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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Haiku ( haikai verse) listen (no separate plural form) is a very short form of Japanese
poetry typically characterised by three qualities:
The essence of haiku is "cutting" (kiru).
This is often represented by the juxtaposition of
two images or ideas and a kireji ("cutting word") between them,
a kind of verbal
punctuation mark which signals the moment of separation and colors the manner in which
the juxtaposed elements are related.
Traditional haiku consist of 17 on (also known as morae), in three phrases of 5, 7 and 5 on
Any one of the three phrases may end with the kireji.
Although haiku are
often stated to have 17 syllables,
this is inaccurate as syllables and on are not the same.
A kigo (seasonal reference), usually drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but defined list of
such words.
Modern Japanese haiku ( gendai-haiku) are increasingly unlikely to follow the tradition of
17 on or to take nature as their subject, but the use of juxtaposition continues to be honored in
both traditional and modern haiku.
There is a common, although relatively recent, perception
that the images juxtaposed must be directly observed everyday objects or occurrences.
In Japanese, haiku are traditionally printed in a single vertical line while haiku in English often
appear in three lines to parallel the three phrases of Japanese haiku.
Previously called hokku, haiku was given its current name by the Japanese writer Masaoka Shiki
at the end of the 19th century.
1 Syllables on or in haiku
2 Kigo
3 Kireji
4 Examples
5 Origin and development
5.1 From renga to renku to haiku
5.2 Bash
5.3 Buson
5.4 Issa
5.5 Shiki
5.6 Haibun
5.7 Haiga
5.8 Kuhi
6 Haiku movement in the West
6.1 Blyth
6.2 Yasuda
6.3 Henderson
6.4 Contemporary English-language haiku
7 Worldwide
8 Famous writers
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8.1 Pre-Shiki period
8.2 Shiki and later
9 See also
10 References
11 Bibliography
12 External links
Syllables on or in haiku
Main article: On (Japanese prosody)
In contrast to English verse typically characterized by meter, Japanese verse counts sound units
known as "on" or morae. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of five, seven and five
on respectively. Among contemporary poems teikei (,Z fixed form) haiku continue to use the
5-7-5 pattern while jiyuritsu (l free form) haiku do not.
[citation needed]
One of the examples
below illustrates that traditional haiku masters were not always constrained by the 5-7-5 pattern.
Although the word "on" is sometimes translated as "syllable," one on is counted for a short
syllable, two for an elongated vowel, diphthong, or doubled consonant, and one for an "n" at the
end of a syllable. Thus, the word "haibun," though counted as two syllables in English, is counted
as four on in Japanese (ha-i-bu-n); and the word "on" itself, which English-speakers would view as
a single syllable, comprises two on: the short vowel o and the moraic nasal n . This is illustrated by
the Issa haiku below, which contains 17 on but only 15 syllables. Conversely, some sounds, such
as "kyo" () can be perceived as two syllables in English but are a single on in Japanese.
The word onji (V; "sound symbol") is sometimes used in referring to Japanese sound units in
although this word is no longer current in Japanese.
[citation needed]
In Japanese, each on
corresponds to a kana character (or sometimes digraph) and hence ji (or "character") is also
sometimes used as the count unit.
[citation needed]
In 1973, the Haiku Society of America noted that the norm for writers of haiku in English was to
use 17 syllables, but they also noted a trend toward shorter haiku.
Some translators of Japanese poetry have noted that about 12 syllables in English approximate
the duration of 17 Japanese on.
Main article: Kigo
A haiku traditionally contains a kigo, a defined word or phrase that symbolizes or implies the
season of the poem, which is drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but defined list of such words.
Kigo are often in the form of metonyms
[citation needed]
and can be difficult for those who lack
Japanese cultural references to spot.
[citation needed]
The Bash examples below include "kawazu",
"frog" implying spring, and "shigure", a rain shower in late autumn or early winter. Kigo are not
always included in non-Japanese haiku or by modern writers of Japanese "free-form" haiku.
