk
Doug Halterman Joseph Rimelspach Scott Schraer
Mark Heinlein Jim Sharp Randall Shaver
Paul Mendezoff Richard Warner Brad Smith
Northwestern Ohio Chapter GCSAA Matt Williams Spring Lake Country Club
Walt Offinger Mark Yoder Gary Stewart
Sam Stimmel Don Sutton
Emerald Level Mark Tansey
Silver Level Bauer Voss Consulting
Eric Gerhartz Jeff Benton
Jerome Schwieterman Jeff Bisker
Todd Voss Kirk Carls

Ohio Turfgrass Research Trust Update

Doug Gallant to Serve on Board of Directors

The Ohio Turfgrass Research Trust (OTRT) is pleased to announce that Doug Gallant, Great American
Ballpark, was nominated to serve on its Board of Directors. Gallant replaced Mark Grunkemeyer as the
liaison between OTF and OTRT. Gallant is also the Treasurer of OTF.

Industry Support of Turfgrass Research Remains Strong
Matt Williams – Program Coordinator, Horticulture and Crop Science

As the summer field day approaches, the faculty and staff of OSU’s or is on a seasonal loan. Typically, manufacturers will allow local
Turfgrass Science Team would like to recognize and thank the dealers and distributors to loan equipment to the research center
organizations, people and companies that support the field facility for a period of six months to one year. This is beneficial to both
and ensure that it operates every day and provides an area for the parties.
researchers to conduct their field experiments.
Another essential support category is soft goods. This faction in-
Operating the OTF/OSU Turfgrass Research and Education Center cludes fertilizers, pesticide, seed and sod. Most of the products
uses a budget that is very similar to one that is used to operate that we use at the turf center have been donated by manufacturers
a golf course or an athletic field complex. We have line items that and retailers.
are very similar to yours: labor, equipment maintenance, irrigation,
fuel, landscaping, and so on. The difference between your facility We wanted to take the opportunity to highlight a couple of recent
and ours is that the university funds very little of the day to day donations that were made to the facility. Century Equipment, with
operations of the field facility. It becomes the responsibility of the support from Toro Irrigation, has recently supplied the research
users to find funding sources for most day-to-day operations. This center with 15 new quick coupler valves. The field facility has a
is accomplished through three different sources: cash, equipment very large and diverse irrigation system. Over the last twenty years
loans, and product donations. many of the components that have been installed were based on
companies that were able to donate products at that time. This led
The primary source of funding for the field facility comes directly to several different types of quick coupler valves being installed
from the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation. OTF donates monies that around the farm, with a variety of different keys. This generous
it raises from membership dues, the golf tournament, and the donation has standardized the type of quick coupler valves that are
Conference and Show to fund the day-to-day operations of the at the facility. Robbie Dworkin, a student worker at the research
field facility. The turf team also receives money from Ohio Lawn center, is pictured installing one of the new valves (see photo 1).
Care Association to assist in operating the research center. OTF has
committed $60,000 for field operations in 2009.

Another category of support is equipment donations and loans.

Most of the equipment that we use at the facility has been donated continued on page 10

1. 2.

continued from page 9

Bernhard & Co., in conjunction with Reynolds Golf and Turf, has recently loaned the research center a set of reel and bedknife grinders. We now
have these machines available to maintain the 20-plus cutting units that are used to mow the research plots. Also, the machines are being used
in our introductory turfgrass science class to introduce our students to cutting unit theory and maintenance. Dr. John Street is pictured alongside
the grinding system with facility manager Matt Williams and student worker Ryan Morrison (see photo 2).

The Ohio State University Turfgrass Team wants to thank the turfgrass and green industry for all your generous support. The research program
at OSU could not operate at full capacity without the industry support.

If you or your company is interested in donating products, services or supplies to the OTF/OSU Turfgrass Research Facility, please contact Matt
Williams, 614.292.6264 or williams.1278@osu.edu.

Equipment Donors UAP Profile Products

The Toro Company / Century Equipment The Andersons Fairmont Minerals
John Deere / Xenia Power Equipment Central Farm and Garden Syngenta
Jacobsen / Baker Vehicle The Seed Center BASF
Turfco Direct Fairmont Minerals Dow Agrosciences
Scag / Buckeye Power Sales Green Velvet Sod Farm PB I Gordons
SISIS Barenbrug USA Bayer Crop Science
GreensGroomer Worldwide Kurtz Brothers FMC
Hunter Industries The Scotts Company Irrigation Supply, Inc.
Milorganite Griggs Brothers
Soft Goods Donors Turfgrass, Inc.
Lesco / John Deere Landscapes Ohio Irrigation Association

Help OTF $ave Money

The green industry experiences a lot of employee turnover, making it difficult to keep records up-to-date.

Do you receive mailings from OTF addressed to individuals you no longer employ?
If the answer is “YES”, you can save OTF money by helping to update our database.

OTF urges you to help. If you receive mailings for former employees or others who should not be receiving mailings,
call OTF at 888-683-3445 and speak with a customer service representative. Or email to info@OhioTurfgrass.org.

Make sure to give us your email address, too, if we do not already have it.
And make sure OTF emails are not going into your Junk Mail folder.
If you’re not getting emails from OTF you are missing important announcements.

OTF Golf Tournament
Toledo Country Club – October 6, 2009
Join other turfgrass professionals on Tuesday, October 6 at the Toledo Country Club –
Toledo, OH for the 2009 OTF Golf Tournament. The tournament is limited to the first 144 golfers.
Reservations will be made on a first-come, first-served basis. For your best chance at reserving space,
complete the reservation form, include your registration fees, and mail or fax them to us today!

