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### Tw o new equations to find the arc length

Ayman Kamel

Researcher assistant, Microbiology department National Research Center, El Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Arc le ngth found by many methods as " circle arc" which given b y this for mula L = r . θ where L = arc length, r is a radius of the circle, θ is measure of the central angle in radians and this call regular curve. Deter mining the length of an irregular arc se gme nt is also c alled rectification o f a cur ve. Historically, many methods were used for specific cur ves. T he advent of infinite simal calculus led to a ge neral for mula that provides closed-for m solutions in so me ca ses. [1] T he paper will sho w new method for finding " arc length" in gener al by new for mula under conditions of using for mula which agreeme nt the rule s of for mula with shape of regular & irre gular c urve.

Key words: Arc length, Co nsta nt c urve, Inte grate

### 1. Introduction

Antiquity

For much of the histor y o f mathematics, eve n the greatest thinkers considered it impossible to co mp ute the length o f an irregular arc. Although Archimedes had pioneered a wa y o f finding the area beneath a curve with his method of exha ustio n, fe w believed it was e ve n possible for curves to have definite lengths, as do straight lines. T he first ground was broken in this field, as it ofte n has been in calculus, b y approximatio n. Researchers bega n to inscrib e polygons within the c urve s and comp ute the le ngth of the sides for a so mewhat acc urate measurement o f the le ngth. By using more se gme nts, a nd by decreasing the length of each se gme nt, the y were able to obtain a more a nd more accurate approxima tion. In particular, by inscribing a polygon of ma ny side s in a circle, the y were able to find approxima te values o f π.

1600's

In the 17th ce ntur y, the method of exhaustion led to the rectificatio n b y geo metrical methods of se veral transce ndental c urves: the logarithmic spiral b y Eva ngelista Torricelli in 1645 (so me sources sa y John Wallis in the 1650s), the cycloid by Christopher Wren in 1658, and the catenar y b y Gottfried Le ibniz in 1691. In 1659, Wallis credited William Neile 's disco ver y of the first rectification o f a nontrivial algebraic cur ve, the semic ubical parabola.[2]

Integral form

Before the full for mal develo pme nt o f the calc ulus, the basis for the modern inte gr al for m for arc length wa s independently discovered b y Hendrik va n He uraet a nd Pierre de Fermat. In 1659 van Heuraet published a construction sho wing that the problem of determining arc length could be transfor med into the problem of determining the area under a curve (i.e., an inte gral). As an e xample o f his method, he determined the arc length o f a semic ubical parabola, whic h required finding the area under a parabola.[3] In 1660, Fer mat published a more general theor y co ntaining the same result in his De linear um c urvar um c um lineis rectis comparatio ne dissertatio n geo metrica (Geo metric dissertation on cur ved lines in co mparison with straight

lines).[4]

### 2. Methods

Variables characteristics of height and base of arc

• - Arc must be start with minimize va lue a nd the n getting to be up to the ma ximize value until it descends aga in to the minimize value and this is regular cur ve or arc.

• - T he base (b) is a line link betwee n starting point of arc or curved and endpoint of the cur ved or arc.

• - Height (h) is a vertical straight on the base of the maximum va lue o f the arc or curve.