[citation needed]
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Main article: Kireji
In Japanese haiku a kireji, or cutting word, typically appears at the end of one of the verse's three
phrases. A kireji fills a role somewhat analogous to a caesura in classical western poetry or to a
volta in sonnets. Depending on which cutting word is chosen, and its position within the verse, it
may briefly cut the stream of thought, suggesting a parallel between the preceding and following
phrases, or it may provide a dignified ending, concluding the verse with a heightened sense of
The fundamental aesthetic quality of both hokku and haiku is that it is internally sufficient,
independent of context, and will bear consideration as a complete work.
[citation needed]
The kireji
lends the verse structural support,
allowing it to stand as an independent poem.
The use
of kireji distinguishes haiku and hokku from second and subsequent verses of renku which,
although they may employ semantic and syntactic disjuncture, even to the point of occasionally
end-stopping a phrase with a shjoshi (0/7 sentence ending particle), do not generally employ
[citation needed]
In English, since kireji have no direct equivalent, poets sometimes use punctuation such as a dash
or ellipsis, or an implied break to create a juxtaposition intended to prompt the reader to reflect on
the relationship between the two parts.
The kireji in the Bash examples "old pond" and "the wind of Mt Fuji" are both "ya" (). Neither
the remaining Bash example nor the Issa example contain a kireji although they do both balance
a fragment in the first five on against a phrase in the remaining 12 on (it may not be apparent from
the English translation of the Issa that the first five on mean "Edo's rain").
The best-known Japanese haiku
is Bash's "old pond":

(transliterated into 17 hiragana)

furuike ya kawazu tobikomu mizu no oto (transliterated into romaji)
This separates into on as:
fu-ru-i-ke ya (5)
ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu (7)
mi-zu no o-to (5)
old pond . . .
a frog leaps in
waters sound
An alternative translation, which preserves the syllable counts in English at the cost of taking
greater liberty with the sense:
at the age old pond
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a frog leaps into water
a deep resonance
Another haiku by Bash:

hatsu shigure saru mo komino wo hoshige nari

This separates into on as:
ha-tsu shi-gu-re (5)
sa-ru mo ko-mi-no wo (7)
ho-shi-ge na-ri (5)
the first cold shower
even the monkey seems to want
a little coat of straw
This haiku by Bash illustrates that he was not always constrained to a 5-7-5 on pattern. It
contains 18 on in the pattern 6-7-5 ("" or "" is treated as two on.)

fuji no kaze ya gi ni nosete Edo miyage

This separates into "on" as:
fu-ji no ka-ze ya (6)
o-o-gi ni no-se-te (7)
e-do mi-ya-ge (5)
the wind of Mt. Fuji
I've brought on my fan!
a gift from Edo
This haiku by Issa
illustrates that 17 Japanese on do not always equate to 17 English syllables
("nan" counts as two on and "nonda" as three.)

edo no ame nan goku nonda hototogisu

This separates into "on" as,
e-do no a-me (5)
na-n go-ku no-n-da (7)
ho-to-to-gi-su (5)
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how many gallons
of Edo's rain did you drink?
Though traditionally haikus have been written to express natural beauty and tranquility, this
unusual haiku focuses on strong human emotion, particularly sadness.
On the jagged cliff,
sadly gazing far below,
his troubles end here
Origin and development
From renga to renku to haiku
Main articles: Renga and Renku
Hokku is the opening stanza of an orthodox collaborative linked poem, or renga, and of its later
derivative, renku (or haikai no renga). By the time of Matsuo Bash (16441694), the hokku had
begun to appear as an independent poem, and was also incorporated in haibun (a combination of
prose and hokku), and haiga (a combination of painting with hokku). In the late 19th century,
Masaoka Shiki (18671902) renamed the standalone hokku to haiku.
The latter term is now
generally applied retrospectively to all hokku appearing independently of renku or renga,
irrespective of when they were written, and the use of the term hokku to describe a standalone
poem is considered obsolete.
