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Question 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50



Able to name X and Y. Answer : X: Ribosome Y: Golgi apparatus 1 1



Able to give one example of the cell Answer : Pancreas // Ileum // stomach epithelial cell // salivary cell 1


Able to explain the effect on the production of extracellular enzyme if organelle Y malfunction Sample answers : F: The production of extracellular enzyme is incomplete / disrupted/ affected. E1: (without Golgi apparatus/ Y), the protein cannot be modified into extracellular enzyme. E2: Protein cannot be sorted. E3: Extracellular enzyme cannot be released/ transported to the targeted cell/ organ. [Any 2] 1 1 1 1 4


Able to explain denaturation of enzyme. Sample answers : E1: High temperatures alter/ change the (three dimensional) shape of the active site of enzyme molecules. E2: substrates thus can no longer fit into the active sites of the enzyme. E3: the reaction cannot be carried out// substrate cannot be hydrolysed. [Any 2 E] 1 1 1 2


Able to explain the reason why the blood stained cannot be removed. Sample answers : E1: Blood is made up of protein. E2: Protein is broken down /digested by Protease (enzyme). E3: Therefore the use of Amylase (enzyme) in the detergent powder would not be effective. [Any two] 1 1 1



Able to state organ in which the tissue in Diagram 4.1 can be found. Answer : Lungs 1
Q: 1 (2 marks) Q: in 1

2 (a)(i)

P : To produce gamete cell Repair damage tissue / for growth P: In reproductive organ// ovary// testis all somatic cells


1 1

(2 marks) (b)(i) X: metaphase 1 Y: anaphase Both answers correct: 1 (1 mark)


X : metaphase 1

Y : anaphase Correct diagram award 1 mark (2 marks)


1. crossing over occur in P but not in Q 2. Process P produces 4 daughter cells whereas process Q produces 2 daughter cells. 3. Daughter cells produced in P have variation whereas daughter cells produced in Q are identical to parent cell. Any two

1 1

1 (2 marks) 1 (1 mark)


Process Q


F : The cancer cells occur due to severe disruption of mechanism that controls the cell cycle. E : The cells divide without control and regulation to form cancerous cells// uncontrolled division of cells forms cancerous cells.

1 1 F & E = 2, F=1, E=0 TOTAL: 12


Able to state the function of organ named in (a)(i). Sample answer: Gaseous exchange // respiration. 1


Able to explain how gaseous exchange occurs during respiration in Diagram 4.1 and 4.2. Sample answer for Diagram 4.1: F1: Oxygen diffuses from alveolus into blood capillaries.
E1: Oxygen concentration/ partial pressure in alveolus is higher than in blood capillaries.

1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2

F2: Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood capillaries to the alveolus.

E2: Carbon dioxide concentration/ partial pressure in blood capillaries is higher than in alveolus.

[Max 2] Sample answer for Diagram 4.2: F1: Oxygen diffuses into mesophyll cells.
E1: Oxygen diffuses into the spaces between mesophyll cells through stoma.

F2: Carbon dioxide diffuses out from the space (between cells/ mesophyll cells) in the leaves to the atmosphere.
E2: Carbon dioxide concentration/ partial pressure in blood capillaries is higher than in alveolus.

[Max 2] (c) Able to state two differences between tissue in Diagram 4.1 and tissue in Diagram 4.2 Sample answer:

1 1 1 [Any 2 D] 2

4 (a) (b)

R : centrum P : muscle attachment Q : the placing of spinal cord

1 (1 mark) 1 1 (2 marks) 1 (1 mark)


Lumbar vertebra

(d)(i) (ii) (iii) (e) (i) (ii) (iii)

calcium/ phosphorus osteoporosis // Porous / brittle bone taking a diet rich in calcium/phosphorus and vitamin D // drink milk, regular exercise (any one) P: air sac P: to reduce the density of aquatic plant // to keep aquatic plant light -able to float -get enough sun light out photosynthesis -carry

1 (1 mark) 1 (1 mark) 1 mark) 1 (1 mark) 1 (1 mark) 1 1 1 (1

(any two)

Woody plants1. Support provided by sclerenchyma and xylem tissues.2. Sclerenchyma tissue is composed of cells with secondary cell walls that are usuallylignified which support non-growing parts of plants.3. Two types of sclerenchyma tissue:a) fibres long, straight and thin.

