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Biology 3360 Vertebrate Embryology Workbook Fall 2012


1. Define the following terms and give an example of each Epiboly






Gametogenesis 1. Label the picture completely. Name the type of cell division that occurs between each set of cells. Also name the ploidy label and N number for all cells. Name the process in brackets.

2. Label the structures probed in the following sequence of illustrations. At what point will should we see polar bodies? At what point in life does the following sequence of pictures occur? (There are two answers for the last part)

Fertilization 1. Label the mature sperm and oocyte and list a function of the probed structures.

2. Describe capacitation and its importance in fertilization.

3. As the sperm penetrates the zona pellucida what primary mechanism prevents polyspermy? What events occur as a result of this primary mechanism?

Early Human Development 1. Describe the process of cleavage and compaction. In your description include the different stages as well as how the two processes alike and different.

2. Label the following diagrams of the embryo. Color the embryoblast and its resulting structures one color and the trophoblast and resulting structures another color. What weeks do the pictures correspond to?

4 1

5 2

Week of Twos Two Layers ____________________ ____________________ Two Trophoblastic Layers ____________________ ____________________ Two Yolk Sacs ____________________ ____________________ Two New Cavities ____________________ ____________________

The Week of Threes Three major events occur in the third week. Detail the events of their development: Gastrulation:

Notochordal Process:


Fourth Week

Placentation 1. Label all parts of the placenta below. Color all the fetal components one color and all of the maternal components a different color.

Comparative Embryology 1. In the space below draw a basic illustration of an embryo amphioxus, amphibian, bird and mammal during the first week and clearly label the blastocele, blastula and blastocyst cavity if present.

2. How does the amount of yolk affect early embryonic development i.e. how does being a microlecithal differ from that of a megalecithal?

Integumentary development 1. Label and color the following sequence of illustrations

2. In the adult human body the nerve that innervates the skin on the palm of your hand also innervates the fingernail. Using the knowledge you have about nail development explain this occurrence.

3. Label all the parts of tooth formation in the following sequence of illustrations.

Musculoskeletal development 1. The sclerotomal element of the somites plays a major role in the formation of the vertebral column. In the space below, using pictures and labels, accurately depict the process of resegmentation. In your description, be sure to include the relationships involving neuronal and muscular elements.


As described in lecture, some components of the hypomere develop to form muscular elements through epithelial/epibolic migrations, whereas others develop to from muscular elements through mesenchymal migrations. Explain.

3. What is the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and what is its role in development of the limbs?

4. Label the primary ossification center that is responsible for the development of each of the adult vertebral components in the picture below

5. Get in touch with your artistic side and draw a thoracic vertebra. Indicate the name and location of the secondary ossification centers.

6. Illustrate the process of endochondral bone formation of a typical long bone. Be sure to include the blastemal, chondrification and ossification stages.

7. Color the illustration below to show which bones arose from each of the three blastemal centers.

Fill in the following table and circle any bone that has a somitic component. Not all bones will have every column filled in. membranous or endochondral ossification Cartilaginous precursor (if applicable)

Bone Frontal Parietal Occipital Basi-Occipital Petrous temporal Squamous temporal Zygomatic Maxillary Nasal Vomer Palatine Sphenoid Inferior nasal conchae Ethmoid Lacrimal Mandible Malleus Incus Stapes Hyoid Laryngeal Cartilages

Blastemal Cranium

Pharynx and respiratory development 1. There are a total of five pharyngeal pouches four of which have known end structures. List each pouch and its resulting structure. Then for each structure list the germ layer that it arose from.

2. There are a total of four stages during lung development. Below list all four of them and include the time period that they occur in and what significant changes occur? What are the concerns dealing with lung development and premature birth (partuition <26 weeks gestation)?

3. You are dissecting underneath the chin working your way to the oral cavity. What branchial arches would you pass through in the correct order from superficial to deep as you dissect all the way in to the oral cavity?

Gut Tube development 1. In the following sequence of illustrations of the foregut label all probed structures. What drives the developmental rotation of these organs?

2. In some cases the pancreas can wrap completely around the entire duodenum called an annular pancreas, which can cause duodenal obstruction. At what point in development and how could this occur?

3. Explain why the ventral mesentery is present in some areas of the gut tube but not present in other regions?

4. You visit the ER because your 3 year old child has somehow managed to swallow an entire bag of his older brothers marbles! When the attending examines the radiographs she notes a rare condition, a full 270 malrotation of the mid-gut ( instead of rotating toward the liver, the midgut rotated away from the liver). Being the ambitious student you are, you count help but demonstrate your thorough knowledge of this very condition. In the space below, recount the developmental story of the mid-gut you imparted on that lucky physician. What abnormalities would you expect to be apparent on the radiograph that led to her diagnosis?

5. Label the following probed structures in the series of illustrations.

Omphalenteric tube

Postanal gut

Coelom Development 1. Label and color code the embryonic components that contribute to the diaphragm.