Main articles: Matsuo Bash and Hokku
In the 17th century, two masters arose who elevated haikai and gave it a new popularity. They
were Matsuo Bash (16441694) and Ueshima Onitsura (ja) (16611738). Hokku is the first verse
of the collaborative haikai or renku, but its position as the opening verse made it the most
important, setting the tone for the whole composition. Even though hokku had sometimes
appeared individually, they were always understood in the context of renku.
The Bash school
promoted standalone hokku by including many in their anthologies, thus giving birth to what is now
called "haiku". Bash also used his hokku as torque points within his short prose sketches and
longer travel diaries. This sub-genre of haikai is known as haibun. His best-known work, Oku no
Hosomichi, or Narrow Roads to the Interior, is counted as one of the classics of Japanese
and has been translated into English extensively.
Bash was deified by both the imperial government and Shinto religious headquarters one
hundred years after his death because he raised the haikai genre from a playful game of wit to
sublime poetry. He continues to be revered as a saint of poetry in Japan, and is the one name
from classical Japanese literature that is familiar throughout the world.
Main article: Yosa Buson
The next famous style of haikai to arise was that of Yosa Buson (17161783) and others such as
Kit, called the Tenmei style after the Tenmei Era (17811789) in which it was created. Buson
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Grave of Yosa Buson
attempted to revive the values of Bash, and rescue haiku and renku
from the stultified condition into which it had sunk since Bash's
[citation needed]
Buson is recognized as one of the greatest masters of haiga (an art
form where painting is combined with haiku or haikai prose). His
affection for painting can be seen in the painterly style of his haiku.
Main article: Kobayashi Issa
No new popular style followed Buson. However, a very individualistic,
and at the same time humanistic, approach to writing haiku was
demonstrated by the poet Kobayashi Issa (17631827), whose
miserable childhood, poverty, sad life, and devotion to the Pure Land
sect of Buddhism are evident in his poetry. Issa made the genre
immediately accessible to wider audiences.
Main article: Masaoka Shiki
Masaoka Shiki (18671902) was a reformer and modernizer. A prolific writer, even though
chronically ill during a significant part of his life, Shiki disliked the 'stereotype' haikai writers of the
19th century who were known by the deprecatory term tsukinami, meaning 'monthly', after the
monthly or twice-monthly haikai gatherings of the end of the 18th century (in regard to this period
of haikai, it came to mean 'trite' and 'hackneyed'). Shiki also criticized Bash.
[citation needed]
the Japanese intellectual world in general at that time, Shiki was strongly influenced by Western
culture. He favored the painterly style of Buson and particularly the European concept of plein-air
painting, which he adapted to create a style of haiku as a kind of nature sketch in words, an
approach called shasei (), literally 'sketching from life'. He popularized his views by verse
columns and essays in newspapers.
Hokku up to the time of Shiki, even when appearing independently, were written in the context of
Shiki formally separated his new style of verse from the context of collaborative poetry.
Being agnostic,
he also separated it from the influence of Buddhism. Further, he discarded the
term "hokku" and proposed the term haiku as an abbreviation of the phrase "haikai no ku"
meaning a verse of haikai,
although the term predates Shiki by some two centuries, when it
was used to mean any verse of haikai.
[citation needed]
Since then, "haiku" has been the term usually
applied in both Japanese and English to all independent haiku, irrespective of their date of
composition. Shiki's revisionism dealt a severe blow to renku and surviving haikai schools. The
term "hokku" is now used chiefly in its original sense of the opening verse of a renku, and rarely to
distinguish haiku written before Shiki's time.
[citation needed]
Main article: Haibun
Haibun is a combination of prose and haiku, often autobiographical or written in the form of a
travel journal.
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Main article: Haiga
Haiga is a style of Japanese painting based on the aesthetics of haikai, and usually including a
haiku. Today, haiga artists combine haiku with paintings, photographs and other art.
The carving of famous haiku on natural stone to make poem monuments known as kuhi ()
has been a popular practice for many centuries. The city of Matsuyama has more than two
hundred kuhi.
Haiku movement in the West
The earliest westerner known to have written haiku was the Dutchman Hendrik Doeff
(17641837), who was the Dutch commissioner in the Dejima trading post in Nagasaki, during the
first years of the 19th century.
