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Journal of Analytical Psychology, 2011, 56, 267275

Book reviews
Edited by Marcus West and Patricia Vesey-McGrew
WIENER, JAN. The Therapeutic Relationship: Transference, Countertransference and the Making of Meaning. Foreword by David Rosen. Texas A & M University Press, 2009. Pp x + 150. Hbk. 19.95. This deceptively slim volume is a gem and a generous gift to all those, of whatever persuasion, who seek to practise their craft from a psychodynamic perspective. Beyond that, it is written in such an engaging and lively style, with its terminology clearly dened, as to make it accessible to the lay-person who may be contemplating analysis. Throughout the book, the author constantly challenges the reader to review and re-revision their thinking about transference/countertransference phenomena: a very considerable and courageous challenge to us all, which made me scan my practice and everything that puzzles me about my work, both in analysis and supervision. In the Afterword, Wiener alludes to the mysterious, a word derived from the ancient Greek muoI am silent. Reading through this densely packed volume, I kept on thinking about the mystery of transference in all its manifestations, from everyday life to the bewildering projections of our everyday work, which can even make us ill in one way or another. This tour de force is the distillation of many years of reective practice. Essentially, it seeks to offer a healing of the wounds and damaging splits within the Jungian community, and between Jungians and psychoanalysts. Borrowing her image of a tapestry, I feel that she has woven a cloth that embraces poetry, music, fable, neuroscience, emergence and attachment theory, cooking and philosophy, Jungian ideas and those from psychoanalysis. Of central importance is her notion of imagination as a mental space and a mental function both within analyst and patient and between the analytic dyad and she sees countertransference as a special form of active imagination (p. 57). There are six clinical vignettes, which include a commentary on Jungs relationship with Sabina Spielrein and James Astors analysis of the patient K. In one of these, Wiener explores in depth something that we have all experiencedgoing to sleep in a session, even if only momentarily. The account is honest and takes us into the mind of a creative and imaginative analyst, who warily treads the path of when and how to work both with and in the transference. Her reections on her clinical and supervisory experience have engendered the key and innovative concept in her bookthat of the Transference Matrix. Drawing on Jungs tussle with the Rosarium Philosophorum, an arcane and abstruse text, a vague and possibly avoidant approach to intimacy within the analytic relationship, Wiener has delineated two camps within the Jungian communitythe developmental and the


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classicalwhich could share common ground in the transference matrix, of which she writes: [It] is a co-constructed place with structure, form and energy. The term offers us a framework for thinking about transference, countertransference and the making of meaning in analysis . . . It has its own energy and power which are greater than the combination of the two people within it (p. 96). These surface from the Self and not from the ego, as a special form of active imagination, in which we can try to take on board the purposive projections of our patients onto ourselves through affective, imagistic and somatic sensations. All of this is a far cry from the repressed unconscious and emphasizes a specically Jungian approach to working with and in the transference. The transference becomes a symbol, something known and at the same time unimaginable until both analyst and patient can create a meaningful narrative, a space in which they can both play, and one in which there can be moments of meeting. Throughout the book, which is remarkably transformed from the authors 2006 Fay Lecture Series in Analytical Psychology into a text of ve chapters which truly speak to the reader, Wiener darts between opposing views of theory and practice, making her own synthesis but inviting us to nd our own. She questions how we nd and create meaning from experience. I think meaning comes later; the problem with so many of our patients is how to offer them a space in which they can experience themselves bodily and affectively. These questions are not bypassed, but I found her emphasis on meaning a bit lop-sided. With so many borderline patients, connectedness and affect regulation pose enormous problems for all of us and precede the search for meaning. But Wiener does take up the gauntlet of interactive regulation, which ows both ways and, she calls upon Jung, slightly misquoting him, this bond is of the greatest therapeutic importance in that it gives rise to a mixtum compositorum of the doctors mental health and the patients maladjustment. This pathologizes the patient and evades what Wiener is trying to address in her bookmutuality and asymmetry in the therapeutic relationship; yet again, an invitation to transcend apparent opposites. I could have tried to paraphrase the chapters. I have chosen not to because, within the text, there is the spirit of the Trickster in its most creative form. As a reader, I was bounced uncomfortably and unpredictably between ideas, experience and doubta crossroads encompassing my own work, its meaning for the analytic duo, faith in the process and the never-ending quest for the evanescence of truth in our impossible profession. It is packed with an overview of Jungian and psychoanalytic thinking on transference and countertransference; and as I have read and re-read it, I am reminded of Rainer Maria Rilkes letter from Love and other matters: Be patient towards all that is unsolved in your heart. And try to love the questions themselves. Live those questions now. This is what Wiener has done. I hope that this magnum opus will reach the minds and shelves of everyone practising psychodynamically, and that it will be translated into many languages. It offers the possibility of rapprochement between our fragmented Jungian community and between us and our psychoanalytic brethren, from whom we have learned much. There are lacunae in this book, which the author acknowledges: no mention of the negative, delusional, eroticized, addictive transference and the problems these may pose for a psychodynamic practitioner. I feel inclined to challenge Wiener to produce a sequel to this text to address the gaps. All of us should read and peruse this invaluable book, which could provide reading groups with a text to debate for some years. It is

