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SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.

A. Ministry of S&T Mr Pawan Kumar Bansal is the Minister for Science and Technology, Minister of Earth sciences and the Minister for parliamentary affairs. 98th session of Indian Science Congress was held in Chennai on January 3, 2011. 18th Children National Science Congress held in Chennai on December 27, 2010.

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Departments under Ministry of S&T ( 3 departments)

Department of Science and technology This is entrusted with the responsibility of formulation and implementation of S and T policies in different sectors.

Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Mumbai

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research

CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). New Delhi. This has 39 laboratories in the country. The mission is To provide scientific and industrial R&D that maximises the economic, environmental and societal benefits for the people of India."

CCMB (Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology), Hyderabad. CDRI (Central Drug Research Institute), Luck now. CEERI (Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute), Pilani.

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CFTRI (Central Food Technological research Institute), Mysore. CIMAP (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic plants), Luck Now. IICB ( Indian institute of Chemical Biology), Kolkata. IICT (Indian Institute of Chemical technology), Hyderabad. NAL (National Aerospace laboratories), Bengaluru. NBRI (National Botanical Research Institute), Lucknow. NGRI (National Geophysical Research Institute), Hyderabad. NIO (National institute of Oceanography), Goa. Department of Biotechnology: This is responsible for identifying and supporting the research and development programme in the field of Biotechnology. CDFD (Centre for the DNA finger printing and Diagnostics), Hyderabad. Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneshwar. National institute of Immunology, New Delhi. National Brain Research Centre, Gurgaon. (According to a survey by Business Today magazine, Gurgaon is considered the best city in India to work and live in). Gurgaon has the 3rd highest per capita income in India after Chandigarh and Mumbai.

B. Ministry of Earth Sciences: This provides the nation with best possible services in forecasting the monsoons and other climate parameters. This ministry also explores and exploits the ocean resources. This is the nodal agency for Arctic, Antarctic and Southern Ocean research.

IMD (Indian Meteorological department). New Delhi. NIOT (National Institute of Ocean Technology), Chennai. NCAOR (National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean research), Goa.

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C. DOS (Department of Space): (Note: This is very much there in the news. A question may be expected). DOS functions directly under the PM. DOS operates through ISRO which is responsible for planning and executing viable space programmes to develop satellites and launch systems The Indian space researched in the year 1962 with the establishment of INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research). In 1962 TERLS (Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station) at Thiruvananthapuram was started. In the year 1971 after the sudden demise of Vikram sarabhai the father of Indain Space program this is renamed as VSSC (Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre). (He is also the founder of Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmadabad).

ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization): ISRO started in the year 1969. Space Commission constituted in the year 1972. This formulates the policies and oversees the implementation. DOS was set up in the year 1972. ISRO was brought under DOS in 1972. The DOS implements the programmes through ISRO, NRSA (National remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad), PRL (Physical research Laboratory, Ahmadabad), NARL (National Atmospheric Research laboratory, Tirupati), NARL (North-Eastern Space Application Centre, Shillong, Meghalaya), SCL (Semi Conductor Laboratory, Chandigarh). The Antrix was established in the year 1992, this markets the space products and services. The Antrix is located in Bangaluru. Antrix is considered to be the commercial arm of ISRO. Antrix was awarded with the Miniratna status in the year 2007-08.

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ISRO centers: VSSC (Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram). This develops satellite launch vehicles and associated technologies. VSSC developed SLV, ASLV (Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicles), PSLV (Polar satellite Launch Vehicles), , GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle), Rohini Sounding Rockets, Space-Capsule recovery experiments, Reusable Launch Vehicles (Under testing) and Air Breathing Propulsion for advances reusable launch vehicles. November 21, 1963 marked India's first venture into space, with the launch of a two-stage Nike Apache sounding rocket from TERLS. The first rockets launched were built in United States. The first Indian designed and built rocket, RH(Rohini)-75.

In the early 1980s it VSSC is instrumental in the development of SLV, late 1980s ASLV, 1990s PSLV, 2000s GSLV.

GSLV was developed to enable India to launch its INSAT -type satellites into geostationary orbit and to make India less dependent on foreign rockets).

GSLV are launched from Satish Dhawan space sentre.

VSSC is certified for compliance to ISO 9001:2000 quality management system.

