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CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF PRECAST AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE COMPONENTS

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The hanger reinforcement A
sh
should be placed as close
as practical to the reentrant corner. This reinforcement
requirement is not additive to other shear reinforcement
requirements, but should be in addition to torsion steel.
If the flexural stress in the full depth section immedi-
ately beyond the dap exceeds 7.5 f
c
'
, using factored
loads and gross section properties, longitudinal rein-
forcement should be placed in the beam to develop the
required flexural strength.
The Reference 19 study found that, due to formation
of the critical diagonal tension crack (crack
5
in Fig.
5.6.3), it was not possible to develop a full-depth beam
shear strength greater than the diagonal tension crack-
ing shear in the vicinity of the dap. It is suggested, there-
fore, that for a length of the beam equal to the overall
depth H of the beam, the nominal shear strength of con-
crete V
c
be taken as the lesser of V
ci
and V
cw
calculated at
H/2 from the end of the full-depth web.
5.7 Loss of Prestress
Loss of prestress is the reduction of tensile stress in pre-
stressing tendons (strands) due to shortening of the concrete
around the tendons, relaxation of stress within the tendons,
and external factors that reduce the total initial force before it
is applied to the concrete. ACI 318-05 identifies the sources
of loss of prestress listed in Section 5.7.1.
Losses have no effect on the ultimate strength of a flexural
component unless the tendons are unbonded or if the final
stress after losses is less than 0.50f
pu
. Underestimation or
overestimation of losses can affect service conditions such as
camber, deflection, and cracking.
5.7.1 Sources of Stress Loss
Anchorage seating loss and friction. Anchorage seating loss
and friction loss due to intended or unintended curvature in
post-tensioning tendons are two mechanical sources of loss.
They represent the difference between the tension applied to the
tendon by the jacking unit and the initial tension available for
application to the concrete by the tendon. Their magnitude can
be determined with reasonable accuracy and, in many cases,
they are fully or partially compensated for by overjacking.
Elastic shortening of concrete. The concrete around the ten-
dons shortens as the prestressing force is applied to it. Ten-
dons that are already bonded to the concrete shorten with it.
Shrinkage of concrete. Loss of stress in the tendon due to
shrinkage of the concrete surrounding it is proportional to
that part of the shrinkage that takes place after the transfer of
prestress force to the concrete.

Creep of concrete and relaxation of tendons. Creep of con-
crete and relaxation of tendons complicate stress-loss calcula-
tions. The rate of loss due to each of these factors changes when
the stress level changes. Because the stress level is changing
constantly throughout the life of the structure, the rates of loss
due to creep and relaxation are also constantly changing.
5.6.3.3 Diagonal Tension at Re-entrant Corner
The reinforcement required to resist diagonal tension crack-
ing starting from the re-entrant corner, shown as crack
3
in
Fig. 5.6.3, can be calculated from:
A
sh

V
u
f
y
(Eq. 5-60)
where:
= 0.75
V
u
= applied factored load, lb
A
sh
= vertical or diagonal bars across potential
diagonal tension crack, in.
2
f
y
= yield strength of A
sh
, psi
5.6.3.4 Diagonal Tension in Extended End
Additional reinforcement for crack
4
in Fig. 5.6.3 is
required in the extended end, such that:
V
n
A
v
f
y
+ A
h
f
y
+ 2bdi f
c
'

(Eq. 5-61)
At least one-half of the reinforcement required in this area
should be placed vertically. Thus:
minimum A
v

1
2 f
y
V
u

2bd f
c
'

_
,

(Eq. 5-62)
5.6.3.5 Anchorage of Reinforcement
With reference to Fig. 5.6.3:
Horizontal bars A
s
should be extended a minimum of C
d

past crack
5
and anchored at the end of the beam by
welding to cross bars, plates, or angles.
Horizontal bars A
h
should be extended a minimum of
C
d
past crack
2
and anchored at the end of the beam
by hooks or other suitable means.
To ensure development of hanger reinforcement A
sh
,
it may be bent and continued parallel to the beam bot-
tom, or separate horizontal reinforcement A
sh
'
A
sh