One of his haiku:
inazuma no
kaina wo karan
lend me your arms,
fast as thunderbolts,
for a pillow on my journey.
Although there were further attempts outside Japan to imitate the "hokku" in the early 20th century,
there was little understanding of its principles.
[citation needed]
Early Western scholars such as Basil
Hall Chamberlain (18501935) and William George Aston were mostly dismissive of hokku's
poetic value. One of the first advocates of English-language hokku was the Japanese poet Yone
Noguchi. In "A Proposal to American Poets," published in the Reader magazine in February 1904,
Noguchi gave a brief outline of the hokku and some of his own English efforts, ending with the
exhortation, "Pray, you try Japanese Hokku, my American poets!" At about the same time the poet
Sadakichi Hartmann was publishing original English-language hokku, as well as other Japanese
forms in both English and French.
In France, haiku was introduced by Paul-Louis Couchoud around 1906. Couchoud's articles were
read by early Imagist theoretician F. S. Flint, who passed on Couchoud's (somewhat idiosyncratic)
ideas to other members of the proto-Imagist Poets' Club such as Ezra Pound. Amy Lowell made a
trip to London to meet Pound and find out about haiku. She returned to the United States where
she worked to interest others in this "new" form. Haiku subsequently had a considerable influence
on Imagists in the 1910s, notably Pound's "In a Station of the Metro" of 1913, but, notwithstanding
several efforts by Yone Noguchi to explain "the hokku spirit," there was as yet little understanding
of the form and its history.
[citation needed]
A translation of Bash's Oku no Hosomichi to Spanish was done in 1957 by the Mexican poet and
Nobel Prize winner Octavio Paz in collaboration with Japanese diplomat Eikichi Hayashiya.
Main article: Reginald Horace Blyth
R.H. Blyth was an Englishman who lived in Japan. He produced a series of works on Zen, haiku,
senry, and on other forms of Japanese and Asian literature. In 1949, with the publication in
Japan of the first volume of Haiku, the four-volume work by Blyth, haiku were introduced to the
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post-war English-speaking world. This four-volume series (194952) described haiku from the
pre-modern period up to and including Shiki. Blyth's History of Haiku (1964) in two volumes is
regarded as a classical study of haiku. Today Blyth is best known as a major interpreter of haiku to
English speakers. His works have stimulated the writing of haiku in English.
Main article: Kenneth Yasuda
The Japanese-American scholar and translator Kenneth Yasuda published The Japanese Haiku:
Its Essential Nature, History, and Possibilities in English, with Selected Examples in 1957. The
book includes both translations from Japanese and original poems of his own in English, which
had previously appeared in his book titled A Pepper-Pod: Classic Japanese Poems together with
Original Haiku. In these books Yasuda presented a critical theory about haiku, to which he added
comments on haiku poetry by early 20th-century poets and critics. His translations apply a 575
syllable count in English, with the first and third lines end-rhymed. Yasuda considered that haiku
translated into English should utilize all of the poetic resources of the language.
[citation needed]
Yasuda's theory also includes the concept of a "haiku moment" based in personal experience, and
provides the motive for writing a haiku. His notion of the haiku moment has resonated with haiku
writers in North America, even though the notion is not widely promoted in Japanese haiku.
Main article: Harold G. Henderson
In 1958, An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Bash to Shiki by
Harold G. Henderson was published by Doubleday Anchor Books. This book was a revision of
Henderson's earlier book titled The Bamboo Broom (Houghton Mifflin, 1934). After World War
Two, Henderson and Blyth worked for the American Occupation in Japan and for the Imperial
Household, respectively, and their shared appreciation of haiku helped form a bond between the
Henderson translated every hokku and haiku into a rhymed tercet (a-b-a), whereas the Japanese
originals never used rhyme. Unlike Yasuda, however, he recognized that seventeen syllables in
English are generally longer than the seventeen on of a traditional Japanese haiku. Because the
normal modes of English poetry depend on accentual meter rather than on syllabics, Henderson
chose to emphasize the order of events and images in the originals.