Highlights of the Day Include:

18 holes of golf at the fabulous Toledo Country Club • Individual gifts for each golfer
Shotgun scramble beginning at 11:00 am • Box Lunch • Team Individual and door prizes
Hole-in-One contests • Putting contest • Hot hors d’euvres and awards presentations

Deadline for Reservations: Monday, September 28, 2009. Reservations will be processed on a first-come, first-served basis.

Member Information Sponsorships (Please check one)

Member #_______________________________________________________ Tee Sponsor – $175

Beverage Cart Sponsor – $500
Mailing Address___________________________________________________

City____________________________________________________________ Meal Sponsor – $500

State _________________________ Zip+4____________________________

Phone ( ) __________________________________________________ Method of Payment (Payment due at time of order)
Completing this form serves management notice that you agree to be contacted by mail, phone, fax and/or e-mail. Company Check Cashier’s Check/Money Order (Make payable to OTF)
Debit Credit American Express Discover MasterCard VISA
OTF Member Yes No
All payments in US funds drawn on a US bank.
I am registering as a single golfer @ $125. A $25 fee will be changed for a returned check.
I am registering more than one golfer @ $125 each.
(List names of golfers below.) Credit Card Account #_ _________________________________________
I am registering as a foursome @ $500.
(List organization and names of golfers below.)
Exp. Date __________________ Amt. Charged $_ __________________
Organization_ ____________________________________________________

1.__________________________________________ Hdcp ______________ Cardholder’s Name (print) _______________________________________

2.__________________________________________ Hdcp ______________

Authorized Signature___________________________________________
3.__________________________________________ Hdcp ______________

4.__________________________________________ Hdcp ______________

(Combined team handicap must be 40 or more)

For Office Use Only
Rcvd___________ Amt $ __________ Ck# __________ Ackd __________
Mail or Fax with Payment to:
OTF Golf Tournament – Ohio Turfgrass Foundation
1100-H Brandywine Blvd Important OTF Golf Tournament Policy
Zanesville, OH 43701-7303
Phone: (888) 683-3445 • Fax: (740) 452-2552
Any team that has won the OTF Annual Golf Tournament may only have
Web: www.OhioTurfgrass.org • E-mail: info@OhioTurfgrass.org a maximum of two (2) returning players compete on the same team the
* Directions will be sent with confirmations following year.

Rust Never Sleeps ...
Joe Rimelspach, Program Specialist Turfgrass Pathology and Mark Mefferd, Senior Turfgrass Student,
Ohio State University

Rust can be a summer and fall spoiler for lawns. There are different by other pathogens. Optimal conditions for infection are low light
names for this disease such as leaf rust, stem rust and crown rust. intensity, moisture on leaf surfaces and temperatures around 72 F
All of these are caused by a similar group of fungi. Rust starts as occurring concurrently. After infection is complete the rust develops
light yellow flecks on the grass leaves and is an early symptom most rapidly when the light intensity is high, leaf surfaces are dry
of rust. As the disease matures the yellow flecks enlarge to form and the temperatures are around 86 F.
lesions on the grass leaf. Spores are produced inside the maturing
lesions which cause the epidermis to rupture. As the spores rupture PATHOGEN
it produces powdery red/orange spores of the fungus. The powdery There are many fungi that cause rust, one of the most common is
fungal spores easily rub off onto your shoes, clothing, fingers, Puccinia graminis. In normal winters the spores of the disease are
mowers and pets. Severely infected turfgrass may appear thin and killed and then are blown in to Ohio by the jet streams from the
weak. Heavily infected plants may wither and die from excessive southern USA the next year. There is no stopping the introduction of
loss of moisture. Young lawns, less than a year, are often severely the disease into lawns.
damaged by this disease.
HOST 1. Adequate fertility program. It is important to provide the
Most turfgrasses grown in the Midwest are susceptible to rust. turfgrass with a balanced fertility program. Turfgrass that is properly
However perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and some cultivars fertilized is less likely to be under the stressful conditions that allow
of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) are the most commonly the fungus to attack the grass. Lawns on sites with poor quality
affected. soils are especially vulnerable to rust due to slow and weak growth
of the turfgrass plants. Soil testing can be a helpful tool to design an
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS appropriate fertility program.
Rust normally develops in August to September and then continues
through the fall. It also may develop during other times of the year 2. Proper irrigation. It is important that the turfgrass receive
based on the growing conditions. Optimal temperatures for the adequate amounts of water during stressful conditions. This allows
disease to develop are between 68 – 86 F. Grass that is slow growing the grass to continue to grow and helps prevent the fungus from
and is growing under stressful conditions is most likely to become attacking the grass. It is important to water during the early part
infected with the disease. Stress that favors the disease includes; of the day and never water in the evening. Watering in the evening
drought, nutrient deficiency, low mowing height, shade and infection allows the plant to stay wet for prolonged periods of time and this

is a favorable condition for the fungus. Again if the site has poor
quality and / or compacted soils proper watering can be difficult. Rust on perennial ryegrass
Core cultivation (aeration) can open the soil and improve water

3. Mowing. It is important to mow the grass on a regular basis at

the recommended cutting height. Avoid close mowing or scalping
of the turfgrass. By mowing on a regular basis this helps remove the
infected grass tips. In severe cases of rust it is recommended that
the clippings be removed. Normally clippings should be returned to
the lawn to recycle nutrients.