Book reviews


rare that I have encountered a text that is so provocative, challenging and lends such a tilt towards reective practice, so quietly and imaginatively. Please read it. Christopher Perry Society of Analytical Psychology WILKINSON, MARGARET. Changing Minds in Therapy: Emotion, Attachment, Trauma, and Neurobiology. New York, London: W. W. Norton, 2010. Pp. 228. Hbk. $ 32.00/ 22.00. In his essay The transcendent function (1957), Jung articulated the idea that minds (attitudes) were changed by the collaboration of conscious and unconscious data (1957, para. 167). In the same essay, Jung observes that consciousness is continually widened through the confrontation with previously unconscious contents (1957, para. 193). Here Jung is imagining connections within the mind and positing a mind capable of making those connections. A main point of Margaret Wilkinsons Changing Minds in Therapy is that the conditions that make possible a generative confrontation between consciousness and unconscious contents are relational, and mainly have to do with experiences of affect regulation. Drawing on the elds of developmental neurobiology, attachment and trauma theory Wilkinson shows how positive early relational experience fosters connection areas within the brain while early emotional trauma fosters divisions between the brains various structures. Early traumatic interpersonal experience affects what is available to be encoded, as well as the processes of encoding and recall of the memories associated with it. . .Such experience becomes encoded in implicit memory, unavailable to the conscious mind (p. 65). If early relational trauma can alter brain structure inuencing how emotional experience is stored in memory, it can also leave a mind deprived of the structures necessary for adequate affect regulation, thus promoting further divisions in the form of dissociative defences. The therapeutic challenge of changing a mind thus divided is the main focus of Margaret Wilkinsons Changing Minds in Therapy. Although it is not always easy to distinguish when Wilkinsons clinical remarks are meant to apply exclusively to situations of early relational trauma or are meant to apply to psychotherapy in general, the emphasis on the therapeutic importance of affective engagement and on deep emotional involvement on the part of the therapist remains consistent throughout the book. Wilkinson has written this book for therapists and explicitly states: My aim is to enable therapists to develop ways of thinking about the insights emerging from the eld of neurobiology, attachment and trauma (p. 12). Wilkinson has synthesized a massive amount of research from neuroscience and presents it in a way that makes it accessible and applicable to the developmental and clinical processes she is seeking to elucidate. Any clinician trying to assimilate the burgeoning data emerging from this eld owes her a debt of gratitude for the masterful job she has done in presenting this material. The book would have been even more helpful in this regard if instead of assuming knowledge of brain anatomy it had included an illustration or two to help with comprehending some of the denser passages. Wilkinson turns to the elds of neuroscience, attachment and trauma theory in order to place our clinical approach on a solid developmental foundation. Perhaps most relevant for Jungian practitioners is her emphasis on the interpersonal, inter-psychic developmental underpinnings of the capacity for symbolization.


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Wilkinson counsels a therapeutic approach that combines affective encounter and interpretation yet, especially in cases of early emotional trauma, she emphasizes the former. Quoting Mancia, Wilkinson makes the point that the dening element of the therapeutic action of current psychoanalysis appears to be that of transforming symbolically and putting into words the early implicit structures of the patients mind (p. 102). This happens relationally and requires deep emotional involvement on the part of the therapist so that the patient can experience a new safe affective experience with another (p. 104). Both in early life and in the clinical setting the development of psychic structures that allow for mature symbolic capacity arise out of the experience of an affect regulating relationship with an attuned and empathic other. Wilkinson offers us numerous case examples illustrating this process. One particularly moving case which includes a series of paintings by a patient reecting her progress in psychic integration and symbolic capacity is followed over the course of the book. Wilkinson has included an informative chapter on supervision, reecting her concern with the minds that change minds. Jung was fond of noting that minds that change minds need to be minds that, in themselves, are open to change. For example, in Memories, Dreams, Reflections, he states that The doctor is effective only when he himself is affected (1961, p. 134). The capacity for affect regulation is at the very core of the capacity for psychic integration, since it is largely true that we admit to consciousness only that which we can tolerate in the realm of emotional awareness. Returning to Jungs idea concerning the widening of consciousness, we might say that the circle of consciousness is co-extensive with what we can bear to feel. An idea developed by Allan Schore and included as a diagram in Wilkinsons book is that of working at the edges of windows of affect tolerance. Here we may note that an analysands consciousness may not only be limited by his or her window of affect tolerance, but by the analysts window of affect tolerance as well. A point that both neuroscience and attachment theory underscore is that the window of affect tolerance within the therapeutic dyad is an essential factor when considering the process of changing minds in therapy. In The transcendent function Jung writes, the suitably trained analyst mediates the transcendent function for the patient, i.e., helps him to bring conscious and unconscious together and so to arrive at a new attitude (1957, para. 146). With its focus on the crucial role of affective engagement in the therapeutic process, and therefore on the affective competence of the analyst, Changing Minds in Therapy both places the transcendent function in a developmental (interpersonal) framework, and makes a major contribution to our thinking of what suitably trained actually means.