VSSC made significant contribution to India's maiden mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1.

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ISAC (ISRO Satellite Centre): This is located in Bengaluru. This develops satellite technology and implementation of satellite systems for scientific and technological missions. ISRO (ISRO Radar Development Unit) works under ISAC carries out research and development in the area of radar systems.

SDSC (Satish Dhawan Space Centre): SDSC is located in Sriharikota in AP. This has the necessary infrastructure for launching satellites into low earth orbit, polar orbit and geostationary transfer orbit.

LPSC (Liquid Propulsion System Centre): The headquarters is in Valiamala (Thiruvananthapuram). Test facility is located in Mahendragiri hills Tamil Nadu. The Bengaluru centre is the integration centre for GEOSAT and IRS.

SAC (Space Application Centre) This is located in Ahmadabad. This designs and develops pay loads, societal applications, capacity building and space sciences. DECU (Development and Educational Communication Unit): Located in Ahmadabad. This is involved in system definition, planning, implementation and socio-economic research of satellite based societal applications. ISTRAC (ISRO Telemetry, tracking and Command Network). Located in bangalore. This provides space operation services that include spacecraft control, for the launch vehicles.

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MCF (Master Control facility). Located in Hasan and Bhopal. This monitors and controls all geo stationary satellites of ISRO. IISU(ISRO INERTIAL SYSTEM UNIT): Located in Thiruvananthapuram. This design and develop the inertial system for the entire Indian Space program. NRSA: Located in Hyderabad. Initially it was autonomous body, In the year 2008 this was made a part of ISRO. This is involved in the execution of remote sensing applications in collaboration with the users. PRL (Physical research Laboratory): Ahmadabad. This is involved in the basic research in experimental and theoretical Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics. RRSSC(Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres): 5 centers. Bengaluru, Jodhpue, Kharagpur (WB), Dehradun and Nagpur. Support the specific regions and also the National Remote Sensing. IIST (Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology): Located in Thiruvananthapuram. This offers Bachelors degree in Space technology. THE LAUNCH VEHICLES OF ISRO These are the vehicles used to transport and put satellites or spacecrafts into space. SLV (Satellite Launch Vehicle): The 1st SLV developed in the year 1980. RS-1 (Rohini -1) was the first satellite to be put in space. The Indian Satellite Launch Vehicle was a project started in the early 1970s by Indian Space Research Organisation to develop the technology needed to launch satellites. The project leader was Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. SLV was intended to reach a height of 400 km and carry a payload of 40 kg. SLV was a four stage rocket with all solid-propellant motors. The first launch of the SLV took place in Sriharikota on 10 August 1979. The last launch of the SLV took place on 17 April 1983. (Note: The first Indian satellite launched was Aryabhatta. It was launched from USSR on April 19, 1975. Cosmos-3M was the launch vehicle).

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ASLV (Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle): ASLV was a 5-stage solid propellant rocket developed by the ISRO to place 150 kg satellites into LEO (Low Earth Orbit). This project was started by India during the early 1990s to develop technologies needed for a payload to be placed into a geostationary orbit.

Its design was based on Satellite Launch Vehicle.

SROSS-A, B, C and C2 were the satellites.

PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle):

This is capable of launching 1600 kg satellites in 620 km sun synchronous polar orbit. The PSLV, is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the ISRO. It was developed to allow India to launch its IRS (Indian Remote Sensing) satellites into sun synchronous orbits a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV, commercially viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into GTO (geostationary transfer orbit). The PSLV has launched 41 satellites (19 Indian and 22 from other countries) into a variety of orbits. The Chandrayaan 1 was launched through PSLV C11 on October 22, 2008. In July 2010, PSLV C15 was launched. Through PSLV C15 five satellites were placed in the orbit successfully.

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Cartosat-2B (India) Alssat-2A (Algeria) Alsat-1(Norway) Tisat-1(swiss) Studsat(India)

Studsat is the smallest satellite launched by India. PSLV C-16 is planned in April 2011. This carries Resourcesat-2, Youth Satellite and X-Sat.

Resourcesat-2: This 1206 kg satellite. This is built by ISRO to study and Management of natural resources.

YouthSat: This is built jointly by India and Russia. This weights 92 kg. This is for stellar and atmospheric studies.