4. Select resistant cultivars. Many grass cultivars have high

resistance to rust diseases. Before seeding, select cultivars that are
resistant to rust. One source of information about cultivar resistance
is the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program at www.ntep.com.

5. Chemical control. The decision to use fungicides can often be

a difficult one. The disease is very dependent on the weather and in
most years it is not severe enough to warrant the use of fungicides.
Therefore fungicides are not commonly used. If fungicide is needed Disease Cycle
applications need to be applied preventatively or at least very early
in the development of the disease. Two families of fungicides that
are highly effective on rust are the sterol inhibitors, also referred
to as DMI fungicides (some of these products are: Rubigan, Eagle,
Bayleton and Banner MAXX) and the strobilurins (examples of these
include: Heritage, Compass, Insignia and Disarm). Whenever using a
pesticide carefully read the label. Remember some fungicides are not
labeled for residential lawns.

Clarke, Bruce, Dernoeden, Peter, and Smiley, Richard. Compendium
of Turfgrass Diseases. 3rd. St Paul, MN. The American Phytopatho-
logical Society. 2007. Print.

“Healthy Laws – Diseases: Rust.” The UC Guide to Healthy Lawns.

2004 Web. 1 Jun 2009. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/TOOLS/TURF/

“Rust [Turfgrass].” University of Illinois Extension hortanswers.

2009. Web. 1 Jun 2009. http://urbanext.illinois.edu/hortanswers/

“Leaf Rust.” Turfgrass Disease Profiles. Richard Latin. Purdue

University. May 2008. http://www.ag.purdue.edu/btny/Extension/

Anthracnose Alert
Joseph Rimelspach and Michael Boehm, Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio State University

Weather conditions are becoming more favorable for anthracnose opinion if there are any questions. If the disease is present and
(Colletotrichum cerealis formerly called Colletotrichum gramini- favorable weather patterns are forecasted to continue implementing
cola). Incidence of the disease has been confirmed in parts of an aggressive turfgrass health management strategy and a sound
the Midwest. Most cases involve Poa annua (annual bluegrass) fungicide program. Remember this disease is seldom “controlled”
areas on greens and collars with the more annual biotypes be- with fungicides alone!
ing most susceptible compared to the perennial types. In most
years samples at some time are received that have the disease Cultural practices of greens to manage for healthy turf and reduce
on bentgrass. anthracnose:

Why is this disease being seen at this time? Beside the favor- MOWING
able weather many golf courses are preparing or have increased • Avoid scalping and mowing stress any way possible.
conditioning (2X mowing, extensive rolling, topdressing, growth • Do not mow when greens are wet (soft and/or spongy).
regulation, etc) for special club events that contribute to the de- • Use solid rollers.
velopment of anthracnose by leaving turf stressed and in a weaken • Use walk-behind mowers and reduce mowing frequency (floating
state. Remember this is a disease that is present in the turfgrass head mowers preferred).
sward and just waiting for an opportunity to invade weakened • Raise mowing height. Research has shown that a 0.015 inch
plants. Weather conditions and ongoing infections from spring
increase in mowing height can result in an improvement of turf
may also be involved.
health and reduced anthracnose (i.e. from 0.125 to 0.141 inch).
• In some cases by rolling greens the frequency of mowing can be
Current weather conditions of high temperatures, high humid, and
reduced and the height increased.
frequent thunder storms/ or over watering are IDEAL for the rapid
outbreak and explosion of this nasty disease!
Fertility programs
• Maintain greens with a sound fertility program for healthy
It is recommended that a careful inspection be done as soon as
turfgrass (~ 3 lb N / 1000 ft2 / year).
possible. Look for the classic signs and symptoms of the disease
• Apply 0.1 to 0.125 lb. N/M sq. ft. from ammonium sulfate or urea
which include the irregular decline of patches of turfgrass or
every 7-14 days. Tank-mix with fungicide applications.
general thinning; the color can vary from tan / brown to rust /
orange. The black spines (setae) of the acervuli can be seen with a • Soil test and tissue test to insure an adequate fertility program of

hand lens for a good quick field identification. Get help or another all essential elements are used.

Water management – drainage and irrigation
• Install drainage systems or rebuild greens to correct poor
drainage or design problems.
• Avoid excessive irrigation, syringe to prevent wilt and avoid
extremes in soil moisture.
• Improve and/or provide proper drainage to maximize turfgrass
health and vigor.
• Address compaction problems.
• Avoid over watering and excessive wet soils and conditions of
continuously wet thatch. Dr. Mike Boehm, OSU Department
of Plant Pathology, WILL discuss the
latest research information on
Minimize wounding, mechanical damage, factors that limit
Anthracnose Management at this year’s
turf growth and stress from other pests Ohio Turfgrass Conference & Show!
• Avoid aggressive grooming operations (i.e. topdressing, dethatch-
ing, verticutting, brushing, aeration) when anthracnose is active.
Light to moderate topdressing is often beneficial and improve
• When grooming operations cannot be avoided, apply fungicides
tank-mixed with soluble fertilizers prior to grooming, even if
anthracnose is not active. Syringe after grooming.
• Use PGRs as an effective tool to maximize turfgrass health and
part of an Integrated Turfgrass Health Management Program. Do
not stop or severely slow grow if recovery is needed.
• Monitor parasitic nematode activity in the spring and early
summer as nematode activity may be another predisposition
factor to the development of anthracnose during the summer
and fall.