Jung, C. G. (1957). The transcendent function. CW 8. (1961). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York: Vintage Books.

Ira Sharkey New England Society of Jungian Analysts

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HEUER, GOTTFRIED (Ed.) Sacral Revolutions: Reflecting on the Work of Andrew Samuels. London and New York: Routledge, 2010. Pp xxiii + 323. Hbk. 60.00/$99.00; Pbk. 22.99/$36.95. Gottfried Heuer, the editor of this plural bouquet for a birthday celebration in print (p. 1), places Andrew Samuels, as the recipient of the bouquet, in the company of two well-known names in psychoanalysis. Otto Gross and Wilhelm Reich were both pioneers and rebels in the early history of analysis. However, their attempts to introduce radical political ideas into a movement that at the time only valued loyalty and conformity met with harsh rejection from which neither recovered (Roazen 1974). It is difcult to place the contributions of Andrew Samuels in the same context as Gross and Reich. His best-known books, Jung and the Post-Jungians (1985), The Political Psyche (1993), and Politics on the Couch (2001), were published in an era when the boundaries between various schools of analysis were beginning to get blurred. When Samuels published the rst of his books it had also become acceptable to review critically the ideas of both Freud and Jung and to examine their personal lives with a fuller range of available documentation. Instead of being regarded as a pariah of the profession, as happened with Gross and Reich, Samuels has an impressive r esum e of accomplishments and acknowledgements. What this Festschrift reminds us of, apart from the undeniable status of its recipient, is in fact how far analytic ideas have travelled and in such a multitude of directions: from exploring attitudes towards religion and family systems to new research in science and politics, there are now many topics that are open to analytic explorations. Samuels topic is politics and his own politics, although never explicitly stated, are probably a bit left of centre. The birthday bouquet consists of 40 contributions from different analysts, scholars, researchers and writers. They all give testimony to how Samuels in his career has taken great pride in building bridges and worked towards integrating the often competing strands of analysis. Many of the contributors are Jungian colleagues who describe their work with Samuels, mostly on the international scene. Others present a more local and English perspective of Samuels work. Some are from more academic circles. A theme throughout most of Samuels writings is the insistence that we all, in our need for social and relational roots, are political animals and that psychotherapists and analysts are no exceptions. Most of this manifests in the way we do business in our trade, in the professional societies we belong to, although we seldom name it politics. However, Samuels (2001) insists that we also commit political acts with our patient/clients. Even when we are confessing to a credo of not imposing our own opinions, the entire enterprise has inherent and fundamental values, be it the sanctity of the personal self, or its seeming opposite, the freedom to have a voice in our community. As several of the contributors describe, Samuels has taken the latter commitment a few steps further than most practising clinicians. At times, he has advocated for ways that psychotherapists could help improve political life by bringing about a general transformation of politics by translating psychotherapeutic understanding into tools for the political dialogue (Samuels 2001). In this pursuit, he has served as a political consultant and was the co-founder of Antidote, a psychotherapy think-tank. At other times, he has described how depth psychology could also help understand leadership, its seductive as well as its sufcient good enough sides.