[citation needed]
many of Henderson's translations were in the five-seven-five pattern.
Contemporary English-language haiku
Main article: Haiku in English
Today, haiku are written in many languages, but most poets outside of Japan are concentrated in
the English-speaking countries and in the Balkans.
[citation needed]
It is impossible to single out any current style or format or subject matter as definitive. Some of the
more common practices in English are:
Use of three (or fewer) lines of 17 or fewer syllables;
Use of a season word (kigo);
Use of a cut (sometimes indicated by a punctuation mark) paralleling the Japanese use of
kireji, to implicitly contrast and compare two events, images, or situations.
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While the traditional Japanese haiku has focused on nature and the place of humans in it, some
modern haiku poets, both in Japan and the West, consider a broader range of subject matter
suitable, including urban contexts.
Brian P. Cleary's "Report Card" provides an excellent example of contemporary American haiku for
Four days of the year,
One tiny piece of paper
Turns my stomach sour.
The loosening of traditional standards has resulted in the term "haiku" being applied to brief
English-language poems such as "mathemaku" and other kinds of pseudohaiku. Some sources
claim that this is justified by the blurring of definitional boundaries in Japan.
In the early 21st century, there is a thriving community of haiku poets worldwide, mainly
communicating through national and regional societies and journals in Japan, in the English-
speaking countries (including India), in Northern Europe (mainly Sweden, Germany, France,
Belgium and the Netherlands), in central and southeast Europe (mainly Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia,
Bulgaria, Poland and Romania), and in Russia. Haiku journals published in southeast Europe
include Letni asi (Slovenia), Vrabac (Croatia), Haiku Novine (Serbia), and Albatros (Romania).
In the early 20th century, Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore composed haiku in Bengali. He also
translated some from Japanese. In Gujarati, Zeenabhai Ratanji Desai 'Sneharashmi' popularized
and remains a popular haiku writer.
In February 2008, the World Haiku Festival was
held in Bangalore, gathering haijin (/, haiku poets) from all over India and Bangladesh, as well
as from Europe and the US.
[citation needed]
In South Asia, some other poets also write Haiku from
time to time, most notably including the Pakistani poet Omer Tarin, who is also active in the
movement for global nuclear disarmament and some of his 'Hiroshima Haiku' have been read at
various peace conferences in Japan and the UK.
Some groups, such as the Haiku International Association, try to promote exchanges between
Japanese and foreign haiku poets.
The President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy is a notable haijin and known as
"Haiku Herman". He published a book of haiku in April 2010.
Famous writers
Pre-Shiki period
Arakida Moritake
Matsuo Bash
Nozawa Bonch (c.
Takarai Kikaku
Ueshima Onitsura (ja)
Yokoi Yay (17021783)
Fukuda Chiyo-ni
Yosa Buson (17161783)
Ryokan Taigu
Kobayashi Issa
Shiki and later
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Masaoka Shiki
Hekigot (ja)
Takahama Kyoshi
Samukawa Sokotsu
Taneda Santka
Ozaki Hsai (18821926)
Ogiwara Seisensui
Natsume Sseki
Rynosuke Akutagawa
See also
Haiku in English
Estonian haiku
Hokku (predecessor to
Japanese language
Japanese poetry
Japanese phonology
Jueju (Classical Chinese
"cut verse")
Kigo (season word)
Kireji ("cutting word")
Kural (Tamil verse form)
List of Japanese
language poets
List of Japanese poetry
List of kigo
List of National Treasures
of Japan (writings)
Masaoka Shiki
International Haiku
Matsuyama Declaration
Renku (collaborative
verse form)
Saijiki (kigo list)
Senry (haiku-like verse
Waka (poetry)
^ Yamada-Bochynek, Yoriko (1985). Haiku East and West. Bochum: Universitatsverlag Brockmeyer.
p. 255. ISBN 978-3883394046.