(2 marks) TOTAL: 11

In woody plants, the older xylem ceases to participate in water transport and simply serves to give strength to the trunk. Wood is xylem. When counting the annual rings of a tree, one is counting rings of xylem

5 (a)

Able to draw the arrow on neurons correctly


( b)


Able to name the structures of X, Y and Z

X - Afferent neurone Y- Interneurone Z- Efferent neurone

1 1 1 3


Able to differentiate afferent neuron and efferent neurone

X Afferent neurone P1 - Transmit impulses from the receptor to central nervous system P2- The cell body is located in the middle of the neurone P3- Has long dendron P4-Has short axon 1 1 1 1

Y- Efferent neurone P5-Transmit impulses from the central nervous system to the effector P6- The cell body is located at the end of the neurone P7- Has short dendron P8-Has long axon Any 4 Ps c) (i)

1 1 1 1 Max4 4

Able to state structure P

Synapse 1 1

6 (a)(i)

A balanced diet is the foods that contain correct proportion of nutrients which include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water and dietary fibre / roughage// A balanced diet is one which contains the correct proportions of all the different food requirement of the body. We need a balanced diet to supply enough energy for each days activities

(2 marks) (ii) A lady athlete: F1: An athlete is a very active person and has high rate of metabolism to produce energy. E1: The diet should include more carbohydrates to supply enough energy to carry out the vigorous activity in sports.// She needs to contract and relax her muscles frequently for her vigorous activities. //Energy is needed to contract the muscles. E2: The diet should include more protein to build new tissues to replace tissues that are dead or damaged. E3: She also needs calcium, sodium and potassium to strengthen the bones and to prevent muscular cramp. A pregnant lady: F2: A pregnant lady has a high rate of metabolism to provide energy for herself and the baby. E4: The pregnant lady also needs more iron and calcium to build red blood cells to avoid anemia. E5: She needs a high quantity of calcium and phosphate to form strong teeth and bones for the baby. An old lady: F3: An old lady has low rate of metabolism as she does not need energy to grow. (age) E6: An old lady needs less carbohydrates and fats because she is less active and thus do not need much energy. E7: she needs more proteins, vitamins and minerals to replace dead tissues and maintain her daily activities E8:She needs calcium and phosphorus to prevent osteoporosis E9: She should avoid food that contains a lot of fats, sugar and salt because excess fat can lead to heart diseases, excess sugar can cause diabetes mellitus and excess salt can cause high blood pressure. F1, F2 and F3 and any five E: (a) (i) F1: Digestion // Intestinal glands of the wall of ileum secrete a few enzymes to complete the digestion process. Digestion process is completed in ileum to produce simple sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose), amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol. Example: (any correct enzymes/ intestinal juices and substrate reaction) 1. Enzyme erepsin(peptidase) --- peptide to amino acids. 2. Enzyme sucrose -----sucrose to glucose and fructose 1 1 1 1 (8 marks) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1




1 F2: Absorption // The wall of ileum has many projections called villus to absorb the products of digestion. Blood capillaries in the villus absorb simple sugars, amino acids, minerals, vitamins B and C Lacteal of the villus absorb fatty acids, glycerol, fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) Must have F1 and F2 and other 3 (5 marks) (ii) F1: X is villus - has very thin epithelium that is only one cell thick. E1: The thin epithelium facilitate the diffusion of digested food// enable digested food to move across easily. F2: X is greatly folded structure E2: Provides a large surface area for efficient absorption of digested food. F3: It has a mass network of blood capillaries E3: to transport the digested food such as glucose, amino acids, minerals and vitamins B and C that has been absorbed. F4: Each villus has a lacteal E4: to transport lipid soluble nutrient// fatty acids, glycerol and lipids soluble vitamins. F1, F2, F3 and any 2 suitable E (5 marks) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 Able to explain how mangrove trees K able to survive in zone U. (a)(i) 8 (a) Sample answer Able to explain how to push the ball away. 1 F1 : Mangroove trees K are Avicennia sp./ Sonneratia sp. Sample answer: 1 P1 : have long underground cable roots that P1: (moving ) ball is an soil external stimulus 1 P2 : support them in the soft and muddy P2: receptor in the eye pick up /detect the ball/ stimulus P3 : have thin, vertical breathing roots/ pneumatophores( which P3: the receptor trigger/generate nerve impulses 1 project above the water around the trees). P4: the nerve impulse transit from the afferent neurons 1 to the P4: gaseous exchange / breathing interneurons in the brain P5 : the root cells also have a higher osmotic pressure 1 P5:lost The brain interprets impulse (from interneurons that P6 : prevent water from cells ( in the the sea nerve water ) 1 the ball is moving to goal keeper/ahmad) P7 : Salt water that enters the root cells is excreted through hydatodes 1 ( the pore in the epidermis of the leaves ) P8 : Able to germinate while still being attach to the parent tree / 1 vivipary Max 1 P9 : which increase the chances of survival of the seedlings Any 6 6 (a)(ii) Able to explain how the process of succession occurs in mangrove tree L. Sample answer P1 : Pneumatophore of pioneer sp / Avicennia sp / Sonneratia sp traps/ collect muds / organic substances/ sediments P2 : Increase the thickness of the soil / land become higher P3 : As time pass by the soil becomes more dense/ compact and firm/ drier P4 : The condition favours the growth of Rhizophora sp. P5 : The Rhizophora sp. replaces the pioneer species. Any 4 Able to explain eutrophication. Sample answer F1 : Eutrophication occur P1 : Farmers use fertilizers that usually contains nitrates/phosphate P2: Fertilizer/animal waste/silage which contain nitrate/phosphate may washed out in water when it rains/leaching/run into the river. P3: Increase the nutrient content in the river P4 : Algae in the river grow faster (when they are supplied with extra nitrate/(phosphate)/ Algal bloom P5: (they may grow so much) that they completely cover the water. P6: block the sunlight to reach the plants in the water. P7: Rate of photosynthesis decrease/ not occur P8 : The aquatic plants die P9 : Bacteria decomposed dead plant P10: Population of bacteria increase P11: oxygen in the water used up by the bacteria P12: Dissolve oxygen also reduced/ BOD increase P13: Caused aquatic plants and fish die