the place to be
for turf and landscape professionals

2009 Ohio Turfgrass Conference & Show

December 7 – 10, 2009
Greater Columbus Convention Center
Columbus, Ohio


Sponsored by: Ohio Turfgrass Foundation, The Ohio

State University, The Ohio State University Extension AND THE
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center

Topdressing: DIY Quality Control
Pamela J Sherratt, Dr. Ed McCoy and Dr. John Street

During a recent trip to a school soccer field, playing surface it can disrupt play and possibly cause player injury.
I made a recommendation to start top- In addition, gravel on the surface could damage mower blades and
dressing with a sand:organic mix. During be very difficult to grow grass in. For a whole multitude of reasons
field construction, the topsoil had been then, gravel should not exceed 3-10% of the total mix.
removed from the field and the clay-loam
that was left was so compacted that grass Unfortunately, this has not been the case in many situations.
cover was very poor and the surface was extremely hard. The sand Site visits to sports fields over the years have shown that many
component is added to increase soil oxygen levels for better drain- topdressing mixes around the state contain far too much gravel. In
age and grass growth. The organic component (in this case Comtil) one notable instance, a college soccer field was constructed with
improves soil bulk density, holds some moisture and increases a material that contained 44% deleterious material. That particular
nutrient-holding capacity. The ratio of sand to organic is typically 70 field had also been graded and then leveled with a vibratory roller,
to 90% sand, with the rest organic material. The sand component making it as hard and impenetrable as a parking lot.
is ideally medium-coarse in size and uniform.
One way to ensure that topdressing material contains the right
In many situations, the sand component of the mix does not meet amount of sand, silt, clay and gravel is to carry out some DIY quality
this specification and it is not unusual to see sand mixes that contain control. There are several easy ways to do this:
large amounts of silt and clay or gravel. Silt and clay particles are
very fine and they clog a soil system. Air spaces are blocked and 1. Firstly, avoid the temptation to accept any sand, just because
the soil becomes prone to compaction. When dry, silt and clay soils it’s free or cheap. Dressing fields with high amounts of gravel or
are rock-hard, but they turn to a quagmire when wet. For these silt and clay will probably make the fields perform a lot worse than
reasons, very fine sand, silt and clay are generally restricted in before.
mixes to less than 15% of the total mix (see appendix 1).
2. Get familiar with what the sizes look like. Being able to distinguish
There are no set guidelines for the amount of gravel allowed on between gravel and coarse sand can be helpful when taking delivery
a sports field but there is a landscape recommendation. ASTM D of an order (see figure 1).
5268-92 “Standard Specification for Topsoil Used for Landscaping
Purposes” suggests that no more than 5% deleterious material
(rock, gravel etc.) be included in a topsoil mix. Gravel is not a suitable
material to improve soil physical or chemical properties and on a continued on page 18

* Total particles in these ranges shall not exceed 10%.
Athletic Field: Specification Outline, Construction & Maintenance, Pennsylvania State University, Agriculture Extension Service Bulletin, 1982.
The New Pennsylvania Design. Personal Communication, Andrew McNitt, Pennsylvania State University, 1997 (McNitt based his design on USGA specifications, which classify
very fine sand as 0.05 to 0.15mm).
Athletic Field Construction & Maintenance, University of Minnesota, Minnesota Extension Service, Bulletin no. AG-BU 3105, 1987.
USGA Recommendation for a Method of Putting Green Construction, 1993. USGA Green Section Record, March/April 1993 Issue (USGA specifications classify very fine sand as
0.05 to 0.15mm).
The Sand Putting Green: Construction & Management. Cooperative Extension, University of California, Division of Ag and natural Resources, Publication no. 21448, 1990.
Construction and Maintenance of natural Grass Athletic Fields. A Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Publication, Bulletin no. PHW0240, 1983.
Mississippi State University Sand Size Specification for Sports Fields. Personal Communication, M.Goatley, J.Krans & D.Nagel, Mississippi State University, 1997.
Prescription Athletic Turf. Sand Size Specification. The Motz Group Technical Information, Cincinnati OH 1969.

Figure 1: USDA particle sizes, in millimeters. Any particle greater in diameter than 2 mm is considered gravel.

continued from page 16 Figure 2: Hand-texture test. The flow-chart is
easy to follow and results in a better understanding
of what a silty, clay or sandy soil feels like.

3. Send a sample away to a soil testing lab to have a textural

analysis done on the sand component. The lab will furnish results
that state clearly the percent of fine, medium and coarse sand and

4. Carry out a hand-texture test (see figure 2). While not precise,
it offers an idea of the type of soil in hand and it helps for the turf
manager to become accustomed to what different soils feel like.

5. Perform a soil “settlement test”:

a. Take a small soil sample.

b. Quarter fill a water bottle with the soil.

c. Add tap water until the bottle is three-quarters full.

d. Replace lid and shake until the water and soil are mixed.

e. Leave to settle for 2-3 days.

f. After 2-3 days, the soil will have settled out into discreet
Figure 3: The Textural Triangle
layers, with the gravel and sand on the bottom, then the
silt, and then the clay (being the smallest particle, clay To plot sand, find the percent sand along the bottom and
settles last). follow the line diagonally left. To plot clay, find the percent
clay along the left edge and follow the line horizontally
g. Measure the total thickness of the soil, then each across from left to right. To plot silt, find the percent silt
along the right edge and follow the line diagonally left.
individual layer, to determine what percentage gravel,
sand, silt, and clay is present. Example: Soil containing 30% sand, 30% clay
and 40% silt would be a “Clay Loam”.
h. The sand, silt and clay components can be plotted
against the soil textural triangle to determine soil texture
(see figure 3).