^ Hiraga, Masako K. (1999). "Rough Sea and the Milky Way: 'Blending' in a Haiku Text," in
Computation for Metaphors, Analogy, and Agents, ed. Chrystopher L. Nehaniv. Berlin: Springer. p. 27.
ISBN 978-3540659594.
^ Lanoue, David G. Issa, Cup-of-tea Poems: Selected Haiku of Kobayashi Issa, Asian Humanities
Press, 1991, ISBN 0-89581-874-4 p.8
^ Shirane, Haruo. Traces of dreams: landscape, cultural memory, and the poetry of Bash. Stanford
University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-8047-3099-0 p100
^ e.g. in Haiku for People (http://www.toyomasu.com/haiku/) Toyomasu, Kei Grieg. Retrieved
^ Sterba, Carmen. "Thoughts on Juxtaposition" (http://simplyhaiku.com/SHv5n3/features/Sterba.html).
Simply Haiku: A Quarterly Journal of Japanese Short Form Poetry. Simply Haiku. Retrieved 9 April
^ Haruo Shirane Beyond the Haiku Moment (http://www.haikupoet.com/definitions
^ Van den Heuvel, Cor. The Haiku Anthology, 2nd edition, Simon & Schuster, 1986, ISBN
0-671-62837-2 p.11
^ T. Kondo, "In support of onji rather than jion," Frogpond (http://www.hsa-haiku.org/frogpond.htm):
Journal of the Haiku Society of America', 1:4, 30-31 (1978).
^ 1973 definition of haiku (http://www.hsa-haiku.org/archives/HSA_Definitions_2004.html#Old_Haiku)
on the website of the Haiku Society of America
^ definition of haiku (http://www.hsa-haiku.org/archives/HSA_Definitions_2004.html#Haiku) on the
website of the Haiku Society of America
^ Shirane, Haruo (2004). Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900. Columbia
University Press. p. 521. ISBN 978-0-231-10991-8.
^ Brief Notes on "Kire-ji" (http://www.haiku.jp/haiku/nyumon_English_03.htm), Association of Japanese
Classical Haiku. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
^ Steven D. Carter. Three Poets at Yuyama. Sogi and Yuyama Sangin Hyakuin, 1491, in Monumenta
Nipponica, Vol. 33, No. 3. (Autumn, 1978), p.249
^ Konishi Jin'ichi; Karen Brazell; Lewis Cook, The Art of Renga, in Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 2,
No. 1. (Autumn, 1975), p.39
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^ Higginson, William J. The Haiku Handbook, Kodansha International, 1985, ISBN 4-7700-1430-9, p.9 16.
^ Translated by William J. Higginson in Matsuo Bash: Frog Haiku (Thirty Translations and One
Commentary) (http://www.bopsecrets.org/gateway/passages/basho-frog.htm), including commentary
from Robert Aitkens A Zen Wave: Bashs Haiku and Zen (revised ed., Shoemaker & Hoard, 2003)
^ "Journeys In Japan: Haiku Poetry, Autumn Foliage Otsu & Ogaki" (http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld
/english/tv/journeys/archives20121205.html). Nhk.org.jp. first broadcast December 11, 2012.
^ Works of Basho, Winter (http://www.ict.ne.jp/~basho/works/winter/04.html) on Iga and Basho ict.ne.jp
^ Works of Basho, Summer (http://www.ict.ne.jp/~basho/works/summer/03.html) on Iga and Basho
ict.ne.jp website.
^ "Issa archive" (http://haikuguy.com/issa/search.php?keywords=gallons&year=1813). Haikuguy.com.
Retrieved 2012-01-06.
^ Higginson, William J. The Haiku Handbook, Kodansha International, 1985, ISBN 4-7700-1430-9,
^ van den Heuvel, 1986, p.357 23.

Hiroaki Sato. One Hundred Frogs, Weatherhill, 1983, ISBN 0-8348-0176-0 p.113 24.