must be provided. The extension of reinforcement at
beam bottom must be at least C
d
beyond crack
5
.
The A
sh
'
reinforcement may be anchored on the dap
side by welding it to a plate (Fig. 5.6.3), angle, or cross
bar. The beam flexure reinforcement may also be used
to ensure development of A
sh
reinforcement, provided
that the flexure reinforcement is adequately anchored
on the dap side.
Vertical reinforcement A
v
should be properly anchored
by hooks, as required by ACI 318-05.
Welded-wire reinforcement in place of bars may
be used for reinforcement. It should be anchored in
accordance with ACI 318-05.
5.6.3.6 Other Considerations
The depth of the extended end should not be less than
about one-half the depth of the beam, unless the beam
is significantly deeper than necessary for other than
structural reasons.
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5.7.3 Estimating Prestress Loss
This section is based on the report of a task group spon-
sored by ACI-ASCE Committee 423, Prestressed Concrete.
20

The report gives simple equations for estimating losses of
prestress that enable the designer to estimate the various
types of prestress loss rather than using a lump-sum value. It
is believed that these equations, intended for practical design
applications, provide fairly realistic values for normal design
conditions. For unusual design situations and special struc-
tures, more detailed analyses may be warranted. Total losses
TL are losses due to elastic shortening ES, creep of concrete
CR, shrinkage of concrete SH, and relaxation of tendons RE.
TL =ES + CR + SH + RE (Eq. 5-63)
Losses due to elastic shortening are calculated as:
ES =K
es
E
ps
f
cir
/E
ci
(Eq. 5-64)
where:
K
es
= 1.0 for pretensioned components
E
ps
= modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons
(about 28.5 10
6
psi)
E
ci
= modulus of elasticity of concrete at time pre-
stress is applied, psi
f
cir
= net compressive stress in concrete at center of
gravity of prestressing force immediately after the
prestress has been applied to the concrete, psi:
f
cir
K
cir
P
i
A
g

P
i
e
2


M
g
e

g
(Eq. 5-65)
where:
K
cir
= 0.9 for pretensioned components
P
i
= initial prestress force (jacking force after anchor-
age loss), lb
e = eccentricity of center of gravity of tendons with
respect to center of gravity of concrete at the
cross section considered, in.
A
g
= area of gross concrete section at the cross section
considered, in.
2
I
g
= moment of inertia of gross concrete section at
the cross section considered, in.
4
M
g
= bending moment due to dead weight of pre-
stressed component and any other permanent
loads in place at time of prestressing, in./lb
Losses due to creep of concrete are calculated as:
CR =K
cr
(E
ps
/E
c
)(f
cir
f
cds
) (Eq. 5-66)
where:
K
cr
= 2.0 normalweight concrete
= 1.6 sand-lightweight concrete
f
cds
= stress in concrete at center of gravity of pre-
stressing force due to all superimposed, perma-
nent dead loads that are applied to the member
after it has been prestressed, psi
E
c
= modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days, psi
5.7.2 Range of Values for Total Loss
Total loss of prestress in typical components will range
from about 25,000 psi to 50,000 psi for normalweight con-
crete components, and from about 30,000 psi to 55,000 psi
for sand-lightweight components.
The load tables in Chapter 3 have a lower limit on loss of
30,000 psi.
Table 5.7.1 Values of K
re
and J
Type of tendon K
re
J
Grade 270, stress-relieved
strand or wire
20,000 0.150
Grade 250, stress-relieved
strand or wire
18,500 0.140
Grade 240 or 235,
stress-relieved wire
17,600 0.130
Grade 270,
low- relaxation strand
5000 0.040
Grade 250,
low-relaxation wire
4630 0.037
Grade 240 or 235,
low-relaxation wire
4400 0.035
Grade 145 or 160,
stress-relieved bar
6000 0.050
Table 5.7.2 Values of C
f
pi
/f
pu
Stress-relieved
strand or wire
Stress-relieved bar or
low-relaxation strand
or wire
0.80 1.28
0.79 1.22
0.78 1.16
0.77 1.11
0.76 1.05
0.75 1.45 1.00
0.74 1.36 0.95
0.73 1.27 0.90
0.72 1.18 0.85
0.71 1.09 0.80
0.70 1.00 0.75
0.69 0.94 0.70
0.68 0.89 0.66
0.67 0.83 0.61
0.66 0.78 0.57
0.65 0.73 0.53
0.64 0.68 0.49
0.63 0.63 0.45
0.62 0.58 0.41
0.61 0.53 0.37
0.60 0.49 0.33
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EXAMPLE 5.7.1
Loss of Prestress
Given:
10LDT 32 + 2 as shown.
Span = C= 70 ft
No superimposed dead load except topping
RH = 75%
Section properties (untopped):
A = 615 in.
2
I = 59,720 in.
4
S
b
= 2717 in.
3
V/S = 615/364 = 1.69 in.
wt = 491 lb/ft
wt of topping = 250 lb/ft
Concrete:
Precast concrete: Sand-lightweight

