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1. Three types of passive transport. Simple diffusion Osmosis Facilitated diffusion 2. TRANSPORT

Active Transport Passive Transport o Simple Diffusion: The movement of molecules from region of high concentration to low concentration. o The movement of molecules from region of high concentration to a region of low concentration with the help of carrier proteins. o Osmosis: The movement of water molecules from dilute solution to a concentrated solution across a Semi permeable membrane.

3. The figure below shows the model of the plasma membrane. Label L, M, N, and O shows four types of nutrients. P1, P2 and P3 show three types of protein.

(i) Name the L:Simplediffusion M:Fasilitateddiffusion N:Fasilitateddiffusion







O:Activetransport (ii) Name the P1:Poreprotein P2:Carrierprotein P3:Carrierprotein protein labelled P1, P2 and P3.

(iii) State two characteristics of the molecules that are transported into the cellbyprocessL. 1.Small 2.Solubleinlipid

4. The figure shows a model of the active transport system that depends on several carrier proteins found in the cell membrane.

(i) Explain:whatdoyouunderstandbyactivetransport. Movement of particles across the plasma membrane 1. by carrier proteins, 2. against the concentration gradient and 3. requires energy. (ii) Give an example of active Ion or mineral uptake by plant root hairs. transport in plants.

(iii) State two differences between active transport and diffusion. Any two differences energy, gradient concentration, living membrane. 5. The table below shows the effect of hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solution on spinach strips, red blood cells and plant cells.

Hypotonic solution

Isotonic solution

Hypertonic solution Spinach strip in 30% sucrose solution

Spinach water




<!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->Distill water

is hypotonic compared to the cell sap. <!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->Water enters into spinach cell through cut surface by osmosis . Epidermis is water proof. <!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->The epidermis layer curved inward. Red blood cell in distill water.

Spinach strip in 5% sucrose solution <!--[if !supportLists]--> <!-[endif]-->The rate of water entering and leaving the spinach cell through semi permeable mambrane is the same. <!--[if !supportLists]--> <!-[endif]-->The shape of spinach strip remains the same


Red blood in 30% sodium chloride solution

Plant cell in distill water

Red blood cell in isotonic solution Plant cell in isotonic solution

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Plant cells in 30% sucrose solution