^ Yuasa, Nobuyuki. The Narrow Road to the Deep North and other travel sketches, Penguin 1966,
ISBN 0-14-044185-9 p.39
^ Rimer, J. Thomas. A Reader's Guide to Japanese Literature, Kodansha International 1988, ISBN
4-7700-1396-5 pp.69-70
^ Ross, Bruce. Haiku Moment: An Anthology of Contemporary North American Haiku, Tuttle
Publishing, 1993, ISBN 0-8048-1820-7 p.xv
^ Henderson, Harold G. An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Basho to
Shiki, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958, p.163
^ Earl Miner, Japanese Linked Poetry. Princeton University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-691-01368-3 pbk. 29.
^ Haiku in the Netherlands and Flanders (http://kulturserver-nds.de/home/haiku-dhg/Netherlands.htm)
by Max Verhart, in the German Haiku Society website
^ Otterspeer, W. Leiden Oriental connections, 1850-1940, Volume 5 of Studies in the history of Leiden
University. Brill, 1989, ISBN 9789004090224. p360
^ Grumman, Bob. A Divergery of Haiku, ToxanAtomyzd in Modern Haiku 34:2, 2003, 2026 32.
^ "Aozora project" (http://www.tempslibres.org/aozora/en/centre.html). Aozora. 33.
^ Article on Sneh Rashmi (http://www.gujaratisahityaparishad.com/prakashan/photo-gallery/sahitya-
sarjako/SnehaRashmi.html) on website of Gujarati Sahitya Parishad (Gujarati Literary Council). In it,
we read: " \ 5 7 \| l \ " ("By
pioneering and popularizing the famous form of Japanese poetry called Haiku in Gujarati, he has
gained a place in history").
^ Ramanathan S. & Kothari R. (1998). Modern Gujarati Poetry: A Selection. Sahitya Akedami. ISBN
81-260-0294-8, ISBN 978-81-260-0294-8
^ "Herman Van Rompuy publishes haiku poems" (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe
/eu/7595054/Herman-Van-Rompuy-publishes-haiku-poems.html). Telegraph.co.uk. 16 April 2010.
^ "EU's "Haiku Herman" launches first poetry book" (http://www.reuters.com/article
/idUSTRE63E3RN20100415). Reuters. April 15, 2010.
^ Charter, David (April 16, 2010). "Haiku Herman Van Rompuy: poet, president and fish out of water"
London: Times Online.
Henderson, H G. An Introduction to Haiku. Hokuseido Press, 1948.
Higginson, William J. and Harter, Penny. The Haiku Handbook, How to Write, Share, and
Teach Haiku. Kodansha, 1989. ISBN 4-7700-1430-9
Blyth, R. H. A History of Haiku. Vol. 1, From the Beginnings up to Issa. Tokyo: Hokuseido
Press, 1963. ISBN 0-89346-066-4
Sato, Hiroaki. One Hundred Frogs, from renga to haiku to English. Weatherhill, 1983. ISBN
Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams, Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the poetry of Bash.
Haiku - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haiku
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Stanford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8047-3099-7 (pbk)
Sieffert, Ren.Bash et son cole Haka. Les ditions Textuel, 2005. ISBN 2-84597-140-0
Takahashi, Matsuo. Haiku, The Poetic Key to Japan. P.I.E BOOKS, 2003. ISBN
Ueda, Makoto. The Master Haiku Poet, Matsuo Bash. Kodansha, 1982. ISBN
Yasuda, Ken. Japanese Haiku: Its Essential Nature, History, and Possibilities in English.
Tuttle, 1957. ISBN 0-8048-1096-6
External links
Haiku (http://www.dmoz.org//Arts/Literature/Poetry/Forms/Haiku_and_Related_Forms//) at
the Open Directory Project
Haiku for People (http://www.toyomasu.com/haiku) Haiku definitions and guidelines,
translations of Japanese haiku
Shiki Haikusphere and NOBO list (http://web.archive.org/web/20110722071611/http:
Haiku International Association (http://www.haiku-hia.com/index_en.html)
Museum of Haiku Literature, Tokyo (http://www2.famille.ne.jp/~haiku/index-e.html)
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Categories: Haikai forms Japanese literary terms Japanese poetry
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Haiku - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haiku
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