X-Sat: This is built by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. This is meant for imaging applications. GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)

GSLV-D1, the first one that was launched in the year 2001. GSLV-D1 successfully launched G-SAT 1 on April 18, 2001. The engine LH04 Vikas. The fuel used N204. And Unsymmetrical di methyl hydrazine (UDMH) also used. GSLV D2 (2003) launched GSAT-2. GSLV-F01 (2004) launched Edusat.

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GSLV-F02 (2006) launched INSAT -4C. GSLV-F04 (2007) launched INSAT 4CR. GSLV-D3 (April, 2010) launched GSAT 4. GSLV D3 (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) was launched from Sri harikota on April 15, 2010. GSLV D3 is the indigenous cryogenic engine. GSLV D3 carried GSAT 4 into the orbit. GSLV D3 will be a geo-synchronous transfer orbit (GTO) with a perigee of 170 km and apogee of 36000 km. The cryogenic stage was built at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) Mahendragiri Tamil Nadu. The cryogenic engines are useful for putting communication satellites weighing more than 2 tonnes into the GTO. The cryogenic engine technology involves the use of liquid oxygen (used as oxidizer) at 183 degrees Celsius and liquid Hydrogen (used as fuel) at -253 degrees Celsius. The Cryogenic technology in India was developed by ISRO. India is the 6th country to achieve this technology after US, Russia, Europe, Japan and China. GSLV D3 was launched from Satish Dhawan space center SHAR. GSLV D3 is the 6th GSLV mission for india. In the year 1991 India and Russia signed an agreement that Soviet space agency (Glavkosmos) would sell cryogenic stages and transfer technology to India. Under US pressure Russia went back on agreement. The last 5 (2001 to 2007) flights from sriharikota were powered by the Russian cryogenic stages. Cryogenic stage includes the engine, propellent tanks, motor casing and wiring. On 15th April, 2010 GSLV D3 failed to ignite and tumbled into the Bay of Bengal GSLV F06 (December 25, 2010) launched GSAT-5P. causing a "structural failure" of body of the rocket housing the 3rd Stage ( housing the Cryogenic Stage - breaking up 64 seconds into

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the 1st stage of flight,which is the INTER-STAGE (connector of stage 2 and stage 3),followed by a programmed detonation by the range safety team at ISRO In 2011 ISRO is planning for launching GSAT 6. A geostationary orbit can only be achieved at an altitude very close to 35,786 km (22,236 mi), and directly above the equator. The GSLV can be compared with Ariane 4 of Europe, Delta II of USA, Long March 2 rocket family or Chang Zheng 2 rocket family of China, and Soyuz U of Russia.

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CHANDRAYAAN -1: Launched on October 22, 2008. Launched on PSLV C11.

This carried 11 payloads. 5 Indian, 3 European Space Agency, 2 from USA and 1 from Bulgaria. Indian (5): TMC (terrace Mapping Camera), HySi (hyperspectral Imager), LLRI (Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument), HEX (High EnergyX-ray Spectrometer) and MIP (Moon Impact Probe). ESA (3): C1XS (Chandrayaan-1 Imaging X-ray Spectrometer), SIR-2 (Smart Near Infrared Spectrometer), SARA (Sub KeV Atom Reflecting Analyser. Bulgaria (1): RADOM (Radiation Dose Monitor). NASA (2): MiniSAR (Minisynthetic Aperture Radar), M3 (Moon Mineralogy Map per). This is the first spacecraft mission of ISRO beyond Earth orbit. This operated for 312 days. This was intended to operate for 2 years. On August 29, 2009 it was officially declared that the mission is over.