2. As we know from the body wall pattern the diaphragm is a part of the internal body wall. Typically we see our veins, arteries, and nerves running in between the middle and inner layers of the lateral wall. Explain then why the phrenic nerve and pericardiacophrenic veins and arteries run right through the middle of the thoracic cavity.

3. If we were to inject a radiographic medium into the chorionic cavity of an early developing embryo, where within the embryo would the medium be and what shape would it look like on a film? (Assuming the embryo cant absorb it into its tissues). Hint: think about which spaces are connected to the chorionic space.

Urogenital development 1. The urogenital sinus can be divided in to three different parts; cranial (vesical), middle (pelvic), and caudal (phallic). Below list the structures that arise from each of the different parts of the urogenital sinus.

2. Label the embryo. Below list the three kidneys that are seen in the developing embryo. Under each kidney list the adult structures that stem from that portion of the kidney, your answer should be general.

3. Label the picture of the developing kidney. Underneath the picture draw a diagrammatic illustration of a nephron and the transport tubes exiting the kidney (ureter, calyces, renal pelvis, collecting duct). On your illustration color everything that arises from the ureteric bud one color and everything from the metanephric blastema a different color.

4. In the series of pictures representing the posterior side of the urogenital sinus color the mesonephric duct one color and the ureteric bud a different color. What does the mesonephric duct become in the adult male and female?

5. Before sexual differentiation occurs, both the paramesonephric duct (mullerian) and mesonephric duct (wolffian) are present. Fill in the table below with the adult structure arising from the two tubes, if the duct degenerates list all of the vestigial structures.

Male Paramesonephric duct


Mesonephric duct

6. Below is an illustration of the developing gonads, both male and female. Label all the structures probed. Initially the gonads look identical to each other, what causes them to differentiate?

7. Describe the penis at the beginning of the 6th specifically discussing the urethra. Describe the process that takes place between the 6th and 14th week and how that results in a penis with a functional urethra.

8. The gonads start somewhere around the tenth thoracic level and will make their way down to their final positions all throughout development. Here is a diagram of this process, label all of the probes as well as the different body layers. As a result of this process what are males more susceptible of?

Cardiovascular development 1. Clearly and concisely explain the key characteristics of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis? How do these two processes differ?

2. Originally embryonic blood cells originate from within the blood islands, at the beginning of the third week the __________________ takes over as the hematopoetic organ. 3. Name the primary germ layer that contributes to the majority of the cardiovascular system?

4. In the partitioning of the atrioventricular canal the _______________ and _______________ endocardial cushions fuse to create the ___________________________.

5. Diagrammatically draw and label a series of pictures depicting the partitioning of the two atria. Under each picture describe briefly what is happening.

6. Below is a diagram of the embryonic heart before it starts to fold. Label the different components of the heart. Next two each part that you label on the embryonic heart write the structure it will give rise to in the adult heart.

7. Fill in the chart below with the vein that develops from the given precursor or vice versa depending on which one is given. note: this is not an all inclusive table

Vein(s) Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Renal veins


Vitelline veins

Common iliac veins

Cardinal veins

Azygous, Hemiazygous, Accessory Hemiazygous

8. Looking at the walls of the atrium, we find that they are extremely smooth. Explain the development of the atrium and how the walls of the atrium arise?

9. In a columnar fashion, trace a molecule of oxygen from the maternal heart to the kidneys of the embryo.

10. Answer the following series of questions. a) Name the three embryonic structures that work to shunt fetal blood.

b) What are the adult vestigial structures that remain from the fetal shunts?

c) Discuss the purpose unique to each shunt.

d) Oxygen concentrations in the fetal blood circuit vary when measured at different locations. Based on you knowledge, define where you would expect the oxygen levels to differ significantly. Explain your logic for each location.

11. There are a total of 6 aortic arches. For each arch, list the adult structure that it corresponds with.

Nervous development 1. Label each of the probed embryonic brain vesicles. Under the walls column list the adult derivatives and under the cavities column list the appropriate ventricle. For example the mesencephalon becomes the cerebral peduncles and corpora quadragemini and is the region that is spanned by the cerebral aqueduct.

2. Below is an illustration of the neural tube at the cranial end as it enlarges and develops. Label all of the probed structures.

3. Below is a diagram of the embryo and some of the nervous connections. On the right side is the sympathetic system and on the left is the parasympathetic system. Label the probed structures as if they were nerves not the individual neurons.

4. The diagram depicts a cross section through the brainstem. Label all of the nuclei and with arrows draw the path of neurons as they would travel to exit the brainstem.

5. In the illustration of the eye developing, label all of the probed structures

6. Label the sequence of pictures depicting development of the inner ear.

Additional Resources: http://www.embryology.ch/indexen.html (Lots of good information and animations) http://www.indiana.edu/~anat550/embryo_main/ (Cool animations) http://www.med.unc.edu/embryo_images/