= 5000 psi
E
c
= 3.0 10
6
psi

= 3500 psi
E
ci
= 2.5 10
6
psi
Topping:

= 5000 psi, normalweight


Prestressing steel:
(12)
1
/
2
-in.-diameter, 270 ksi, low-relaxation strands
A
ps
= 12(0.153) = 1.836 in.
2
E
ps
= 28.5 10
6
psi
Depressed at midspan:
e
e
= 12.81 in.
e
c
= 18.73 in.
Problem:
Determine total loss of prestress.
______________________________________________
Solution:
For depressed strand, critical section is at 0.4C. Determine moments, eccentricity, and prestress force.
M at 0.4C =
wx
2
x


w 0.4

2
0.4

0.12w
2
M
g
= 0.12(0.491)(70)
2
= 289 kip-ft
M
sd
= 0.12(0.250)(70)
2
= 147 kip-ft
e at 0.4C = 12.81 + 0.8(18.73 12.81) = 17.55 in.
Assume compensation for anchorage seating loss during prestressing.
P
o
= 0.75A
ps
f
pu
= 0.75(1.836)(270) = 371.8 kip
Determine f
cir
and f
cds
:
f
cir
= K
cir
P
o
A
g
+
P
o
e
2
I
g


M
g
e
I
g
0.9
371.8
615
+
371.8 17.55
2
59,720


289 12 17.55
59,720

= 1.251 ksi
= 1251 psi
32"
2"
10'-0"
5'-0"
2"
Section
7
3
/
4
"
4
3
/
4
"
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For stress-relieved strand:
If 0.75 ~
f
pi
f
pu
~0.70:

C 1 9
f
pi
f
pu
0.7

(Eq. 5-70)
If 0.70 >
f
pi
f
pu
0.51:
C =
f
pi
f
pu

0.19
f
pi
f
pu

0.85
0.55

(Eq. 5-71)
f
cds
=M
sd
(e)/I
g
(Eq. 5-67)
where:
M
sd
= moment due to all superimposed, permanent dead
load and sustained load applied after prestressing;
lb-in.
Losses due to shrinkage of concrete are calculated as:
SH =(8.2 10
-6
)K
sh
E
ps
(1 0.06V/S)(100 RH) (Eq. 5-68)
where:
K
sh
= 1.0 for pretensioned components
V/S = volume-to-surface ratio
RH = average ambient relative humidity (see Design
Aid 4.11.12).
Losses due to relaxation of tendons are calculated as:
RE =[K
re
J(SH + CR + ES)]C (Eq. 5-69)
where:
Values for K
re
and J are taken from Table 5.7.1.
For values of coefficient C (see Table 5.7.2 or calcu-
late using Eq. 5-70 through 5-74.)
EXAMPLE 5.7.1
Loss of Prestress (cont.)
f
cds
=
M
sd
e