6. Finally, find a topdressing supplier that is knowledgeable of the

sports turf industry and can source good material from around
the state. Once you’ve found that person, memorize their phone

Contact OSU Sports Turf Extension with any questions or comments

about this article: (614) 292-7457 or Sherratt.1@osu.edu.

Adapted from Sports Fields: A Manual for Design Construction &
Maintenance, Puhalla, Krans and Goatley, 1999.


New Options for Broadleaf Weed Control

D.S. Gardner, Ph.D.

Several new herbicide formulations or active ingredients have Mesotrione

become available in turf during the past few years that will make A new herbicide has been introduced by Syngenta under the trade
your job controlling weeds easier or more convenient than it has name of Tenacity™. Mesotrione is effective both pre- and post-
been in the past. emergence against dandelion, white clover, crabgrass, nimblewill,
creeping bentgrass, orchardgrass and other grass and broadleaf
Aminocyclopyrachlor weeds.
This herbicide is in development by Dupont. Aminocyclopyrachlor
is a significant achievement in broadleaf weed control. It is active As a broadleaf herbicide, Tenacity™ has good activity against dan-
against virtually all broadleaf weeds, with the exception of oxalis and delions and fair activity against clover. A second application is re-
knotweed. Control of dandelion, clover and plantain is excellent. But, quired in order to control certain weeds. Otherwise, one application
the unique thing about this herbicide is that it is also very effective will result in suppression of the weed, followed by regrowth in about
against ground ivy, wild violet and Canada thistle. In fact, control of 42-56 days. You can also improve control by combining Tenacity™
all 6 of these weeds is greater than 80% within 30 days and greater with another chemistry. Our research indicates that Tenacity™ has
than 90% at 56 and 84 days after application. better activity when combined with either dicamba, fluroxypyr, or
triclopyr. Our research also suggests that mesotrione does not com-
What will make the introduction of this herbicide more significant is bine well with either Quicksilver® or Dismiss® for broadleaf weed
that it works nearly as well when applied as a granular formulation as control. Tenacity™ also can be used pre- and post-emergence for
it does when applied as a liquid. With most of our traditional broadleaf control of crabgrass, on newly seeded turfgrass and for the control
herbicides there is usually a decrease in performance when using of perennial grasses such as bentgrass and orchardgrass.
the granular form compared to the liquid and sometimes this can
be in excess of a 30% difference (if the liquid gives you 95% control Sulfentrazone
than with some granular products applied at the same rate you get Marketed as Dismiss® herbicide, sulfentrazone is in the same class
~65-75%). In testing that has been done with Aminocyclopyrachlor of chemistry as is carfentrazone. Sulfentrazone is a component of
there is virtually no difference in control when using the granular the product Surge® (along with 2,4-D, MCPP and dicamba). Another
formulation. And, what makes this more significant is that you can product that contains sulfentrazone is Q4 (with 2,4-D, dicamba and
apply this herbicide to dry turf. As long as irrigation or rainfall hits the quinclorac).
turf within 72 hours the weed control will exceed 90% at 56 and 84
days after application. There is not a brand name yet but registration
is tentatively slated for 2010. continued on page 20

continued from page 19 control both broadleaf weeds and grassy weeds postemergence
with a single application. Some of these products also will control
yellow nutsedge. Quinclorac is of course not new, but increasingly
This was the first of many products that control both crabgrass and quinclorac is appearing in combination products, not just for crabgrass
broadleaf weeds. Research in the years following sulfentrazone’s control, but also for broadleaf weed control, particularly clover. The
introduction has also discovered that it is perhaps the best option previously mentioned herbicide Q4® (2,4-D, dicamba, quinclorac,
for control of yellow nutsedge, giving nearly 100% control within sulfentrazone) was the first product of this type and is effective when
7-10 days with no phytotoxicity to Kentucky bluegrass or perennial used on broadleaf weeds, nutsedge and crabgrass. Solitare® is a
ryegrass. new herbicide from FMC. It combines quinclorac and sulfentrazone,
but at higher rates. The result is excellent control of broadleaf weeds,
Pyraflufen-ethyl sedges and crabgrass. Quincept® combines 2,4-D, dicamba, and
This herbicide was released last year by SePro under the trade name quinclorac and thus controls both crabgrass and broadleaf weeds.

Octane®. Similar to carfentrazone and sulfentrazone (Quicksilver® Onetime® herbicide combines MCPP, dicamba and quinclorac and

and Dismiss®, respectively), pyraflufen ethyl is a protox inhibitor and also controls both crabgrass and broadleaf weeds.