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

Max 4


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Max 10


P6: The brain decides what to do to stimulus( to catch or push away the coming ball)// coordinate responses P7: Nerves impulses are transmitted from interneurone to efferent neurone across the synapse. P8: Nerves impulses then transmit to muscles (effector) P9: The muscles (in arm /leg) carry out the response P10: Ahmad able to push away the ball from goal post. P11: Impulse is transmitted across the synapse P12: between afferent neuron and interneurone // interneurone and efferent neuron [any 10] (b) Able to explain how to regulate blood sugar level in the normal range P1: (The islet cells in the) pancreas secretes insulin a P2: and glucagon P3: directly into blood stream. P4: If the blood sugar level increase / more than 110 mg/100ml, insulin convert excess glucose to glycogen P5: in the liver. P6: Insulin stimulate uptake of glucose by liver/muscle/adipose cell for respiration.. P7: for cell respiration // to obtain energy P8: blood sugar level decrease to normal range P9: If blood sugar level decrease / less than mg/100ml , glucagon convert glycogen to glucose P10: glucagon promotes lipid breakdown P11: to release fatty acid /energy P12: blood sugar level increase to normal range. [any 10] TOTAL

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20



Similarities height of man / length of instar increases by time both show horizontal line / constant growth during adult *2 marks for similarities,

Difference Form of graph Sigmoid form for human and like series of steps in insect Age of organism the height measured yearly, but in insect used day for measuring the length Caused of different human have endoskeleton but insect have exoskeleton Stages involve in human, the curve has three different phases, but there are five steps in insect // nymphal stages Vertical and horizontal line : curve for human did not shows different line (only the curve from continuous points), but there are five different horizontal and vertical lines each Zero growth no point to show zero growth in human, but there are 5 time of zero growth (at horizontal line) Sudden growth : no sudden growth for human, but there are sudden growth in insect (at vertical line) Ecdysis : no ecdysis in human but ecdysis occurred in insect Mitosis : the cells in human undergo mitosis all the time, but in insect, mitosis only occurred at certain time (during ecdysis) Absorption of air : in human, there are no absorption of air, but in insect, during ecdysis 8 marks for differences

Max 10 marks


F : In-vitro technique P1 : means fertilization occurs outside of the body P2 : the wife injected with hormone to fasten the development of the secondary oocyte / ovum in ovary P3 : secondary oocyte / ovum release out by using ovulation) laparoscope (from ovary before Max 10 marks

P4 : sperms from husband fertilize with the secondary oocyte in a Petri dish (contains culture medium) P5 : (after fertilization) zygote will divide by mitosis P6 : (after 2 days) formed embryo until eight cells stage P7 : embryo transferred to the endometrium of the uterus wall through cervix (using pippet) P8 : embryo implant at the endometrium of uterus wall and develop P9 : baby that is delivered is called test tube baby P10 : This technique is complicated / expensive and the probability to success is low