I
g

147 12

17.55

59,720
= 0.518 ksi = 518 psi
ES =
K
es
E
ps
f
cir
E
ci

1 28.5 10
6

1251
2.5 10
6

= 14,261 psi
CR = K
cr
E
ps
E
c
f
cir
f
cds
1.6
28.5 10
6

3.0 10
6

1251 518 = 11,142 psi
SH = (8.2 10
6
)K
sh
E
ps
(1 0.06
V
S

)(100 RH)
= (8.2 10
6
)(1)(28.5 10
6
) [1 0.06(1.69)](100 75) = 5250 psi
RE = [K
re
J(SH + CR + ES)]C
From Table 5.7.1:
K
re
= 5000
J = 0.04
From Table 5.7.2:
f
pi
/f
pu
= 0.75
C = 1.0
RE = [5000 0.04(5250 + 11,142 + 14,261)](1) = 3774 psi
TL = ES + CR + SH + RE = 14,261 + 11,142 + 5250 + 3774 = 34,427 psi = 34.4 ksi
Final prestress force = 371.8 (34.4)(1.836) = 308.6 kip
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5.8 Camber and Deflection
Most precast, prestressed concrete flexural components
will have a net positive (upward) camber at the time of trans-
fer of prestress, caused by the eccentricity of the prestress-
ing force. This camber may increase or decrease with time,
depending on the stress distribution across the component
under sustained loads. Camber tolerances are suggested in
Chapter 13, Table 13.2.1 of this handbook.
Limitations on instantaneous deflections and time-depen-
dent cambers and deflections are specified in ACI 318-05.
Table 9.5(b) of ACI 318-05 is reprinted for reference (see
Table 5.8.1). It is important to realize that these deflections
are not measured from flat, but rather from the position of the
component prior to application of the load (and time) being
considered.
The immediate deflection for comparison with the C/360 and
C/180 limits is based on the live load, less any portion that is
considered as sustained. The gross moment of inertia is used
if the component remains uncracked under full service loads.
If the component cracks under service loads, then applicable
deflections should be based on bilinear behavior or an effec-
tive moment of inertia. Transformed section properties may be
used, but generally they provide only small improvement.
The long-term deflection for comparison with the C/480
and C/240 limits is more complex for prestressed components
than for components reinforced with mild steel. Generally,
the net deflection (up or down) at erection is calculated by
applying multipliers (1) and (2) of Table 5.8.2 to the self-
weight deflection and camber due to prestress. For topped
components, the immediate deflection caused by the topping
weight is deducted. This is the starting point for the long-
term deflection. The long-term deflection due to all sustained
loads (including prestress) is calculated using multipliers (3)
through (6) of Table 5.8.2. If there are sustained live loads,
such as equipment weights, they should be included in the
dead-load deflection calculation. The difference between
these two values is added to the live-load deflection calcu-
lated previously and compared with the relevant limits.
The following sections contain suggested methods for
computing cambers and deflections. There are many inherent
variables that affect camber and deflection, such as concrete
mixture, storage method, elapsed time since release of pre-
stress, elapsed time since placement of superimposed loads,
relative humidity, and the like. Because of this, calculated
long-term values should never be considered anything other
than estimates. Non-structural components attached to mem-
bers that could be affected by camber variations, such as parti-
tions or folding doors, should be placed with adequate allow-
ance for variation. Calculation of topping quantities should
also recognize the imprecision of camber calculations.
It should also be recognized that camber of precast, pre-
stressed concrete components is a result of the placement of
the strands needed to resist the design loads and service-load
stresses. While minor adjustments in camber may be achieved
by raising or lowering the center of gravity of the prestress-
ing strands, design for ultimate moment capacity and stresses
must obviously take precedence in the final design. It is not
If

(Eq. 5-72)
For low-relaxation strand:
If
f
pi
f
pu

0.54 :
C =
f
pi
f
pu

0.21
f
pi
f
pu

0.9
0.55

(Eq. 5-73)
If
f
pi
f
pu

0.54 :
C
f
pi
f
pu

4.25
(Eq. 5-74)
where:
f
pi
=
P
i
A
ps
f
pu
= ultimate strength of prestressing steel, psi
5.7.4 Critical Locations
Computations for stress losses due to elastic shortening
ES and creep of concrete CR are based on the compressive
stress in the concrete at the center of gravity of the prestress-
ing force.
For bonded tendons, stress losses are computed at that point
on the span where flexural tensile stresses are most critical.
In components with straight, parabolic, or approximate para-
bolic tendons, this is usually midspan. In components with
tendons deflected at midspan only, the critical point is gener-
ally near the 0.4C point of the span. Because the tendons are
bonded, only the stresses at the critical point need to be con-
sidered, unless critical sections occur within the development
length (see Section 5.2.3). Stresses or stress changes at other
points along the component do not affect the stresses or stress
losses at the critical point.
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