a fast acting contact herbicide. Like Quicksilver® and Dismiss® it

While not formulated to control crabgrass or nutsedge, 4 Speed (2,
is intended for use in a tank mix with other herbicides to control
4-D, MCPP, dicamba, and pyraflufen) and 4 Speed XT (2,4-D, di-
perennial broadleaf weeds like dandelion and clover.
camba, triclopyr, and pyraflufen) herbicides give excellent control of
broadleaf weeds. Another new product is Spoiler®, which combines
When used in tank mixes it results in faster burn-down of weed tissue
2,4-D, MCPP and 2,4-DP.
without affecting long term control. One note of caution, however, is
that you may want to avoid combining it with a broadleaf herbicide
combination that already contains another protox inhibitor, such as
Speedzone®, Powerzone®, Q4®, or Echelon®. Octane® can also
NEW INVADER – Birdsfoot trefoil
be used when establishing turfgrass from seed. Consult the label for
If you’re noticing a weed with bright yellow flowers in lawns
specifics. Also, this product can be used as a stand alone herbicide
now, it may very well not be dandelion (which is generally
against young summer annual broadleaf weeds, such as knotweed,
not in bloom right now) or black medic. In fact, there is a
spurge, and black medic.
good chance that it is Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculata).
Birdsfoot trefoil has long been used as a pasture crop and
is known to be able to escape from its intended site. But it
Dow Agrosciences is marketing this herbicide under the trade name
is only in the last decade that it has become increasingly
LockUp™. LockUp™ is currently being sold in the south as an
visible in managed turfgrass – first in waste areas and
atrazine replacement in retail and lawncare. It is sold as a single
abandoned fields, then parks and roadsides (see figure 1),
entity product and not in combination. There are no plans for a and now residential lawns. Birdsfoot trefoil is a long lived
stand alone product in the cool season turf market. However, Dow perennial in the legume family. It has yellow pea-like flow-
has received registrations for LockUp™ in combination with 2,4-D ers (see figure 2), primarily in June and July. The pod like
and 2,4-D + dicamba for sale in cool-season turfgrass markets. It fruit resembles a birds foot, hence the common name. The
is formulated as a granular product. Research at The Ohio State leaves have 3 leaflets similar to black medic. Capable of
University indicates that penoxsulam, especially when combined reaching heights of 2 feet, it adapts very well to mowing
with 2,4-D and/or dicamba, provides good control of dandelions and forms dense mats in mowed turf (see figure 2).
when used in early spring.
Birdsfoot trefoil is a very important crop plant for hay and
New Combination Products For Weed Control pasture production. Use of birdsfoot trefoil in pastures re-
New combination products have been formulated in an attempt to sults in a 10 fold increase in forage yield thus higher pro-

duction of beef cattle. In fact, there is research underway Research is underway to determine optimal control mea-
to produce glyphosate tolerant birdsfoot trefoil for use in sures. However, generally speaking, those combination
production agriculture. Since it is not widely considered a herbicide products that contain MCPP, clopyralid, or flu-
weed, it does not appear on very many herbicide labels. roxypyr should be most effective.

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 3 Figure 4

The Wild and Wacky Turfgrass Pests! – Part 2
David Shetlar, Ph.D. (the BugDoc) – Department of Entomology, OSU, OARDC & OSU Extension

I know I could have discussed the important insect pests of turfgrass This pest can be difficult to control in September because they
(white grub, billbugs, chinch bugs, cutworms, etc.), but I’m getting are commonly imbedded in relatively thick thatch and they may be
an ever increasing number of inquiries about other critters that through feeding. If a treatment is needed, select a pyrethroid and
inhabit our turf, whether it be on home lawns, golf courses or sport water it in after the application to get the residues into the thatch
fields! And, to an entomologist, these other pests can be more fun zone where the caterpillars normally feed.
to deal with because they often are more of a people problem than
actual turf pests. The burrowing sod webworms are in a completely different
family of moths, separate from the true sod webworms. The adults
While most are familiar with sod webworms and cutworms, I’m are mottled with brown and rust colors and most are two to three
seeing more burrowing sod webworms, cranberry girdlers and times the size of a true sod webworm. The males sport horn-
bronze cutworms in Ohio turf. There are also increases in crane shaped mouthparts that extend over the tops of their heads. These
flies (native species, fortunately), March flies and midges which caterpillars rarely cause noticeable damage to the turf, but their
can alarm people. And, we can’t forget the mites! Winter grain burrows are often found when turf managers are looking in the soil
mites and clover mites are still periodic nuisance pests. or thatch for other culprits. The adults fly in July and early August,
and after mating the females attach small batches of eggs to grass
Different Caterpillars blades. The larvae are a solid dark brown color and appear to be
Though I’ve known that we have had cranberry girdlers in Ohio covered with a soft velvet exoskeleton. The larvae dig burrows into
for decades, their damage was rare until the last few years. While the soil that can extend four inches down. These burrows are lined
the cranberry girdler is in the same family as other sod webworms, with a parchment-like silk and it is this silk lining that is most often
its larval behavior is unique. Like the name implies, the larvae don’t discovered. What is often amusing is that this silk lining comes
come to the turf surface to feed on grass blades at night, but they loose after the larvae pupate and emerge as adult moths. The
remain in the thatch zone to nibble on grass stems, thereby girdling linings are about the same size and length as a cigarette paper
them. The adult girdlers emerge in late June through July and the wrapping. When infested turf is mowed, these linings can be pulled
adults drop eggs into the turf like their sod webworm cousins. out to litter the turf surface and the home owner may try to blame
The larvae develop rather slowly during late July through August someone (like their kids) for the cigarette wrappers littering the
by nibbling on the stems of grasses from within the thatch. By lawn! This is not a pest I’ve ever seen doing noticeable damage to
September the one-inch long larvae are capable of chewing through turf and no controls are needed.
the stems of grasses and masses of a dozen or so caterpillars can
kill the tops of a patch of grass that is four to 10 inches in diameter. The bronze cutworm is pretty unique among the cutworm group.
These dead patches can look like disease or white grub damage. It is a true cool season pest with the adults emerging in October
To me, they often look like classic doggie spot burns! If you dig into to lay eggs in turf. About half of the eggs hatch in the fall and the
one of these dead patched, you’ll find the stems come out easily larvae may complete two to three instars before having to remain
to reveal a layer of thatch heavily infused with frass (sawdust-like dormant for most of the winter. However, if there is a thick cover
fecal pellets). If you persist in digging, you’ll soon discover a solid of snow and moderate soil temperatures, the larvae can continue
creme-colored larva curled up in the thatch. These have been to feed on grass stems under the snow! In April, the overwintered
described as looking like very thin, coiled white grubs! Unlike the larvae resume feeding and the eggs that didn’t hatch in the fall
regular sod webworms, cranberry girdler larvae don’t have rows of begin to hatch. The first three instars are green and they look a
dark spots on the body. They actually have the spots, but they are little like green fruitworm larvae. However, when the larvae molt
the same cream color as the rest of the body. into the fourth instar, they transform into the diagnostic coppery-