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CHANDRAYAAN-2: This expected to be launched in the year 2013. This is a joint venture by both India and Russia. Chandrayaan-2 will consist of the spacecraft and a landing platform with the moon rover. The rover would move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of soil or rocks, do a chemical analysis and send the data to the spacecraft orbiting above. The project is lead by Dr Mayilsamy Annadurai. Lander is designed and developed by Russia. The Rover is designed by Russia and developed by India. IIT Kanpur is working on the project of Rover. (The 'SmartNav' robot being developed for the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) will help space scientists to navigate moon's surface during the manned moon mission and provide real-time data and pictures of the surface there. The two-legged robot, fitted with sophisticated sensors and high-resolution cameras, is capable of recording information and images using laser beams). The five payloads of Chandrayaan-2 will be Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) from ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore and Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad for mapping the major elements present on the lunar surface. L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for probing the first few tens of meters of the lunar surface for the presence of different constituents including water ice. SAR is expected to provide further evidence confirming the presence of water ice below the shadowed regions of the moon. Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) from SAC, Ahmedabad for the mapping of lunar surface over a wide wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE2) from Space Physics Laboratory (SPL), Thiruvananthapuram to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere. Terrain Mapping Camera2 (TMC2) from SAC, Ahmedabad for preparing a threedimensional map essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology. The two scientific payloads on Chandrayaan-2 rover are:

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Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) from Laboratory for Electro Optic Systems (LEOS), Bangalore Alpha Particle Induced X ray Spectroscope (APIXS) from PRL, Ahmedabad.

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DEPARTMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY: (DAE) This is set up in the year 1954. This works directly under the charge of the PM. This is committed for the peaceful uses of atomic energy

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION: (AEC) This was first created in the year 1948 in the Department of Scientific research. In the year 1958 the Atomic Energy Commission was established in the DAE. The Secretary to the GOI in the DAE is the ex officio chairman of AEC. Srikumar Benerjee is the current chairman. The Nuclear Power Corporation (Mumbai), Electronics Corporation of Inida Ltd, Hyderabad, BHAVANI (Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited) are the PSUs under DAE.

Research Centers under DAE: BARC, Mumbai Indira Ganghi Centre for Atomic research, Kalpakkam Raj Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore Variable Energy Cyclotron centre, Kolkata. Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad.

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INDIAN PROGRAM for NUCLEAR ENERGY: Phase -1: Natural Uranium fuelled Pressurized Heavy water reactors (PHWR). India has the 50000 tons reserves natural Uranium in the country. At present India has 17 PHWR with a capacity of 4000 MWe. 5 more reactors are under construction. Phase -2: FBR (Fast Breeder Reactors). This can convert abundant U238 of natural uranium into plutonium and thorium into U233. Phase-3: Converting Thorium into U233. The capacity will be 1000 GWe for 500 years. At present the nuclear energy contributes only 2.9% of the total. Highest contribution is through Thermal (Coal, gas and Diesel). This contributes 64.7%. The first nuclear power plant was set up Tarapur, Maharashtra (TAPS-1 and TAPS-2) in the year 1969. The latest one is RAPS-6 (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station) at Rawatbhata, Rajasthan in 2010.

HEAVY WATER BOARD:

This works under DAE. This responsible for production of Heavy Water (D2O). Heavy Water is used as both moderator and coolant in the nuclear power and research reactors. HWB has 7 plants in the country. (Vadodara, Talcher (Orissa), Tuticoron (TN), Thal (Mah), Hazira (Gujarat), Kota (Rajasthan) and Manuguru. Heavy water is discovered by HC Urey.

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DEFENCE: The President of India is the supreme commander of Armed forces. A K Antony is the current defense Minister of India. The Army, Air Force and Navy functions under their respective chief of staff and all are appointed by the President of India. Ministry of Defense comprises Department of Defense, Department of Defense Production, DRDO (Defense Research and Development Organization) and the Department of Exservicemen welfare. Headquarters of all the 3 services located in New Delhi.

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ARMY: General K M Cariappa was the first Indian Chief of Army Staff. General KM Cariappa was appointed to the rank of Field Marshall in the year 1986. The present Army chief is General VK Singh. Army day is celebrated on January 15 every year.

AIR FORCE: Established on October 8, 1932. First Indian Chief of Air Staff was Air Marshall S.Mukherjee. The first woman Air Marshall was Dr Padmavathi Bandopadhya. The current Air Marshall is PK Naik. The rank of Marshall of the Indian Air Force was conferred on Air Chief Marshall Arjan Singh in 2002 for his leadership during Indo-Pak war of 1965. Air force day is celebrated on October 8th every year.

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NAVY:

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In the year 1934 RIN (Royal Indian Navy) was established. The rank of Admiral of the fleet has never been awarded to the Indian Navy. The current Navy Admiral is Nirmal Verma. December 4th is Navy day.