Another way for foundation arc length
Fig (1) Circle
Circle is a regular cur ve as the fig (1) and b y it will sho w
ho w to conclusion the new formula of " arc length" .
Assume BC = 2AD = 2R = b & AD = h
b 2 = r 2 + r 2 – 2Cosθ×r×r [5] [Law of cosine s]
b 2 = 2r 2 – 2Cosθ×r 2
b 2 = 2r 2 (1 – Cosθ)
Cosθ= 1 - (b 2 /2r 2 )
θ = arccos (1 - (b 2 /2r 2 ))
Fig (2) Circle
.Height (AD) vertical axis to the base (BC) and making
perpendicular angle in the tria ngle ( ABC).
(AB)
=
[Pytha gorean T heorem]
AB =
r = (b 2 + 4h 2 ) / 8h [6]
[intersecting chord theorem]
+ (CD)
[Pytha gorean T heorem]
L
= θπ r/180
AC = (AD) + (CD) → (2)
Where L is arc length of circle .
L
= θπ(b 2 + 4h 2 ) / (8h × 180)
By a ssuming BD = DC = 1
BC
L
= (arccos (1 - (b 2 /2((b 2 + 4h 2 ) / 8h) 2 )) π(b 2 + 4h 2 )) / (8h
2
× 180)
Addition equa tion 1 to 2
AB + AC = 4(AD) + (BC)
By the experie nce of the previous equation AB + AC =
4(AD) + (BC) on the circle as follo wing:
R = AD = 1/2 BC
ABC Arc
AB + AC
(ABC Arc)
(AB + AC)
1
2
3 4
3.14
6.28
9.42
12.57
2.83
5.66
8.49
11.31
0.31
0.62
0.93
1.26
By notice, the different between (ABC Arc) -
(AB + AC) is (Constant × R) that constant is
0.313165528 or (π - 2√2).
arc
0.31316552884360314085926593486011 = (π - 2√2).
Where
M
is
constant
=
Length of
By
previo us
equatio n
can
foundatio n
length
arc
0
2h
"b"
generally.
Error
h×M
0

By notice, found error value depend on the height ( AD) where (BC) = 0, the n the error value = M (2h – b)/2, where " h" is height ( AD) and " b" is base (BC).

b

Where b y graphically of E quation o f a straight line (x 1 , y 1 ) = (0,h.M) and (x 2 , y 2 ) = (2h,0). Linear regression equatio n is (y 1 -y 2 ) / (x 1 -x 2 ) = ( y-y 1 ) / (x-x 1 ) (h.M-0) / (0-2h) = ( y-h.M) / (x-0) (h.M/-2 h) = (y-h.M) / x h.M . x = -2 h. y + 2h 2 .M h.M . x + 2h. y - 2h 2 .M = 0 M.x + 2 y – 2h.M = 0 2y = 2h.M – M.x Where x is b and y is linear re gressio n or error Error = M (2h – b) / 2 T he final for mula as follo wing:

### 3. Conclusion

Un-integrated methods are simp le and used for circle arc as a regular curve b ut could n't use in irregular cur ve, so used inte grated methods but not simple to use and so comple x then two methods mentioned before co mbine betwee n simple method and for all curve whic h depend on the variables base a nd height of arc.

### References

 [1] In P-J. Laurent, P. Sablonniere, and L. L. Schumaker (Eds.), Curve and Surface Design: Saint-Malo 1999, pp. 63–90, Vanderbilt Univ. [2] John Wallis, Tractatus Duo. P rior, De Cycloideet de Corporibusinde Genitis. (Oxford, England: University P ress, 1659), pages 91-96; the accompanying figures appear on page 145. On page 91, William Neile is mentioned as "Gulielmus Nelius".

[3] Henricus van Heuraet, "Epistola de transmutatione curvarum linearu m in rectas" (Letter on the transformation of curved lines into right ones [i.e., Letter on the rectification of curves]), Renati Des-Cartes Geo metria, 2nd ed. (Amsterdam [ "Amstelædami "], (Netherlands): Louis & Daniel Elzevir, 1659), pages 517-520.

[4] "M.P.E.A.S." (pseudonym of Fermat) De Linearum Curvarum cu m Lineis Rectis Comparatione Dissertatio Geo metrica (Toulouse [Tolosæ], France: Arnaud Colomer,

1660).

 [5] "Euclid, Elements Thomas L. Heath, Sir Thomas Little Heath, Ed". Retrieved 3 Novemb er 2012. [6] Woodward, Ernest (1978), Geometry - P lane, Solid & Anal ytic P roblem Solver, Research & Education Assoc., p. 359, ISBN 9780878915101.