brown striped caterpillars. These have black head capsules and out in the soil for most of the summer and become most active in
the top thoracic plate just behind the head is also black with three the fall when dead turf spots can be found. Up to a hundred larvae
white stripes. Overwintered larvae mature by mid-May when they can be found in a mass under small patches of dead turf. Again,
dig into the soil to pupate and spring-emerging larvae finish their they are not the cause of the dead turf; they are there to use it as
development by early June. The pupae remain dormant for the a food source!
rest of the summer, thereby avoiding any insecticide applications!
Control of bronze cutworm is rarely needed, but I’ve seen larger Midges are small flies that can have aquatic, semi-aquatic and
populations of this pests, especially in high-cut turf of lawns, sport terrestrial larvae. Most of the larvae feed on algae, fungus or
fields and golf fairways over the last few years. If you are seeing turf decaying organic matter. The larvae are usually translucent to clear
thinning in the spring and suspect caterpillars, inspect the thatch with a black head capsule. The adults of these can emerge in mass
zone for the coppery-bronze, striped caterpillars. They are fairly and mating swarms commonly form over the top of turf, usually
easy to control with any of the pyrethroid insecticides registered on a muggy, sunny afternoon. Some may think that these midges
for turf use. are mosquitoes, but mosquitoes don’t form these swarms. Like
the March flies, females fly through the swarms to be grabbed by
The Flies males for mating.
Every spring and fall, we often get localized emergences of crane
flies. So far, the ones found in Ohio appear to be native species, Midges should be appreciated for their efforts to decompose
but I have my eye on the European species that are slowly moving organic matter!
down from Canada (through Detroit and Upstate New York). What
alarms most people is that these look like giant mosquitoes. Turf-Infesting Mites
Fortunately, the adults are harmless and most don’t have functional The most common mite associated with turf in Ohio is the clover
mouthparts! They emerge, mate, lay eggs and die – often over a mite. I’m beginning to wonder why this mite is called the clover
two to three day period! mite since I’ve never seen it on clover! The mites feed by puncturing
grass leaf blades with their tiny mouthparts, and then they suck out
The larvae of native species feed primarily on decaying organic cell contents. This produces tiny yellow to white speckles on grass
matter and thatch layers, or turf killed by white grubs or disease are leaf blades and extensive damage can completely blanch out the
also attractive food sources. I most often get reports of the tan-gray leaf surfaces. This kind of damage is rarely observed in Ohio and the
larvae clustered in fair numbers under patches of dead turf. When more common complaint is due to the nuisance factor of this mite!
I investigate more, the dead turf was usually caused by something The nymphs and adults need a permanent, hard surface on which
else and the crane fly larvae are merely using the organic remains to molt or lay eggs. Because of this, the mites may walk several
for food. There are many different species with some having adult feet from the turf in search of a tree trunk or house/building. We
emergence in the spring and others in the fall. often get reports of hundreds of these tiny, olive-green mites with
pinkish legs walking up the walls of basements or buildings. This
March flies are also opportunists with their larvae (which can can obviously freak out the residents and when crushed the mites
look a little like miniature crane fly larvae) preferring to dine on can leave a permanent stain. While interior surface spray will help
thatch and dead turf. They most commonly show up in turf that knock down the invading mites, the best way to control this mite
was severely damaged by fungal diseases the summer before. The is to treat the turf surrounding the area where they are invading.
adults emerge in Ohio from late March into mid-May. The males Several insecticides and miticides are registered for clover mite
are usually black and clusters of them can dance up and down over control. This mite is active from late September into December and
a lawn. Apparently, when a female emerges, she flies through the again from April through May.
males and one of the males will grab her for mating. Mating pairs
are often observed on nearby grass blades or the leaves of shrubs.
After mating, the female uses special hooks on her front legs to dig
into the soil where a mass of eggs are deposited. The larvae hang continued on page 24

continued from page 23 active in October through November and again in the spring from
late March through mid-May. This mite comes out at dusk to
feed on leaf blades. Heavy infestations can cause the turf to get
a bleached look, often mistaken for mildew. Since the mites hide
Winter grain mites are also showing up more commonly across in the thatch during the day, sports activities during this time are
Ohio. Fortunately, this mite is not an invader like the clover mite, not bothered. However, where turf activities extend after dark, this
but the mites can stain clothing, especially the clothes of active little dark-green (almost black) mite with bright red-orange legs
sports enthusiasts. This mite is also a cool-season pest, being can be a real nuisance.

Clover Mites Winter Grain Mites Crane Fly

March Fly Burrowing Sod Webworm Opening of Burrowing Sod

Webworm in Thatch Surface

Bronze Cutworm Cranberry Girdler

Protecting Employees During the Summer Heat
During the summer months, companies should protect employees who work outside in the heat and high humidity.
Employees not taking the proper precautions when working outside can experience heat illnesses. The most severe heat-induced
illnesses are heat exhaustion and heat stroke. If heat exhaustion is not treated, it can lead to heat stroke and possibly death.