DEFENCE PRODUCTION UNITS:

GRS (Garden Reach Ship-builders and Engineers Ltd) 1934 Kolkata BEL (Bharat Electronics Ltd) 1954 Bengaluru (GSL) Goa Ship yard Ltd 1957 Vasco da Gama (MDL) Mazagon Docks Ltd 1960 - Mumbai HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd) 1964 Bengaluru BEML ( Bhatat Earth Movers Ltd) 1964 Bengaluru BDL (Bharat Dynamic Ltd) 1970 - Hyderabad MIDHANI (Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd) 1973 Hyderabad

DRDO (Defense Research and Development Oeganization)

DRDO was set up in the year 1958. DRDO head Quarters New Delhi. The current Director-General is Dr Vijay Kumar Saraswat.

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DRDL (Defense Research and Development Laboratory)

The DRDL has developed Missiles under IGMDP (Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme).

AGNI. This is a Surface to Surface Missile. It has 4 variations so far. AGNI-I range 700-800 km. AGNI II range 2,000 3000 Km. AGNI III range 3,000 5500 km. AGNI V. This is an intercontinental ballistic missile. Range 5000 6000 km.

PRITVI: This is a Surface to Surface missile. Prithvi I. This is army version. 150 km range. Prithi II. This is Air Force Version. Range 250 km. PRITHVI III or DANUSH: This is the naval version of Prithvi III. Range 350 km.

ASTRA: This is a BVR (Beyond Visual Range) Air-to-Air missile. Astra head on mode range is 80 km and tail-chase range is 20 km.

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TRISHUL: This is a short range all weather Surface to Air missile. This has a range of 9 km.

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AKASH: This is a Surface to Air missile. This is a medium range missile. Range 40 km.

NAG: This is an anti tank guided missile. This operates on Fire and Forget principle. NAG land version range 4 to 6 km. NAG air version range 7 to 8 km.

SAGARIKA (K-15): This is a nuclear capable submarine to surface ballistic missiles. This has a range of 750 km. This will be used from ARIHANT.

SHOURYA: This is a Surface to Surface missile. This can be fired from underground. This is the land variant of Sagarika. The range is 750 to 1900 km.

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NIRBHAY: This is a long range stealth cruise missile. This is under development. This will have a range of 100km. BrahMos: This is a supersonic cruise missile launched from submarines, ships, aircrafts or land. Brahmos is a joint venture between Indian and Russia. This is developed by BATL (BrahMos Aerospace Thiruvananthapuram Limited) at Chakka near Thiruvananthapuram. This has the capability of attack as low as 10 met altitude and has a maximum range of 290 km. A.Sivathanu Pillai is the chief executive officer for BrahMos. The BrahMos is already inducted into the Navy and Army. TEJAS: Tejas is an LCA (Light Combat Aircraft). This is originally designed to replace MIG-21 fleet of Russia. Tejas has been inducted into the Air force. LAKSHYA Lakshya is a (PTA) Pilotless Target Aircraft. Lakshya 2 was successfully test fired on December 21, 2010. SARAS SARAS is a multipurpose civilian aircraft. This is developed by NAL (National Aeronautics Ltd).

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NUCLEAR SUBMARINES: INS SHALKI is Indias first indigenously built sub-marine. INS CHAKRA This is the Akula Class. This is the 1st nuclear submarine of India which was acquires from Russia on lease. ARIHANT This is the Arihant Class. This is the 1st indigenous nuclear submarine of India that was launched in 2009. This is Indias first nuclear sub marine. India is the 6th country in the world to have nuclear sub marine. This Developed by India with the assistance of Russia. This is powered by 85 MW capacity nuclear reactors. This can launch Indias K-15 (SAGARIKA) ballistic missiles. K-15 can carry both conventional and nuclear weapons. INTERCEPTOR MISSILE: This is a fighter aircraft designed specially to prevent missions of enemy aircrafts particularly bombers. On March 6, 2011 Indian tested Interceptor from Wheeler Island, Odisha. This was developed by DRDO. This is the DRDOs 6th interceptor mission. Interceptor will be inducted into the army soon. Interceptor is a part of BMD (Ballistic Missile Development) programme of India. India is next only to the US, Russia, France and Israel. Dr V K Saraswat the D-G of DRDO is the architect of the Interceptor missile programme.

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