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One of the contributors to the book, Lynne Layton, describes how politics may enter into a psychotherapy relationship when working on dreams and how they may lead the patient to recognize strong political passions. Samuels would probably approve of this approach. In Politics on the Couch he cites a similar process, albeit with a very different kind of client. The 35-year-old Italian businessman had a dream of a beautiful mountain lake with deep, crystalline water and his associations moved from the lake being a symbol of his soul to pollution of the Adriatic coast where he grew up. Samuels writes:
Then the client posed the question: who owns the lake? Who should control access to such a scarce resource? Who was responsible for protecting the lakes beauty from pollution? From personal issues, such as how his problems interfered with the development of his potential, he moved to political issues such as pollution, environmental despoliation and the degradations of mass tourism. And he then moved back again from the political level to the personal one. The dream played a part in Ricardos choice to return to Italy, tell his parents that he was gay and, in his words, get involved in some kind of politics. (Samuels 2001, p. 13)

This, to Samuels, is working these forbidden zones and to himand possibly his celebrantsa necessary questioning of conventional boundaries. Perhaps such questioning is what his friend and editor, Gottfried Heuer, means when he compares Samuels work to that of Gross and Reich and by quoting from Gross: The psychology of the unconscious is the philosophy of the revolution. Then, again, the revolution Gross and Reich may have had in mind was at the time a threat to the existing social order, not merely a questioning of conventional thinking.

Roazen, P. (1974). Freud and His Followers. New York: Da Capo Press. Samuels, A. (2001). Politics of the Couch: Citizenship and the Internal Life. London: Prole Books.

Sren Ekstrom New England Society of Jungian Analysts BOGART, GREG. Dreamwork and Self-Healing: Unfolding the Symbols of the Unconscious. London: Karnac Books, 2009. Pp. xix + 304. Pbk. 21.99. This is a rich and enthusiastic book about dreams in clinical practice. Greg Bogart states on his website that his work combines psychoanalytic, existential, Jungian, Buddhist and transpersonal approaches to psychotherapy. It appears, however, that his approach to dreams is inspired mainly by the classical and archetypal Jungian traditions. Through the many detailed accounts of his patients dreams (and some of his own) he explores how relationships, archetypal themes, complexes, persona and shadow, anima and animus, individuation, synchronicity, spirit and body are expressed in dream work. The clinical vignettes, containing several series of dreams (such as the Twenty Dreams of a Young Artist), demonstrate the evolving therapeutic process as facilitated by

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dreams and reected in them. They are used to reafrm the opening statement of the book: Dreams are healing symbols of the unconscious. . . they have a unique capacity to promote healing from within (p. 3). The author makes an original contribution to Jungian Dreamwork by introducing a technique he has developed over the years called The Dream Mandala. Bogart believes that every dream reects the Mandala principle, even when it does not explicitly contain symbolism of the circle or the centre point. He argues that every dream can be depicted as a mandala, a totality consisting of images that portray the conicts and divisions within the psyche. He recommends representing the dream as a circle. This is followed by plotting the dreams different characters, scenes or feelings along the periphery of the circle, depicting the paired oppositions that constitute the conict and tension of that moment. He then suggests drawing lines between paired opposites. According to Bogart: Mapping the Dream Mandala gives rise to an experience of the Self, where we experience the centre point within the psyche, where we are poised between the opposing inner forces (p. 221). The book is dotted with these Dream mandalas, which Bogart suggests we meditate upon: As we meditate upon the completed Mandala, he further says, we identify all of its contents as parts of our interior reality and absorb it into ourselves. We become the wounded healer who is made whole through melding the fractured pieces of our souls into a multifaceted jewel (p. 228). The dream mandalas that Bogart draws actually do look like jewels/diamonds. Diamonds are a perfect solid structure which is rigid and static as opposed to the constant gentle movement of psyches buttery wings. Bogart believes that meditating on the opposing forces within us generates immense dynamism (p. 221). Contrary to that I found myself wondering, with some concern, whether adhering too much to these perfect symmetrical diagrams might generate the opposite effect, freeze the uidity of psychic processes. Another danger is that of fascination and idealization of dreams. This tendency is reected in the last statement of the book: Amplify each dream, and polish it to a gem. Then the dream becomes a philosophers stone, the refracted light of an innite sun (p. 288). Idealizing the unconscious might lead to ignoring the risk of being exposed to its contents when the ego-self axis has not yet been consolidated. For example, in the chapter on archetypal themes Bogart discusses the following dream of a 46 year old man (p. 92):
I am at work. I go outside to a parking lot, but I cant nd my car anywhere. I have to go, give a presentation so I need to nd my car. I notice some people driving cars off a steep ramp into deep water. Some resurface; others do not. . . [this is only part of the dream].

Bogart suggests that the cars that do not resurface might represent the need for a prolonged immersion in the unconscious. However he appears to overlook the possibility that the car/ego might be drowned/swallowed by the sea/ unconscious. I thought that the book could have beneted from an additional brief chapter about the limitations and the pitfalls of working with dreams, and the limitations of the do it yourself self-healing approach. Bogart also does not explore in depth the role the therapeutic relationship, the transference and the countertransference play in facilitating and at times inhibiting dream work. His focus seems to be mainly on the dreams content. Some therapists may feel uncomfortable with the freedom in which Bogart shares Jungian terms and jargon with his patients.