To protect employees working in the heat, the following steps should be taken:

• Educate employees about the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion and heat stroke;

• Perform the most physically-taxing part of the work during the coolest part of the day;

• Slowly build up tolerance to the heat and the workload. This usually takes 10 to 20 days;

• Work in pairs;

• Drink plenty of water, at least one small cup every 15 to 20 minutes;

• Wear light, loose-fitting, breathable clothing, such as cotton;

• Take frequent breaks in cool, shaded areas that allow the body to cool down; and

• Avoid eating large meals and drinking alcohol and caffeine before working in the heat.

Some of the symptoms of heat exhaustion are: headaches, dizziness, weakness,

mood changes, feeling sick to your stomach, vomiting, fainting and pale, clammy
skin. If a person is exhibiting these symptoms, these steps should be taken:

• Move the person to a cool, shaded area to rest, and do not leave the person alone;

• Loosen and remove any heavy clothing;

• Have the person drink water;

• Try to cool the person by fanning them. Cool the skin with a mist of water or a wet cloth;

• If the person does not feel better in a few minutes call for emergency help.

Factors such as certain medications, having a previous heat-induced illness or wearing personal protective equipment such as a
respirator or protective suit can increase an employee’s chance of experiencing a heat-related illness. Employees should check
with their doctor or pharmacist to identify if any of the medications they are taking affect a person’s ability to work in the heat.

For more information on heat exhaustion, visit the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) website – www.osha.gov.

Graduate Student Spotlight
Marcela Munoz

My name is Marcela Munoz and I am an Agronomist from the Pontificia Universidad Catolica De Chile. In March 2002, I enrolled in the College
of Agriculture and Forestry and I knew right then that I would never be bored with my education or my career. As I studied more and more, I
found what excites me the most, turfgrass science. Basically because this combines my academic career with my greatest passion, sports. In
the summer 2005, I started my first internship at a golf course and at a horse racetrack for more than one month as superintendent and field
assistant. In 2006, I went through the Ohio State International Internship Program. I was placed to work as a research assistant under Dr John
Street and Pamela Sherratt. During this time I was involved in several research projects including divots recovery using the growth regulator,
Primo Max, overseeding and wear tolerance evaluation, Fascination and nitrogen comparisons and others. While doing my internship, I also
started my Thesis Degree on Annual Bluegrass Control and Kentucky Bluegrass Overseeding as Affected by Velocity. I worked in association
with Dr John Street and my advisor in Chile. When I returned from Ohio State, I continued pursuing activities abroad. I got involved in the South
American industry participating in several seminars. I also worked with professor Carol Muller (Chilean specialist) with whom I developed the
content for the first Course of Soccer Field Management for Chilean soccer superintendents. I participated as a teaching assistant and had the
opportunity to present some of the lectures.

After presenting my thesis project and getting involved with the Chilean industry, I decided to move forward again and I returned to Columbus,
Ohio in September 2008. Currently I am working to attain a Master Degree in Horticulture and Crop Science at The Ohio State University
under the guidance of Dr. John Street. My research project is the evaluation of two compost types (sewage sludge biosolid and yard waste
compost) and a sand/compost mix (70%/30%) applied in a topdressing program at different application rates and core cultivation intensities
and how they may affect key sports field playability characteristics. The results of this research will provide recommendations on the potential
benefits of compost use and best management compost practices for providing good quality playing conditions for sports fields under moderate
management practices and traffic intensity.

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©2009 Syngenta. Syngenta Professional Products, Greensboro, NC 27419. Important: Always read and follow label instructions before buying or
using these products. Concert®, Daconil ULTREX®, Headway®, Instrata®, SuperWeatherStik®, The Turf Essentials™, and the Syngenta logo are trademarks
of a Syngenta Group Company.
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2009 OTF Officers OSU Turfgrass

President Science Team
Dan Walter, City of Blue Ash Golf Course
Vice President Dr. John Street, Dr. Karl Danneberger,
Joe Enciso, Advanced Sensor Technology Dr. David Gardner, Dr. Ray Miller, Pamela Sherratt,
Deborah Holdren, Matt Williams
Doug Gallant, Cincinnati Reds ENTOMOLOGY
Dr. Dave Shetlar, Dr. Parwinder Grewal,
Immediate Past President JoAnne Kick-Raack, Kevin Power, Dan Digman
Todd Voss, Double Eagle Club
Director of Education Dr. Michael Boehm
Dr. John R. Street, The Ohio State University Joseph Rimelspach
Todd Hicks
Executive Director
Kevin Thompson, OTF/Offinger Management Co. SCHOOL OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Dr. Ed McCoy


Dr. Daniel Voltz
David Willoughby
2009 OTF Board of Trustees INTRAMURAL SPORTS
Term Expires 2010 John Mott
Mike Dietrich, John Deere Landscapes
Kyle Frederick, Rattlesnake Ridge Golf Course ATHLETICS
Dennis Bowsher
Term Expires 2011 Brian Gimbel
Jason Straka, Hurdzan/Fry Golf Course Design
Term Expires 2012 Mike O’Keeffe
Todd Dodge, Brown’s Run Country Club
Ryan Gregoire, Agricultural Design, Inc.
Kim Kellogg, Grasshopper Property Maintenance

Don Lawrence, Midwest Turf Consultants