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Having said that, Bogarts passion, respect and devotion to working with dreams is palpable throughout the book and so is the therapeutic, healing effect his approach has on the patients presented in the book. Yoram Inspector The New Israeli Jungian Society/ The Society of Analytical Psychology WASKA, ROBERT. The Concept of Analytic Contact: The Kleinian Approach to Reaching the Hard to Reach Patient. London & New York: Routledge, 2007, Pp. xvi + 247. Pbk. 22.99/$42.50. Robert Waska is a contemporary Kleinian analyst from San Francisco, California. He is a prolic writer with numerous articles published in a variety of psychoanalytic journals and seven other books in print. Although Waska writes from a Kleinian orientation, he adopts a refreshingly pragmatic position which emphasizes the primacy of the clinical experience over theory. Waskas pragmatic approach is reected in his choice of clinical examples, which often include patient material which would typically not be considered psychoanalytic in nature. For example, in addition to patients seen multiple times per week on the couch, he intentionally and frequently amplies his ideas about analytic contact with samples from patients being seen in short-term therapy, patients seen every other week, couples therapy casework, and patients with addictive, behavioural, or characterological issues. Waska utilizes these situations involving less than optimal psychoanalytic conditions to illustrate the clinical robustness of the concept of analytic contact. This approach effectively conveys the power of the analytic methodology for a wider population and Waskas pragmatic position does not detract from the depth of the analytic work presented. Waskas primary exposition of the concept of analytic contact occupies the rst four chapters of the book, although he continues to expand on the concept throughout. By analytic contact he refers to a process in which transference and defence analysis take precedence, self-object relating is examined and interpreted, and an exploration of unconscious phantasy states occurs. He prefers to utilize the term analytic contact in place of analytic process and describes analytic contact as being inclusive of the principles of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (to include psychoanalysis) but proposes that the idea of analytic contact also includes the experience of a close intimate bond and psychological touching of minds that must be a part of the transference-countertransference relationship (p. 204). Because most patients will attempt to avoid analytic contact and create a situation of less analytic focus, it is the analysts task to try to sustain analytic contact in the face of the patients efforts to diminish analytic contact. For Waska, issues such as frequency of sessions, use of the couch, and diagnostic suitability, are of secondary importance and merely serve to enhance or facilitate the maintenance of analytic contact rather than dene it. Holding Waskas concept in mind results in a subtle shift in ones fundamental orientation to the patient, specically a shift away from macroscopic thinking which steers us toward questions like Is this analysis? or Is this an analytic patient?. Focusing on the maintenance of analytic contact facilitates an emphasis on nding the essence of the analytic on the microscopic levele.g., what is happening in the analytic moment, what response to the moment is required to shift in the direction of analytic contact, and a consideration of how the patient might be attempting to

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defend against analytic contactall ultimately resulting in a deepening of the analytic experience with most patients. In other sections of the book Waska examines how the maintenance of analytic contact comes into play with regard to addictions, psychic mutilation, psychic fragmentation, and loss. He also explores other themes such as the patients resistance to change, the analyst as translator of the patients experience, and the fragility of analytic contact. Interspersed throughout the volume are explanations of fundamental Kleinian concepts such as the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions, the centrality of unconscious phantasy and psychic reality, splitting and projective identication, and the primacy of transference/countertransference interpretation. Waskas articulate depiction of clinical vignettes provide compelling support for his ideas about analytic contact as it ebbs and ows throughout psychoanalytic treatment, with contact being established, eroded, and re-established repeatedly during the course of an analytic treatment and within the connes of individual sessions. He also effectively incorporates his analytic missteps to illustrate the therapeutic pitfalls associated with the analysts failure to maintain analytic contact. To my Jungian sensibilities, Waskas interpretive conceptualizations sounded somewhat mechanical, pre-determined, or repetitive at times, especially in the section dealing with addiction. Waskas material also was less effective or persuasive when he incorporated illustrations from his extra-analytic life and in his use of illustrations from two lms. However, this volume effectively communicates how the patients interior world is revealed through the transference/countertransference eld. The reader of this volume, new to Kleinian ideas, will gain an appreciation of the utility and sweep of projective identication as a vehicle for understanding and processing clinical interactions. Overall, depth psychologists of any persuasion will nd much to appreciate in this book. Mark Winborn Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts