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In this unit you will:

talk about your workplace talk about your daily programme practise grammar issues: there is/ there are; Present Simple; adverbs of frequency; prepositions write e-mails

Lets Talk!
Do you work in a company or work from home? Where do you work better? Do you have your own home office?

Working with words: 1.

Compare the following text with the picture below:

I use our living room as my home office. Every day, I sit at my desk even on weekends, to work, to search the Internet and write emails. And, during the week, several times a day, I am on the phone which is right in the middle of the desk. Well, during the work day, I often listen to music set as background noise on my old CD player. The printer in the right corner helps me a lot to get the materials for my work. Next to it, you can notice the modern monitor. In front of the printer I have many phone books. You can see lots of pictures and post cards on the notice board. Above it, I keep a large world map. A file cabinet stands beside my desk. I love plants, so you can find a red rose in a pot between the monitor and the framed family picture.

Now make sentences about this desk using some of the prepositions underlined. Begin: Theres a / an ... There are some ... There isnt a / an .... There arent any ...

e.g. There isnt a telephone in the middle of the desk.

Tip! Use there is /there are to say things exist or not. There isnt a fax here. Also, use there when you talk about something for the first time, and it for details. Theres a rose on the desk. Its red.
Over to you: Now speak about the building and the facilities of a company or a conference hotel. Use there and it, and the words below: In the company Near the company

conference room staff restaurant drinks machine modern

cafs shops busy underground station


Study the following word-map.

the employed






Now match the following words and phrases to their definition:

1. long hours / overtime 2. flexitime

3. part-time 4. commuting 5. telework 6. maternity leave 7. job-sharing 8. reduced working

a) a period of paid absence from work, for women during the months immediately before and after childbirth b) using personal computers, telephones, etc., to work from home while maintaining contact with colleagues, customers, or employers c) schedule preferred by employees for a specific period of their life, such as when their children are young d) a period of time during which a person is carefully monitored to see if he or she can be employed e) an arrangement by which employees may set their own work schedules, especially their starting and finishing hours f) working hours in addition to those of a regular programme g) travelling regularly from one place to another (as from suburb to city and back) for work purposes h) a form of employment for less than the standard programme

a form of part-time employment in which one job is filled with two or more employees Which one of these forms of employment applies to you?

hours 9. probation



Read about telework, then answer a few questions:

Telework has increased in recent years based on the rapid development of information technology: for example, in 1997 in the United States, 11.6 million employees worked from home minimum one day per month. This figure had reached 23.5 million by 2003. For employers, telework can reduce costs for office space. However, for employees, teleworking on a continuous basis can lead to isolation. On the other hand, telework eliminates travel time and costs, and permits the employees to work at convenient times. Telework can give you more control over your schedule, more time for family and community, and freedom from the interruptions of a noisy office. a) How big was the increase in the number of people working from home in the USA? b) Name one advantage and one disadvantage of telework for the employees.

1. Have a look at the organization of a company: 1. Production Production 2.Marketing Marketing 3.Finance Buying (Purchasing) Customer Account Financial Services 4.Human resources Training

Distribution Research & Development

Sales Advertising

Personnel Wages and Salaries

Now read the definitions below. Which workplace do they describe? The first one has been done for you. a) We purchase supplies. 3 b) The products come here and we deliver them to customers. c) We place advertisements in magazines.

d) We pay the staff. e) We sell the products to customers. f) We arrange courses for the staff.

g) We manufacture the products. h) We invoice customers. i) j) We recruit new employees. We deal with taxation, investment and cash.

k) We plan how to sell new products to customers.

Language focus PRESENT SIMPLE

Affirmative: Negative: S + to be + not + V-ing I /you /we /they work he /she /it works I /you /we /they do not work he /she /it does not work DO I/ you/ we/ they work? DOES he /she /it work?

Interrogative: to be + S + V-ing?

If the verb ends in -ch, -sh, -ss, -x or -o, we add es: She goes to Paris every month. If the verb ends in a consonant +-y, the third person form ends in -ies. He always studies hard for his tests. We use the Present Simple to talk about: Facts and routines I work in the PR Department. She travels abroad every year. Official timetables and schedules The train arrives at 10.45. Exams start on February 1st.


Have a look at Janes programme below. Then make sentences about her daily programme:

e.g. Jane wakes up at a quarter to seven in the morning. 6.45 AM 7.15 AM wake up have breakfast

4.30 PM go shopping 6.30 PM cook for dinner

8.30 AM 10-12.00 AM 12.30 PM 3.00 PM 4.00 PM

start work write a report have lunch meet clients finish work

8.00 PM watch my favourite serial 9.00 PM stay at the computer 10.00 PM read from a book 11.00 PM go to bed


Read the following text:

Hi everybody! Im Jane. I like habits and routines. I usually do the same things and at the same time. For example, I always drink two cups of coffee in the morning and I generally start my programme at half past eight. I am never late! I often travel to work by bus but I sometimes walk when it is a fine day. Normally, I wear jeans and T-shirts. I love opera music. I also love plants and I have a beautiful garden. I live with my parents and my brother, Jim. He is quite different from me. He never arrives on time. He prefers new clothes and fashion, and he seldom listens to opera music. We both enjoy sports. We regularly go to a fitness club on Saturdays. Over to you: Now speak about your routine, habits and things you like. Use as many adverbs of frequency as possible. Tip! Use these adverbs after the verb to be and before the other verbs. You can also use some of them at the beginning of the sentence.


Rearrange the words into the correct order. The first one has been done for you: He is usually present at conferences.

a) He usually present is at meetings. b) He a presentation gives sometimes. c) He attentively listens always. d) He writes reports occasionally. e) He is late for meetings never. f) He ever hardly a speech gives.


Fill in the gaps in the paragraph below with the following verbs (use the Present Simple). be (2x) go have meet miss speak try understand work

Marie Thierry .................. Project Manager at Oracles Head Office in Bucharest. She ................. with a team of seven people. Oracle ................. offices all over the world and Marie regularly .................. colleagues from other Oracle companies. Besides French, she .................... Spanish, a little Italian and ..................... a few words of Portuguese. Marie ................. to attend a Romanian course every week but she ................... some classes because there ................. so much work to do. In winter, she usually ..................... skiing at Poiana Braov.


Ask your partner if she:

a) speaks French. b) uses a computer. c) works for a multinational company. d) attends a language course. e) goes skiing in the winter. f) travels abroad Yes, I do. / No, I dont.

e.g. Do you speak French?

Then report to the group. (e.g. She speaks French / She doesnt speak French). Tip! Use dont or doesnt for speaking to colleagues and friends or in messages written to them.


Read the following interview. Then choose someone in the group and interview her:

Anna: Hello, Im from the local newspaper. Can I ask you some questions for an interview? Georgia: Yes, certainly! Anna: Thank you for taking the time. Heres the first question: What do you do? Georgia: I work in a library. Im a librarian. Anna: Are you married? Georgia: Yes, I am. Ann: What does your husband do? Georgia: He works as a bank clerk. Ann: What do you like most about your job? Georgia: I like my colleagues and the friendly atmosphere there. I actually enjoy going to work every morning. And, of course, I love the quiet reading rooms. It relaxes me. Ann: I imagine you read a lot. What type of books do you read? Georgia: I often read historical novels. Ann: Thank you very much for answering my questions. Georgia: Youre welcome!

For more information and exercises, go to Practice file 1 on page ...

Business Communication
Writing e-mails Almost everyone writes emails these days. Still, there are some guidelines people do not follow all the time. Match the rules to the reason why it is useful: 1. Write short sentences. 2. Keep paragraphs short. 3. Use headings, bullets and numbering. 4. Proofread the message before sending it. 5. Dont use capital letters. 6. Create a subject line with impact. a. These will guide the reader and make the message easier to understand. b. It will make someone willing to read the message. c. Readers will not miss the main ideas. d. It creates a more professional image if there are no mistakes. e. It is the equivalent of shouting. f. You dont need complex grammar or punctuation. E-mails generally have less rules and are less formal than letters. Rewrite the following extracts from business letters as e-mails. Use the expressions below: Got your message on... Hi... Bye. Could you do me a favour and ...? Sorry, but I cant make ... Speak to you soon. Please... Thanks.


If you have any questions, let me know.

Dear Susie, Thank you for your letter of September 27th. Unfortunately, I shall be unable to attend the meeting on 30th. I would appreciate it if you could send me a copy of the report. Best wishes, Mike Jordan

Further to our telephone conversation this morning. I would be grateful if you could send me a full description of the problem and I will pass it on to the people in charge. Thank you for your taking the time to do this. If I can be of any further assistance, please do contact me again. I look forward to hearing from you.

Case study / Activity

Work in groups of three or four to exchange e-mils about meeting at the English course.


talk about different types of holidays learn how to write formal letters write formal letters practise grammar issues: Present Continuous

In this unit you will:

Lets talk!
Do you like spending your holidays in foreign countries? Why (not)?

Working with words

Do you know? The word holiday is: a noun, meaning o 1. a time, often one or two weeks, when someone does not go to work or school but is free to do what they want, such as travel or relax; 2. an official day when you do not have to go to work or school.

a verb, meaning to take a holiday

The Americans use the word vacation / to vacation.


Use on holiday; on vacation to holiday + in/at

A bank holiday is an official holiday when banks and most businesses are closed for a day. A busman's holiday (no plural form) is a term humorously used to refer to a holiday where you do something similar to your usual work instead of having a rest from it. A package holiday or a package tour is a holiday at a fixed price in which the travel company arranges your travel, hotels and sometimes meals for you. The holiday season is the period when most people take their holidays, go to visit places or take part in an activity outside work. (When American speakers say the holidays or

holiday season, they mean the period of time that includes Christmas, Hanukkah, and New Years Day). (Definitions from /adapted from Cambridge Advanced Dictionary) Now use the words in italics to complete the following sentences (some words are used more than once; use the verb in the correct form of the Present Continuous): 1. St Patrick's Day is a in Ireland. 2. In Hong Kong the term is used colloquially to refer to public holidays, since banks are normally closed on these days. 3. Air fares are more expensive during the . 4. A often allows professionals to experience life from the perspective of their clients or customers. 5. She'll have four weeks' next year. 6. They bought a cheap to Malta and stayed in a big hotel by the sea. 7. Their friends in Corsica. Holidays 1. Put the words in the box under the following headings: Types of holiday Things people do on holiday Places where people stay on holiday Places people visit on holiday Beach holiday; swimming; zoos; seaside; backpacking; bed and breakfast; camping; cathedrals; coach tour; skiing; cruise; museums; sailing; activity holiday; sightseeing holiday; walking; castles; relax; tent; sunbathing; youth hostel; resort; caravan site; churches; hotel; winter holiday .

2. You are going to read three advertisements. Recommend one of the holidays to someone who: a) has a sense of adventure b) has young children c) likes wild life d) likes city life e) likes boats f) enjoys parades g) enjoys travelling by coach . . . . . .


This Week at Walt Disney World Nov 15, 2012: From a sparkling ice castle to legendary international customs to magical entertainment and musical delights, Walt Disney World Resort unwraps an enchanting celebration of the holiday season in 2012. Electrifying fireworks, charming parades and all the sounds of the season help transform the 40-square-mile resort into a winter wonderland where holiday fun begins as early as Nov. 8. Our guests can spend the holidays at Mickeys place 1 Day Base Ticket Adult (Non-discounted) Ages 10+... $ 91.35 1 Day Base Ticket Child (Non-discounted) Ages 3-9 $ 79.55 2 Day Base Ticket Adult with 14 Day Expiration (Non-discounted) Ages 10+$165.21 2 Day Base Ticket Child with 14 Day Expiration (Non-discounted) Ages 3-9 $ 150.45 Package for $1,318 3-night/4-day for a family of four in a Value Resort standard room
(adapted from http://www.officialticketcenter.com/disney-tickets.aspx)

**** South Africa **** South Africa is an amazing country, beautiful at any time of year, with its ever changing mixture of landscapes, cultures and wildlife. Sense of adventure? Taste of life? South Africa delivers on a grand scale! Come and see the white rhino and the blue wildebeest; Enjoy a sunset cruise on the Orange river; Visit the Augrabies Falls National Park; Discover ancient mountains and fossils in the Makhonjwa Mountains. For full itineraries and further information please contact: South African Tourism Ltd. PO Box 108, Johannesburg, 10021, South Africa e-mail: info.southafricantourism@africa.com tel: + 27 (0)11 895 3000
(adapted from http://www.southafrica.net)

The Big Bus Open Top Sightseeing Tour is the best way to DISCOVER LONDON Book now and save 4 on adult tickets and 2 on child tickets. (Normal adult price - 26.00, normal child price - 12.00)! Hop-on Hop-off Sightseeing Tour 48 Hour Ticket Live English Commentary Recorded Commentary in 8 Languages See All the Key Sights Over 70 Stops Free River Cruise Free Walking Tours Free Reward Voucher Book www.goldentours.com/partner/visitlondon/productdetails.
(adapted from http://www.goldentours.com)

3. Choose one of the holidays and explain why that is your choice.

4. Diana Popescu is going on holiday to South Africa. Look at the email to her friend, Ravi, and answer these questions: a. Why is Diana writing to Ravi? b. How long is Diana staying in South Africa? c. Where is she flying to? d. When is she arriving in South Africa? e. What time is she arriving? To: ravi<ravinderdura@southafrica.com> Subject: holiday Hi Ravi, Sorry for the delay in replying, but Im working very hard at the moment. Yes, Im coming to South Africa. Ive booked my flight. My friend Dora isnt coming with me because her child is in hospital. Im staying for a fortnight. Im flying to Johannesburg on August 12th and Im arriving at 9.30 am. Could you pick me up from the airport? Id love to meet you. I really want to see the Augrabies Falls and the Moon Rock. Taking any holidays in August? Maybe you can take some days off and come with me. Ill be thrilled. Hope youre well. See you soon! Diana

6. Missing out words is common in informal emails (if people know each other well and the situation is relaxed and friendly) when the meaning is clear from the context. Read Ravis answer and put the missing words back into the email. To: Diana Popescu <diana.popescu@forladies.com> Subject: Re: holiday Hi Diana, Glad you answered. Im OK and really want to see you. Ill be at the airport at 9.30 am. About holiday sounds great. Never seen the Augrabies Falls and the Moon Rock how come youre interested in them? so Id like to go there. Sounds like fun! Pity things still a bit uncertain at work. Might be possible to take a week off in August, but cant be sure. Two weeks impossible. See you soon! Ravi



Affirmative: S + to be + V-ing Diana is working very hard at the moment. Negative: S + to be + not + V-ing Diana isnt working very hard now. Interrogative: to be + S + V-ing ? Is Diana working very hard at the moment? For more information and exercises go to Practice file no. 1 on page I. Make comments on the sentences below. Use the Present tense continuous:

e.g. Tom is at his desk. (to write) Tom is writing. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Diana is in her office. (to work) Ravi is in his car. (to drive) The General Manager is with some important guests. (to talk) Dianas friend is in the park. (to jog) Ravis friends are at a table in a restaurant. (to eat) Sally is in the bathroom. (to have a bath)

II. Complete these sentences with one of the verbs in the box in the correct form of the Present Continuous. holiday, have, look, not rain, stay, work

1. I . dinner with my associates tonight, but Im free at the weekend. 2. Why everybody ..out of the window? Whats happened? 3. They can take a walk now. It any more. 4. Sorry for the delay in replying, but I very hard at the moment. 5. you with us for a week? 6. My parents in Spain this year. III. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present tense continuous wherever possible. Tip! Some verbs are not used in the Present Continuous. For more information and exercises go to Practice file no. 1 on page ... 1. Ravi (know) a good travel agent. 2. Diana . (want) to go to South Africa. 3. Why Diana (sound) tired? 4. I (have) dinner at the moment. Can I phone you back?

5. Tony . (play) football now. 6. I (think) your hair looks great! 7. I (think) of going to South Africa next year. 8. Sally (see) Tom next week. 9. I (see). Youre interested. 10. What you . (look) at? 11. It (look) as if the situation is getting worse. 12. Lemons .. (taste) sour. 13. The cook (taste) the soup to see if it is salty enough. 14. We .. (have) two houses. 15. Ravinder . (be) a travel agent. IV. Match the examples in column A with the rules in column B. A Im reading the newspaper now. We are working very hard this week. B We use the Present continuous for planned future arrangements. We use the Present continuous for actions going on at the moment of speaking. We use the Present continuous to describe temporary activities.

1. 2. 3.

a. b.

Im meeting Ms Thomson next c. week.

V. Imagine it is National Change it Day. On this day everybody is changing their daily routine. Read the examples. Then tell your partner what things you are going to do in a different way than usually. I have a cup of coffee for breakfast nearly every day, but today Im having ham and eggs. I usually wear a black blouse, but today Im wearing a red one. VI. Write your plans for today, tomorrow and next holiday. today Im studying tomorrow next holiday

Now work in groups. Ask your colleagues What are you doing today/tomorrow/ next holiday? in order to find out about their plans and arrangements for today, tomorrow and this weekend. Decide whose plans and arrangements are the most interesting. VII. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the Present simple or the Present continuous. 1. What time ........... the Johannesburg train . (leave)? 2. The Johnsons (go) on holiday in August this year. 3. Mary (not come) with us on the tour. 4. The Big Bus . (leave) at 9:15 a.m.

5. What time the plane (land)? 6. I usually (have) cereals in the morning, but this week I (drink) tea. 7. How many days a week ...you (work)? 8. Sandra always (watch) TV on Saturdays. 9. Listen, . you . (want) to meet at 3:00 p.m.? 10. Look! It (rain)! 11. You .. (not spend) any time in Brasov next weekend. 12. You see, we (stay) in Bran for a few days. 13. We . (fly) to Constanta next week. 14. Ravi (not live) in Florida near an amazing theme park. 15. When Anna and David (get) married?

Business Communication
A formal letter There are certain standards for formatting a business letter, though some variations are acceptable (for example between European and North American business letters). Here are some basic guidelines: a. Use A4 (European) or 8 X 11 inch (North American) paper or letterhead; b. Use 2.5 cm or 1 inch margins on all four sides; c. Use a simple font, such as Times New Roman or Arial; d. Use 10 to 12 point font; e. Single space within paragraphs; f. Double space between paragraphs; g. Double space between last sentence and closing (Sincerely, Best wishes); h. Leave three to fives spaces for a handwritten signature; i. j. cc: (meaning "copies to") comes after the typed name (if necessary); enc: (meaning "enclosure") comes next (if necessary);

k. Fold in three (horizontally) before placing in the envelope Block format is the most common format used in business today. With this format, nothing is centred. The sender's address, the recipient's address, the date and all new paragraphs begin at the left margin. A formal letter should include: a. A salutation e.g. Dear Sir/Madam, Dear Madam, Dear Sir, Dear Mr Thomson, Dear Ms Popescu, Dear Jon Hanson:, Dear Editor-in-Chief. b. First paragraph

In most types of business letters it is common to use a friendly greeting in the first sentence of the letter. Here are some examples:

I hope you are enjoying a fine summer. Thank you for your kind letter of January 5th. I came across an ad for your company in The Star today. It was a pleasure meeting you at the conference this month. I appreciate your patience in waiting for a response.

After your short opening, state the main point of your letter in one or two sentences:

I'm writing to enquire about ... I'm interested in the job opening posted on your company website. c. Second and third paragraphs

Use a few short paragraphs to go into greater detail about your main point. If you are including sensitive material, such as rejecting an offer or informing an employee of a layoff period, embed this sentence in the second paragraph rather than opening with it. Here are some common ways to express unpleasant facts:

We regret to inform you ... It is with great sadness that we ... After careful consideration we have decided ... d. Final paragraph

Your last paragraph should include requests, reminders, and notes on enclosures. If necessary, your contact information should also be in this paragraph. Here are some common phrases used when closing a business letter:

I look forward to... Please respond at your earliest convenience. I should also remind you that the next board meeting is on February 5th. For further details... If you require more information ... Thank you for taking this into consideration. I appreciate any feedback you may have. Enclosed you will find... Feel free to contact me by phone or email. e. Closing

Here are some common ways to close a letter:

Yours sincerely,

Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Yours truly, Thank you, Best wishes, Best of luck All the best, Warm regards,

Case studies/Activities:
1. Read the letter below and answer the following questions:

Who wrote the letter? Who will read it? What is the purpose of this letter? Is the format and language of the letter appropriate for this?

7 Tower Street 500260 - Brasov Romania 4 July 2012 South African Tourism Ltd. PO Box 108, Johannesburg, 10021 South Africa Dear Sir/Madam, I read your leaflet about South Africa and I would like to ask for more information. I am interested in spending two weeks in your beautiful country in August and I would like to see the Augrabies Falls. Could you tell me if you organise trips to the Augrabies Falls National Park? I would be grateful if you could send details of your programmes including times and prices. I look forward to hearing from you in the near future. Yours faithfully, Diana Popescu Diana Popescu 2. In this letter, the paragraphs are jumbled. With your partner, decide on the right order.

a. I look forward to hearing from you. b. Dear Sir/Madam, c. I would be grateful if you could send details of your programmes including times and prices. d. I am writing to enquire about your entertainment programmes at Poiana Brasov resort. We are a small package tour operator and we would be interested in the possibility of including your entertainment programme as part of our package holiday. e. Best regards, Anna Monday Business Manager All Year round Ltd. 3. Replying to an enquiry. Complete the sentences below using words from the box. However, booked, centre, enquiry, from, hesitate, per, reserve, single, to, Unfortunately a) , I have contacted our sister hotel, which is in the of the city, and they have rooms available. The room rate is $1,200 night. b) Thank you for your about the availability of a single room for six nights Monday, 3 December 2012 Sunday, 9 December 2012. c) If you would like me to a room during the period you requested, please do not to contact me. d) , we are fully during this period. Now put the sentences in the correct order to have a letter replying to an enquiry.

Dear Ms Popescu Re: Reservation

Regards M. Conned M. Conned (Ms) Accommodation Booking Officer 4. Write a letter to a hotel abroad to enquire about accommodation. Say where you found their name, mention rooms and dates and any specific requirements.

5. Prepare and give a short talk on one of these themes: Holidays can damage your health. The trip of a lifetime The best holiday


In this unit you will:
learn how to talk on the phone learn how to make arrangements talk about predictions write memos practise grammar issues: Ways of expressing futurity

Lets talk!
Do you like using the phone? Is intonation important on the telephone? Why? How often do you use your mobile phone during a working day? Could you live without your mobile phone?

A business call Read the dialogue below between a companys receptionist and a caller and answer these questions about it: a. Does the receptionist answer the phone professionally? b. Does the caller identify himself? c. Does the receptionist make any excuses? d. Does the receptionist ask for information? e. Is the conversation appropriate?

Receptionist: Yes, please! Caller: I want to speak with your boss.

Receptionist: Hes not here. Want to speak to secretary? Caller: No. Tell him to phone me back. Im Cezar Ionescu.

Receptionist: Just a second Repeat, please. Caller: Cezar Ionescu.


Receptionist: Whats your phone number? Caller: Its 0723 145 966.

Receptionist: OK. Ill tell him. Caller: Bye.

Receptionist: Bye. 1. How can you improve the conversation above? Study the Useful language below and role play the improved telephone call.

Useful language:
Answering the phone Im sorry, hes out of the office at the moment / Good morning, thanks for calling the XYZ all day. Hotel. My name is AB, how may I help you? Im sorry but hes tied up all morning. Good morning, XYZ Hotel. How can I help Asking for information you? Could I have your name? Good afternoon, XYZ Hotel. Can I take your number? Hello, AB speaking. Identifying yourself This is AB. My names AB. Im AB. Making contact Id like to speak to AB, extension 123, please. Id like to speak to AB. Could I have the X department, please? Making excuses Im sorry, hes in a meeting. Checking Im sorry, I didnt catch your name. Could you spell it for me, please? Could you spell that? Can I read that back to you? Messages Would you like to leave a message? Can I take a message? Can I leave a message? Promising action Ill make sure he gets the/your message.

Im afraid Mr AB is not available at the Ill tell her when she gets back. moment. Ending a call Im afraid Mr AB is engaged right now. Thanks for your help. Goodbye. Goodbye. Thanks for calling. 2. Mary Thompson, Sales Director at The Best in New York, makes a call to Diana Popescu, a fashion buyer in Bucharest. Read the dialogues and note the purpose of the calls. Receptionist: Good afternoon, For Ladies Ltd. How may I help you? Thompson: Good afternoon. Im Mary Thompson. Id like to speak to Diana Popescu, extension 123, please.

Receptionist: Hold the line, please. Ill see if shes in. Hello, Im afraid shes engaged at the moment. Will you hold or can I take a message? Thompson: Ill leave a message please. Ill be in Bucharest next week and Id like to meet her and tell her about our new collection. Ill call her again this afternoon. Is that OK? Receptionist: Right. Ill make sure she gets the message. Thompson: Thanks for your help. Goodbye.

Receptionist: Youre welcome. Goodbye. (2 hours later) Receptionist: Good afternoon, For Ladies Ltd. Thompson: Good afternoon. Im Mary Thompson. Could you put me through to extension 123, please? Receptionist: Certainly. Im putting you through. Popescu: Thompson: Popescu: Hello. This is Diana Popescu. Hello, Diana. Its Mary Thompson here. Hi, Mary, how are you?

Thompson: Fine, thanks. Im planning a trip to Bucharest and I would like to make an appointment to see you. Popescu: Thats great. When will you be arriving in Bucharest?

Thompson: Ill be arriving in Bucharest on Tarom flight TA987 at 10:45 a.m. on Monday, 23 January 2012. I will be staying at the Happy Hotel. Could we meet on Monday at 3:30 p.m.? Popescu: Let me check. No sorry, I cant make it then. My diarys rather full that day. Could we fix another time? Thompson: Popescu: Thompson: Popescu: Thompson: talk about. Popescu: problems. Thompson: Popescu: Thompson: Thats OK Lets see What about Wednesday? Great. Im fairly free that day. What time? In the morning. 10.30. Is that OK? Yes. Thatd be no problem at all. So, January 25th, Wednesday, 10.30 a.m. Perfect. Thank you very much. Itll be great to see you again. Well have plenty to Thats for sure. See you next week then. Give me a call if you have any Right, Ill do that. Give my regards to your partner, Mr Ionescu. OK. Ill tell him you called. Goodbye. Goodbye.

3. Read the dialogues again. a. What expressions does MS Thomson use to make arrangements? b. What expressions does Ms Popescu use in order to change arrangements?

4. Study the Useful language below. Then do the exercises that follow it.

Useful language:
Suggesting/Making arrangements Are you free on Monday? Could we meet on Friday at 9:30? Would Friday at 10:30 suit you? Changing arrangements Im afraid I cant come on Monday. Could we fix another time? Weve got an appointment on Monday, but Im afraid somethings come up. Could we fix another day? Im afraid Im busy on Monday afternoon. What about Tuesday? Unfortunately, I wont be able to make our meeting. Responding Thatll be fine. Thats OK. No sorry, I cant make it then. My diarys rather full that day. Im out of the office until lunchtime, but any time after that would be fine. Sorry, Ive already got an appointment at that time.

What about January 27th?

How about next Monday? (informal) When would suit you? Is 10:30 convenient (for you)? (formal)

5. Complete the sentences below using words from the box. How, about, call, calling, do, fairly, make, p.m., ring, see, seeing, suit, time

1. Is this a good time to.? 2. Im fine. Im because Ill be in Bucharest next week and Id like to see you. I want to tell you about our new services. 3. How next Tuesday afternoon? What time on Tuesday can you it? 4. Great. When would .. you? Im free next week, I think. 5. Let me .., Im out of the office until lunchtime, but any .after that would be fine. 6. Right, Ill that. 7. OK, Ill see you at 2.00 . 8. Right, I look forward to you here in Bucharest next Tuesday. Give me a ..if you have any problems. 9. Yes, it is. are you? Now put the sentences in the correct order to make a dialogue arranging an appointment. 6. Role play this telephone situation. Student A: you are a company employee who wants to arrange a meeting with a colleague (student B) from one of your subsidiaries. Try to find a time and place to meet. Its difficult

because youre both very busy. You are free on Monday morning, Thursday afternoon and Friday morning. Eventually you succeed in arranging the meeting. Student B: you work in a companys subsidiary. One of your colleagues from the parent company calls you to make an arrangement. You are free on Tuesday afternoon, Wednesday and Friday morning. Explain why you cannot meet him/her when he/she suggests (give a reason). Suggest an alternative time. Finish the call by confirming the plans. 7. You can use the following phrasal verbs before making a call: look sth. up, pick up; at the beginning of a call: get through, put sb. through; during a call: hold on, speak up; for ending a call: hang up; and after a call: call sb. back, get back to, but do you know what they mean? Choose their correct meaning from the following expressions: answer, connect, contact again later, find, to succeed in talking to someone on the telephone, talk louder, telephone again, wait, to end a telephone conversation. 8. Complete these sentences with the phrasal verbs from exercise 8. 1. I tried to phone her but couldn't . 2. Let me speak to Beth before you .. 3. I'm a bit busy - can I . you .. later? 4. If you don't know his telephone number, .. it . in the directory. 5. I tried his home number but he didn't .. 6. Could you .. me . to the managers office, please? 7. I'll . to you later with those figures. 8. Could you ? I can't hear you very well. 9. , I'll check in my diary.

10. Diana Popescu e-mails Mary Thompson because she has to change the date of the meeting. She knows that this will be inconvenient for Mary, so she uses diplomatic language. Read the e-mail and find the polite phrases that Diana uses. From: Diana Popescu <diana.popescu@forladies.com> Mary Thompson <m.thompson@collection.com> 23 January Proposed meeting

To: Date: Re:

Dear Mary, Unfortunately, I wont be able to make our meeting. Im really sorry but I have to go to our factory at Urziceni. We had a fire there last night which put one of our machines out of action. Sorry for the short notice, but could I suggest we meet on the 27th, the same hour? Would this suit you? I have arranged to have lunch at a local restaurant after the meeting. I hope you will accept this. Its the least I can do. Once again, my apologies for changing the date.


Best wishes, Diana


Present Continuous Present Simple (To Be) Going To Future Simple / will Future Continuous Future Perfect Simple Im seeing Mary tomorrow. Her plane gets to Henri Coand at 10:45. Were going to discuss the new discounts. She thinks more tourists will visit Romania this year. Mary will be staying at the Happy Hotel. Hell have arranged her hotel accommodation by then. For more information go to Practice file no. 3 on page ...

Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal tense indicated in italics: 1. Tom . to the seaside next week. (to go Future Simple) 2. you .. come to our Head Office tomorrow? ( to come Future Simple) 3. What David . ? (to sell Going to) 4. The term on January 22nd. (to end Present Simple) 5. We .. back from our holiday on September 10 th. (to come Present Continuous) 6. Research says more people special activity holidays in future. (to book Going to) 7. .. Mr Thomson . at 10:00 a.m. tomorrow, too? ( to lecture Future Continuous) 8. Diana . at the end of the year. ( to retire Future Continuous) 9. At the end of the year we our initial investment. (to recover Future Perfect Simple) 10. I dont know if I can finish the job by Thursday but I .. my best. ( to do Future Simple) 11. I the Chief Executive on Tuesday. (to see Present Continuous) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Tip! The future is never used in temporal and conditional clauses!

1. While Tom (go) to the post office, Ben .. ( take) the car in for inspection. 2. Tom (go) swimming when he (have) enough time. 3. We (have) breakfast as soon as we (reach) the restaurant. 4. If Debbie . (miss) the bus, she (be) late for the conference. 5. The guests(find out) (arrive) at the destination.







6. I (not leave) the room until you ..(come back). 7. If my parents ..(not arrive) before noon, they .. (not find) available rooms. 8. If my telephone. (not be) out of order as usual, I(call) you when we ............ (leave) home. 9. They(get) the message sooner if you (send) it by e-mail. 10. In case it . (rain) tomorrow, I (stay) at home. Match the examples in column A with the rules in column B. A Ill phone you on Monday. We think the new hotel will be very popular. Im meeting Ms Thomson next week. Look at those clouds its going to rain. During your visit youll be staying at the Happy Hotel and meeting the commercial attach. Our next planning meeting is on Monday. By this time next year well have completed the reorganisation. B We use Present Continuous for talking about plans or arrangements We use Going to for predictions with evidence in the present. We use Future Simple (will/wont) for decisions made at the time of speaking. We use Future Simple (will/wont) for predictions with or without present evidence. For a future event based on an official calendar or schedule we use Present Simple. For plans which we expect to be completed before a deadline we use Future Perfect. Future Continuous is used to talk about arrangements.

1. 2. 3. 4.

a. b. c. d.







Write predictions about Romania. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1. New hotels .. (be) built to accommodate the increasing number of visitors. 2. Im sure the tourists .. (enjoy) their visit to the Village Museum. 3. I expect the President .. (want) to stay in the best hotel. 4. I think the metro .. (replace) the old trams in Bucharest. 5. Constana . probably .. (keep) its mix of European and Asian cultures. 6. There is a lot of traffic. It (be) faster to take the metro. 7. People from Braov probably (not want) an airport. 8. Research says Constana, Timioara and Braov .................................( benefit) most from a tourism boom. 9. They say the region (attract) more than 100 million foreign tourists by 2020.


Business Communication
Memo A memo (short form of memorandum) is a form of note or message between colleagues in a business context. It may contain information on a particular subject or the fast answer to a specific question or a question itself. Memos are flexible, informal, and brief they should include only relevant information. The purpose of a memo is to solve problems: by informing the reader about price increases, policy changes etc. by telling the reader to take an action to attend a meeting, to use less paper, to change a procedure etc. Memos have short sentences and simple grammar structure. It generally has: a heading the context the purpose the specific information or task A memo should include the following headings: To: From: Date: Subject: The tone of a memo may be formal, informal or neutral, the degree of formality depending on the relationship between the writer and the recipient, and the subject matter. A memo can be unsigned or can have a name or initial at the end. A lot of abbreviations, symbols and shortened words are used in memos, in business correspondence in general. Here are a few examples:


& = and # = number (American English) a/c = account current asap = as son as possible ATTN = for the attention of CEO = Chief Executive Officer (American English) ext. = extension hr = hour no. = number lab = laboratory MD = managing director (British English) NB = please note (Latin: nota bene) pc. = piece

Case studies/Activities
Read the following memo and answer the following questions: a. Who wrote the memo? b. Who will read the memo? c. What is the memo about? d. Are the points arranged in logical order? e. Do the readers know what they have to do? To: From: Date: Subject: All department heads Diana Popescu, General Manager 19 January Meeting on 27 January

Please note that Mary Thomson, Sales Director at The Best in New York, will be visiting our company on Friday, 27 January. There will be a meeting on that day at 11.30 in the Main room, which you should all attend. Ms Thomson will be presenting their new collection. If you want to join us for lunch at a local restaurant, please let me know as soon as possible. DP

Complete the sentences below using words from the box.

Enjoy, desk, hard, opportunity, report, sooner, up-to-date

a. Could you leave them on my by 28 November at the latest, but if possible? b. In order to compile the annual departmental for the sales conference, I need sales figures for your section. c. your free day (on 1 December). d. Id also like to take this of ...work over the past year. thanking you for all your

Now put the sentences in the correct order to write a memo. Dont forget to start with the headings! Read the memo that Diana Popescu, General Manager of For Ladies, writes to Maria Doves, For Ladies Brand Manager. Then, using the notes she has made, write the memo that Maria Doves sends in reply. For Ladies Memo To: From: Date: Maria Doves Diana Popescu 25 October

Subject: Winter collection I have several letters of complaint from customers concerning some of the items belonging to our new winter collection. It seems that they cannot find the jumpers, for example, when they look for them on the supermarket shelves. Please look into the matter and let me have your thoughts as soon as possible. DP

Notes for reply: Available in all supermarkets, but put on the bottom shelves! Supermarkets have their own brands and they make more money from them. Letter of complaint wont be effective. Lets offer managers cash to display our products properly.


In this unit you will:
talk about means of transport learn phrases about travel and transportation learn to book a room in a hotel and check in at the airport practise grammar issues: Past Tense Simple, Past Tense Continuous

Lets talk!
Do you travel a lot? What is your favourite way of travelling? Why? Do you prefer to use public transport or your car? Why? Describe the transport system in your city: kind of transport available, the most popular means of transport. Describe a long distance journey you have been on. Say: where you went, kind of transport you used.

Working with words

Means of transport 1. Look at the means of transport below and state all the verbs of motion can be used with each of them:












boat Tips!



To indicate the means of transport we use: By + form of transport. Exceptions: on foot, on horseback. Some verbs followed directly by forms of transport: to catch, to take, to ride. Verbs that mean to go by a certain form of transport: to drive, to fly, to walk.

2. Which of the means of transport above belong to public transport and which are private means of transport? 3. Which of the words and phrases in the box are used with bus and which with train? get on, change, station, by, driver, stop, catch, get off, double-decker

4. Look at the pictures below and state what people do when they see them:

bus stop

traffic light


zebra/pedestrian crossing

Useful language:
Making enquires about trains Making enquires about flying Buying tickets Is there a flight to , please? Is it a direct flight, or do I have to change planes? What terminal does it leave from? Is there an airport bus? Can I have a window/aisle seat?

What's the best way to get to the railways station? When is the next train for..., please? - I'd like a ticket Is it an express train, or do I to ..., please. have to change trains? - Single or return? Is there an inter-city to? - Return. How much is the What platform does it leave

from? fare for the first/ second/business What time does it depart? class? What time does it arrive in...? How long is the journey/train ride? How often do the trains come at night? Is there a dining car?

What time do I have to check in? What time does it take off? What time does it land? How long is the flight? Id like the cheapest flight you have.

ID LIKE TO BOOK A ROOM PLEASE Receptionist: Good afternoon, The Marigold Hotel. May I help you? Mr. Clifford: Yes. Id like to book a room, please. Receptionist: Certainly. When for, sir? Mr. Clifford: February the 1st. Receptionist: How long will you be staying? Mr. Clifford: Two nights. Receptionist: What kind of room would you like, sir? Mr. Clifford: Id like a single with bath. Id appreciate it if you could give me a room with a view over a quiet place. Receptionist: Certainly, sir. Ill just check what we have available. Yes, we have a room on the first floor with a nice view. Mr. Clifford: Fine. How much is the charge per night? Receptionist: Would you like breakfast? Mr. Clifford: Yes. Receptionist: Its forty-five euro per night. Mr. Clifford: Thats fine. Receptionist: Whos the booking for, please, sir? Mr. Clifford: Mr. Clifford. Receptionist: Al right, sir. Let me make sure I understood correctly: Mr. Clifford, single room with bath for February the 1st and 2nd. Is that correct? Mr. Clifford: Yes it is. Thank you and goodbye.

CHECKING IN AT THE AIRPORT Clerk: Good Morning. Mr. Clifford: Is this the right desk? My flight is BA 07. Clerk: Yes, that's right. I need your passport and your ticket, please.

Mr. Clifford: Here you are. Clerk: Thank you. Do you have any luggage to check in Mr. Smith? Mr. Clifford: Yes, these two suitcases. Clerk: Could you put them on the conveyor belt, please. Mr. Clifford: Sure. I don't think they are over. Clerk: No. That's fine. Would you like a window or an aisle seat? Mr. Clifford: A window seat, please. Clerk: ... Here are your luggage tags and your boarding card. Your seat is 36B. Mr. Clifford: Thank you. What is the boarding time? Clerk: The plane is boarding in 30 minutes. You leave from Gate 15. Have a good flight. Customs officer: What was the purpose of your coming to England, sir? Mr. Clifford: Business. Customs officer: Have you any prohibited items in your luggage, if you please? Mr. Clifford: No, No prohibited items. You may check. Heres my only suitcase. I have got only some personal effects, some cigarettes, two bottles of genuine Scotch whisky and a few presents or my relatives. Just trifles, as you can see. Customs officer: These are all duty free if they are in small quantities and you dont have to pay any duty for them. Thank you, sir. Have a good day.

5. Match the words on the left to their definitions on the right: direct check in time seats flight economy class business class Travel agency 1) better but more expensive travel condition 2) spaces for passengers to sit 3) company that arranges travel 4) non-stop 5) confirm or make sure 6) early or not late 7) cheap and usually less comfortable passenger seats 8) aircraft making a journey

6. Fill in with: reservation, airline, luggage, return ticket, visa, passport, weather, travel agent, arrival: a) What should people know when they call their b) You have to know the exact time of departure and c) Make a hotel d) You should also know the to plan a vacation. .

with your travel agent before you depart. you will be flying with.

e) Dont take too much f)

when you travel. ticket.

If you plan to come back ask your travel agent for a is usually in the passport.

g) The h) Obtain a i)

and visa if you plan to travel to other countries. is going to be, so you can take proper clothes.

You have to know what the

7. Fill in with the correct words: a) you a room for one night? madam? . , please. We it And it a bath or a shower? a TV? have TVs. a single .

b) Do you have a c) No, I d) Just a e) f)

g) Yes madam, all the h) i) j) k)

I have my key, please? Of course, madam, here Can you .

me tomorrow at 6, please? write down the train station address for me.

Language focus PAST TENSE SIMPLE

We use Past Tense Simple to talk about actions completed in the past that are not related to the present associated with a certain past moment expressed by: yesterday, last night/ week/ month/ year, a few minutes ago, once upon a time, the other day , or with periods of time now terminated: in childhood, in youth, in 1999. Past Tense Simple is also used: with: today, this week, this month, this year if the period of time defined by these is terminated: He gave two interviews this week. We all worked very much today. in conditional sentences, type 2: If I had money I should travel abroad. If I were in your place, I wouldnt say that. 1. Rewrite the following sentences in the past tense simple:

Tip! Past Tense Simple of regular verbs is formed by adding - ed to the infinitive. Verbs ending in e add only -d. Irregular verbs vary in their simple past forms. For more information go to Practice file no. 4 on page ... a) go to the shops by car.

b) I drive my car to work. c) I walk home when the weather is fine. d) She goes to school by bus every day. e) He takes a taxi when he is in a hurry. f) My friends fly to Cluj once a month.

2. Make sentences in the past tense simple interrogative with the following words and ask your partner to answer in the negative:

Tip! Use did for interrogative and did not (didnt) for negative. For more information go to Practice file no. 4 on page ... a) ever / ride a bicycle? b) ever / fly a plane? c) get home / on foot / yesterday? d) how many times / travel by train / last year? e) sail / every summer?


Affirmative: S + to be + V-ing Negative: S + to be + not + V-ing I, he, she, it WAS WRITING You, we, you, they WERE WRITING I, he, she, it WAS NOT WRITING You, we, you, they WERE NOT WRITING WAS I, he, she, it WRITING? WERE you, we, you, they WRITING?

Interrogative: to be + S + V-ing?

We use Past Tense Continuous to express an ongoing action at some point in the past indicated by: at ...oclock, at that time, this time yesterday,/ last week,/ last month, etc.

This time last week we were travelling abroad. Paste Tense Continuous is also used to express parallel past actions: He was talking to his wife while she was cooking. 3. Put the verbs into the correct tense (Simple or Continuous Past): 1. At about 4 a.m. I moon 2. When we 3. The old man 4. The electric power 5. While he (awake and see) that it (shine) in the sky. (be) still night and the stars and the

(hear) the noise we

(wake up) and

(jump) out of bed. (ring).

(doze) in the corner of the room, when the doorbell (go off), while they (burst).

(enter) the concert hall.

(drive) the van, a tyre

6. While the driver (change) the flat tyre a man and (ask) the way to the police station.

(appear) from nowhere

7. The fire (burn) brightly in the fireplace and a pleasant smell of cooked food (float) in the air when the hikers (reach) the remote chalet. 8. The employees (go) on strike on Monday. (wear) placards

9. When the employer (look) out of the window the strikers and (shout) angrily. 10. They day.

(wait) for the negotiations that were to take place during the latter part of the

4. Make sentences of your own using the means of transport with the three verb forms (present, past tense, present participle) in the table below: Travel verbs car bus plane

drive/drove/driving take/took/taking fly/flew/flying





5. Read the following test and solve the task:

New York City Cab Driver Marty drives a cab in New York City. He works six days a week from 5:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. He doesnt always get to eat when hes hungry or go to the restroom when he needs to go. Driving a cab is difficult. Traffic in the city is often slow and there are many accidents and construction sites drivers have to go around. Driving a cab is also dangerous. When it rains or snows the roads are slippery. Sometimes criminals steal the cab drivers money. Most of Martys passengers are nice. They tip him twenty percent of the cab fare. Marty likes his job, but lately hes been feeling tired from working twelve hour shifts. Many of his passengers are tourists, and they like to talk a lot. Unfortunately, Marty is seldom in the mood to talk anymore. Its hard to be friendly every day.

True or False 1. ________ Marty is a bus driver in New York City. 2. ________ The traffic in New York City is often slow. 3. ________ Rain and snow make driving a cab safe and easy. 4. ________ Most passengers tip Marty twelve percent of the cab fare. 5. ________ In the picture, Marty is wearing a cap.

Business Communication

Communicating with people in a business like manner requires a more formal style than when writing to friends and family (informal style). Business letters usually avoid spoken language, and impose the use of full forms instead of short ones so, we shall have to write I am addressing to you instead of Im addressing to you. A business letter has the following parts: LETTERHEAD refers to a company's logo, address, phone number, e-mail address TIP! If you are not using letterhead, include the sender's address at the top of the letter DATE may be written: 12th December, 2010; 12 December, 2010; December 12th, 2010; December 12, 2010. TIP! do not use figures as they may be understood differently in USA (month, day) and England (day, month). INSIDE ADDRESS refers to the recipients name, title, the companys name, address SALUTATION: Dear Ms./Mrs./Mr. + last Name: BODY OF THE LETTER Paragraph 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paragraph 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE: Sincerely, Sincerely yours, Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully, Respectfully yours, Best regards, Thank you. TIP! Avoid the inappropriate informal: Cordially yours, I remain yours sincerely, With love, Your loving, All my love, Yours affectionately. SIGNATURE Your Name (Printed) Your Title ENCLOSURES: included if the letter contains other documents than the letter itself

1. Read the letter below, state the subject and write a reply to the future guest on behalf of Mr. Davis.

All For One Ltd. 34, Liberty Street

Timioara, Romania Telephone/Fax: 02467563895 December 1, 2010 Marigold Hotel 12, Riverdale Street London, DG. 1245 Dear Mr. Davis, I am writing to confirm a three nights reservation we made by mail for two of our employers at your hotel. We reserved two single rooms with bathroom and a park view. The date of the arrival will be Monday - December 10, 2010 around 1 a.m. the departure day will be Thursday 12 before noon. We would also like to confirm that the following amenities are included in the cost of the stay: breakfast, safe at Reception, free internet access and cable TV, air conditioning, indoor swimming pool. I understand that the total cost will be 745 euros and it is to be paid on departure. We look forward to arriving at your hotel. Please, could you Sir/Madam, confirm this reservation in writing using the above address? Dear Thank you for your time. Kind regards, . Martin Dan Im writing to
This is with reference to the we had opted for through your about the accommodation in the hotel I booked through you on 12 March. It hardly our expectations.

Martin Dan If I had known about the divergences between Sales Manager


and the real state of the accommodation, I would have definitely searched for another . What I expected was a luxury apartment. Not only was the room , missing but thewords toiletinwas broken and travel unusable, beds a) In the letter below fill in the italic: filthy, met, agency, adequate uncomfortable, and the environment noisy. We had to use in action,adjoining can imagine, company, the offer, facilities: rooms so you complain, holiday, the inconvenience and our feeling of discomfort. b) State what the cause of thethat complaint in the letter above is. I feel bound to tell you unless is taken, I shall have this letter published in a local newspaper.

c) In case you had a similar experience, tell your colleagues about it.
I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, Samantha Bird

In this unit you will:
talk about business lunch talk about food practice grammar issues: countable and uncountable nouns; some, any, no and their compounds; much, many, a lot (of) write letters of complaint and letters of apology

Lets Talk!
Be prepared to discuss with foreign visitors such questions over a business lunch: Are there any local or special dishes? How many courses are there?

Working with words:

1. Have a look at the following menu and try to identify the main course, the side salad, the starter, the dessert: DARTFORD HOTEL & RESTAURANT Soup of the Day Galia Melon Chilled and served on crushed ice with a blackcurrant sorbet Savoury Pancakes With spinach and blue cheese Avocado Pear On a nest of lettuce leaves, garnished with prawns ~ Fillet of Salmon Dusted with oatmeal and served with a mayonnaise sauce Lamb Cutlets Grilled and served with mustard and tomatoes Beef Wellington Scottish beef with mushroom pure in a crisp pastry case Breast of Chicken Stir-fried and served with bean shoots and ginger

~ British and Continental Cheeses Coffee with Hand-Made Chocolates Which of these dishes are: spicy, sweet, salty, healthy, creamy, juicy? 2. In the menu, find words belonging to the groups below. Then add one more for each category: vegetables fruit meat fish & seafood herbs & spices cereals dairy

You are going to read a dialogue between two people discussing what to eat at a business lunch at Dartford Restaurant. Complete the dialogue with information from the menu above: A: Are we having a starter as well or just a main course? B: Its up to you. I think I can manage a starter though. A: I might have the then. are a type of shellfish, arent they? B: Thats right. A: What about ? B: Theyre like crpes. And is a dark green leafy vegetable. Have you ever tried ? A: I dont think so. What is it? B: Its a traditional English blue cheese. A: Sounds nice. I think Ill have that instead? What are you having? B: Ill find out what the of the day is, then Ill have . I like sorbet If you want something thats very English, you could try the A: Wheres that?

B: Down in the main courses. A: Ah, yes. Scottish beef. Could you explain the word B: Yes, its a kind of flat fish. And its covered with thats flour made from oats. A: OK. I think Ill have the anyway. B: Well, Im going to have the A: Stir-fried with and . It sounds Chinese. B: Yes, I like Chinese food. Over to you: Work in pairs. Imagine that you are planning to invite some clients to the companys barbecue. Make a list of the things that you will need. Then, prepare a conversation about the thing you already have and the things that you need to buy, using the dialogue above to help you. Act out your dialogue for the class.

Language focus

Countable words: All the words that can be counted: an apple, two apples; one bottle, two bottles. Uncountable words: The words related to food and the word food itself are uncountable, which means they are not normally used with a/an, the or the plural. e.g. She bought some rice. (not She bought a rice./ The rice is healthy./ She bought rices.) Other uncountable words: materials: cotton, silk, wood, plastic

travel: luggage (baggage - Am. En.), travel, accommodation, weather, money every-day things: paper, glass, soap, toothpaste, washing powder, furniture abstract words: news, information, work, advice, knowledge, research, beauty Tip! Dont say: I have an advice for you. The informations are old. She makes many moneys. If you really have to count such words use: a piece of, a bit of, an item of, a lot of/ lots of. e.g. I have a piece of advice for you. These bits of information are old. She makes a lot of money. 1. Put the following words into the two columns: job advice chair travel money sugar trip bag coin tip work furniture food luggage Countable job Uncountable

2. Fill in the gaps with a/an or some where necessary: 1. Youll need ... pasta if you want to make an Italian meal. 2. Mike has been promoted? Thats ... interesting news! 3. I have to buy .... new camera for my holiday. 4. Im so sorry! I cant join you, I have ... homework to do. 5. Excuse me, I need ... information: is there any bus stop nearby? 6. I need ... advice: what shall I buy for Dans birthday? 7. Dont forget to bring some coloured pencils and ... rubber.

8. If you have ... heavy luggage, take a taxi!

Countable and uncountable words with different meanings: We use uncountable nouns when we are thinking of material or stuff; we use countable words when we are thinking of specific things. e.g. Glass is transparent. but Bring me a glass of water, please. We had fish for lunch. but We bought three fishes at the market. I have a lot of work to do. but The British Museum has famous works of arts. She bought some cloth for a dress. but I need a cloth to wipe the table. Similar pairs: drink / a drink; coffee a (cup of) coffee; paper a paper [newspaper or document]; salt and pepper a pepper [vegetable]; room [space] a room etc. 3. Fill in the gaps with the singular or the plural form of the noun in brackets: 1. Anna adores ......................... . (chocolate) 2. She received a large box of ......................... . (chocolate) 3. Sir, can you show me your ......................... . (paper) 4. Ive run out of ......................... , can you lend me some? (paper) 5. The .......................... officer examined their luggage attentively. (custom) 6. The ................................ of offering flowers is universal. (custom)


We use some and any to talk about quantity, but in an imprecise way. They may appear in front of : countable nouns in the plural Would you have some french fries? uncountable nouns Could I have some more coffee?

Tip! These questions are in fact polite offers or requests for something which is available.

Some, any, no are used like pronouns and adjectives: e.g. Some say that the Internet will change our lives from now on. Id like some bread. Is there any left? No, there isnt (any). And we have no tomatoes, either. Tip! In English there is no double negation. Dont say: I cant do nothing about it. Say: I can do nothing about it or I cant do anything about it.

4. Fill in the gaps with some or any: 1. Give me ....... cold milk to drink, said Mary. 2. Isnt there ... phone in the house? 3. May I give you .... cake? 4. ..... people are very interesting; others are very boring.

5. Youll have to do it ... way. 6. You may choose ... CD you like. 7. She has ... good reasons to talk like that.

5. Express the same idea in two ways: 1. The sauce doesnt have any salt. ... The sauce has no salt. ... 2. She doesnt have any good friends. She ........................ 3. They have no time for movies right now. ........................ 4. He doesnt like any TV programmes. ................................ 5. I found no nice shoes in the shop. ................................. The compounds with some, any and no People SOME ANY NO somebody / someone anybody / anyone nobody / no one Things something anything nothing / none Places somewhere anywhere nowhere

6. Fill in the gaps with compounds from the table above: 1. Its so hot in here, we need ........................... cold to drink. 2. This road goes ....................... . Were lost. 3. Thats so easy. ....................... can do it. 4. He feels quite lonely, he knows ......................... here. 5. Please, dont tell this ..................., its a secret. 6. I couldnt understand ........................ from what he said. 7. The bottle opener must be ...................... in the kitchen. But I cant find it ....................... . 8. Theres ........................ on the phone for you.

MUCH, MANY, A LOT We use much, many, a lot to express quantity. much is used with uncountable nouns: Lets make some cake. How much sugar have we got? Im afraid we havent got much. many is used with countable nouns: How many oranges do we need? I dont think we need very many.

Much and many are generally used in questions and in negative statements. Tip! You can use much and many in affirmative sentences after so or too, there is/ there are. This cake is delicious. I like it so much! Similarly, we use (a) little with uncountable nouns and (a) few with countable nouns. a lot of / plenty of is used with both countable and uncountable nouns, in affirmative sentences; lots of is preferred in spoken English.

7. Answer in the affirmative and in the negative using: much, many, a lot of, plenty of: e.g. Have you many friends here? Yes, I have a lot of friends here. No, I havent many friends here.

1. Are there many students in the group? 2. Did you spend much time cooking the meals? 3. Have you read many cookbooks lately? 4. Do you use many organic ingredients for your recipes?

Business Communication
Letter of complaint As you read the following Letter of complaint, try to find the answers to the questions below: Mr. Simon Tolly Laura Morrison Dartford Restaurant 21 Braid Avenue 7 Bridge Road, Birmingham Birmingham Phone: 052319983

30 May, 2010 Dear Mr. Tolly, I am writing in connection with the unpleasant experience we had in your restaurant. I attended it for a 30th birthday party. I was looking forward to eating at your

restaurant as it used to be the best in our city. My husband ordered the Fillet of Salmon for 10. Unfortunately, We were shocked to see how it looked. We have ordered such a dish from a lot of restaurants, and I am sorry to say that it was the most terrible we have ever seen. Even worse, a couple of my guests felt sick and got indigestion. We would be grateful if you could refund the two portions to cover my guests expenses with medication. We look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Laura Morrison

What does Mrs. Morrison complain about? What kind of action does she request? Identify the main parts of such a letter. For more information go to Practice File 5, p. .:

Now read the Letter of apology.

DARTFORD HOTEL & RESTAURANT 7 Bridge Road, Birmingham Phone: 052319983

Laura Morrison 21 Braid Avenue

Birmingham 31 May, 2010

Dear Mrs. Morrison, Thank you for your letter of 30 May. We really must apologise for the unfortunate experience you had in our restaurant. We take pride in the good services we provide to our clients. Therefore, I would

personally look into this matter. Certainly, you will get the refund you asked for. You and your friends will be welcome in our restaurant any time to get reassured it was a regrettable accident that will not happen again. With apologies once again, Yours sincerely, Simon Tolly Manager

Over to you: write a letter of complaint about the following problem. John Davis bought from Home Jewellery (P.O.B. 33-23, Dayton Ohio CV36 4ZA) a clock alarm that did not work properly from the very beginning. He brought the clock back to the store on June 17 2008, and was told he had to mail the item to the manufacturer for repair. Davis lives in Ohio and the clock radio was made in Illinois.

Case study/Activity:
Play a memory game, saying why you went to the supermarket. Each person remembers what went before and adds to the list alphabetically, like this: A: I went to the supermarket to get an apple. B: I went to the supermarket to get an apple and some beef. C: I went to the supermarket to get an apple, some beef and a few



learn about the employment process and documents; learn what to do and not to do during a job interview; practise grammar issues: adjectives and adverbs - degrees of comparison; write a job advertisement.

In this unit you will:

Lets talk!
By what means can somebody find out about a vacant job? What do companies or firms do whenever they want to employ somebody? What is the applicant supposed to do as soon as he/she finds out about a vacant job? What do you consider to be the most important step in the act of employment? Have you ever had the opportunity to apply for a job, or have you ever attended an interview? According to your opinion, what qualities must an applicant display? Why should someone hire you?

Working with words

Do you know? Many nouns in English are formed from verbs by suffixation. Among the several suffixes -er, (-or) and -ee are rather productive: interview - interviewer - interviewee; employ - employer - employee Make nouns from the following verbs: Tips! -er, (-or) (denotes the performer of an action) -ee (denotes the person affected by an action)


Noun in -er, (-or)

Noun in -ee

address appoint assign license train retire

Steps in the employment process A Letter of Application or Covering Letter, the first step in the employment process, is a business letter written to a prospective employer to express your interest in and qualifications for a position. It usually accompanies the curriculum vitae. Mr. Richard Lewis Human Resources Manager Lord & Son Ltd. 24, Liberty Avenue Seattle Dear Mr. Lewis, I am writing with reference to your advertisement in the local Employment Magazine for want of a senior accountant. I consider that my credentials and interests match with your requirement. I have a Licentiates degree in Accounting and the necessary experience in the field as I have been working for three years with the One way Ltd. as a senior accountant. I intend to change my present place of work as I feel that I must find one that offers me better opportunities to distinguish myself. I must honestly admit that the firm I work for doesnt offer attractive promotion prospects. I am sure your company and the job you advertise for can give me the very scope Im looking forward to meet. I enclose thereto my Curriculum Vitae with the details about my education and experience as well as copies of testimonials and letters of recommendation from my present employer and Head of Department whom I have already informed about my decision. In case you are interested in granting me an interview I hope youll let me know in time. Yours sincerely,
Martin Ann

Martin Ann Senior Accountant

A Curriculum Vitae is another important step in the hiring process that connects you with your future employer, so it has to be perfect. It highlights your education, experience and skills under the following headings: Personal Information (Family/Second Name, First name, Address, Phone / e-mail, Date of Birth, Citizenship) Work experience (Dates, Position held, Main activities and responsibilities, Name and address of employer, Type of business or sector) Education and training (Dates, Title of qualification awarded, Name and type of organisation providing education and training) Personal skills and competences (Mother tongue, Other languages) Other skills

DONTS OF A CV Don't go beyond two pages. Don't include your height, weight, age, marital status, sex. Don't mention reasons for leaving previous job(s), salary information. Don't use personal pronouns (I, my, me) in a resume. Don't enclose a photograph. Don't include hobbies. Don't ever lie on your resume.

The interview is the last and most important step. Read the dialogue below and try to anticipate the outcome. Justify your decision. Before making up your mind see the interview tips below: Interview Winners Do speak clearly, loudly, with enthusiasm. Do talk positively. Do sound ambitious. Do dress neatly. Do avoid shocking appearances, gestures or language.

Interview Killers: Dont offer irrelevant information. Dont sound negative. Dont show up unprepared.

Dont smoke even if invited and dont chew gum.

THE INTERVIEW Interviewer: Good morning Mrs. Jones. I am David Brown, the personnel director. Mrs. Jones: Good morning. I am pleased to meet you. Interviewer: Please have a seat. Mrs. Jones: Thank you. Interviewer: According to your resume you have several years of office experience. Mrs. Jones: Yes Ive been working with my company for more than ten years. Interviewer: What has made you want to leave your current position? Mrs. Jones: The company went into liquidation and I was made redundant. Interviewer: Tell me about your qualification and your responsibilities. Mrs. Jones: I can type 100 words per minute, I am proficient in many computer programs, well organized, quick learner, hard working. I supervised three office clerks, handled all companys correspondence, managed the companys data base, arranged and attended meetings. Interviewer: What was your biggest accomplishment? Mrs. Jones: I was employed when the company came into being and I was in charge of the whole department for three years. Interviewer: What do you consider to be your greatest strength? Mrs. Jones: I perform well under pressure. Interviewer: Whats your biggest weakness? Mrs. Jones: I get so caught up in projects that I try to do everything myself. Interviewer: What are your expectations? Mrs. Jones: To have a steady, challenging job. Interviewer: Why are you the right person for this job? Mrs. Jones: Because of all my experience and expertise that makes me a reliable person aware of the requirement of this position. .

Interviewer: Thank you, Mrs. Jones. Well contact you as soon as weve made a decision. Mrs. Jones: Thank you, very much. I hope to hear from you soon.

Match the questions in column A with the answers in column B. A Hello, Welcome to the recruitment centre. Lets take your details. Whats your family name? Thank you, Mrs. Martin. What is your first name? What post are you applying for? Have you filled in an application form? B After you.

Yes, I did it yesterday. My family name is Martin. I am applying for the post of warehouse supervisor. Ann

Thank you. Now you will go to the interview room. This way, please. The interview room How do you know about our company? Your company has a good reputation. I see you have been working part-time. What As a student, I lack experience. were the benefits of your job? What weaknesses do you have? No questions. Why have you applied for a position in our Your annual report is very company? impressive. Well, that's the end of the interview. Do you Good bye. have any questions? The Personnel Department will contact you I am hard working, dedicated, with the details next week. Thank you for reliable, and a good team co-worker. coming. Good bye. Why should we employ you? I got experience and new skills. Can you tell me what made you reply to our Well, I was looking for a part-time job advertisement? to help me through college.


1. Fill in with the adverbs corresponding to the adjectives in brackets: a) The bus driver was b) We were all c) I was d) Be injured. (serious) happy and excited after hearing the news. (extreme) sorry I couldnt go to the party. (awful) with these knives. They are sharp. (careful)

e) The woman was f) This pork steak smells

worried about her sons health. (terrible) . (good) last night. (bad) .(fast)

g) Our national football team played

h) I can't understand what the sports presenter says. He speak so i) j) The manager left slamming the door The clerk was . (angry)

typing on the computer when I came in. (busy) drove into the desert without any water. (foolish) lowered her head. (humble) . (immediate) big birthday cake. (incredible)

k) They



m) They called the police n) That is an

TIP! Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to their corresponding adjectives.

TIP! If the adjective ends in -y, replace it with -i and then add -ly. happy - happily If the adjective ends in -able, -ible, or -le, replace the -e with -y. probable - probably; gentle - gently; humble - humbly

2. Fill in the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives below: strong young narrow simple clever dirty

TIP! The Comparative of Superiority and Relative Superlative are formed by adding -er and -est to the adjective. This rule applies to: one-syllable adjectives: short, shorter, the shortest adjectives of two syllables ending in ow, -le, -er, -y.

REMEMBER! Adjectives in the relative superlative are preceded by the definite article. TIPS! AFTER -er, -est: adjectives ending in -e drop it out: large, larger, the largest; one-syllable adjectives ending in consonant preceded by a vowel double the final consonant: big, bigger, the biggest; adjectives ending in -y preceded by consonant change -y in -i: pretty, prettier, the prettiest. 3. Fill in the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives below: interesting difficult comfortable dangerous pleasant

TIP! Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative by adding more and most diligent - more diligent - the most diligent

REMEMBER! These rules apply to adverbs too.

4. Fill in all the gaps with the correct forms of the adjectives and adverbs.

poorer the most pleasant boring faster carefully more peacefully quickly

5. Fill in with the correct form of adjectives and adverbs in brackets:

a) Our new car is b) A hill is c) I am

the car you are driving. (fast) a mountain. (high) you are. (optimistic) as you. (fluently) as that. (hard) the birthday cake. (delicious) the rest of the group. (hard)

d) I do not speak English e) This clerk doesnt work f) The ice cream was

g) He studies

TIPS! Comparative of equality: as + adjective + as as big as, as diligent as Comparative of inferiority: - not as + adjective + as not as big as, not as diligent as

REMEMBER! The verbs look, smell, sound, taste, feel are followed by adjectives not by adverbs.

6. Rewrite the sentences using the adverbs in brackets in its correct position. a) We go for a walk on Sundays. (often) b) They read a book. (sometimes) c) Mother gets angry. (never) d) Our neighbours are very friendly. (usually) e) I take sugar in my tea but I take lemon. (never, always) f) My grandmother goes to church on Sunday. (always)

g) The weather is hot in summer. (always) h) They invite friends for dinner. (seldom) i) j) We go to a restaurant and dance. (occasionally) He makes mistakes. (rarely) TIPS! Adverbs of Manner (slowly, carefully, awfully) follow the direct object (or the verb if there's no direct object).

He drives (the car) carefully. Adverbs of Frequency (always, never, seldom, usually) are put 1) before the main verb, 2) after a form of to be, 3) after an auxiliary verb. She always goes to church. She is never tired. I have seldom met her. The adverbs often, usually, sometimes and occasionally can go at the beginning of a sentence. 7. Choose the correct word in brackets: a) My daughter is as (old, older, oldest) as her fianc. b) Which is (elder, the eldest) of the three sisters? c) The old man is not as (famous, more famous, the most famous) as he used to be. d) This dress is (expensive, more expensive, the most expensive) than that. e) That was the (interesting, most interesting, most interesting) lecture of all. f) Which university offers (the good, the better, the best) courses?

g) He is by far (bad, worse, the worst) employer we had so far. h) Which is (far, farther, the farthest) the railway station or the subway? i) This part of the museum is (little, less, the least) interesting. TIP! Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular degrees of comparison.

Business Communication

The aim of the job advert is to attract interest, communicate quickly and clearly the essential points, and to provide a clear response process and mechanism. Design should concentrate on clarity or text, layout, and on conveying a professional image. It must attract Attention, stir Interest and Desire, determine Action. Items to include in an effective job advert. an attractive, simple headline employer or recruitment agency

job title to whom the position reports indicate qualifications and experience required response and application instructions contact details as necessary, for example, address, phone, fax, email, etc.

1. Read the following job advertisements and answer the following questions: f. Who published the advertisements?

g. What jobs are advertised for? h. Name some of the employees responsibilities.


Case studies/Activities
You are an employer and you need to hire someone for your firm/company. Write a job avdert in a local newspaper.


talk about management and managers practice grammar issues: the article; modals write a report

In this unit you will:

Lets Talk!
Is management an art or a science? An instinct or a set of techniques that can be taught?

What do you think makes a good manager? Choose four of the following qualities are the most important in your opinion?

To have good ideas To be a good communicator and team-builder To solve problems To make quick decisions To give orders

To convince people to do things To direct and delegate work To organize, plan and analyse To be result-oriented To be friendly and sociable

Which of these qualities can be learnt? Which must you be born with?

Working with words

Read the following text presenting some of Peter Druckers views on management.

Peter Drucker, a well-known American business professor and consultant, suggests that the work of a manager consists of five abilities: Firstly, managers plan (set objectives) and decide how they can achieve them. This involves strategies, plans and tactics and the resources of people and money; Secondly, managers organize. They divide the work into manageable activities and jobs and select the people to perform these jobs. Thirdly, managers motivate and communicate (objectives to the people in charge of them). Fourthly, managers have to measure the performance of their staff, both at organizational and individual level. Lastly, managers develop people, not only subordinates, but also themselves. Which of these skills have you chosen?


Fill in the gaps with the following words:


board of directors


performance resources


1. A top manager has to decide how best to allocate the human and capital . . 2. Managers have to make that the jobs and tasks given to their subordinates are . 3. Managers have to check whether objectives, targets and deadline are . .

4. A top manager whose performance was unsatisfactory can be dismissed by the companys ., 5. Managers have to .. their employees and try to improve their ..

Linking words

In a text, sentences and paragraphs need words and expression to link them in a structure easy to understand. Match the linking words below with what they illustrate: First(ly), . Second(ly), Lastly, Moreover, / In addition to this, . However, / On the other hand, Due to / Therefore A contrast A sequence Cause and result Adding another related idea

Language focus MODAL VERBS

The modals are a group of verbs with some specific characteristics: Do not have the infinitive form. Do not get the III-rd person singular -s of the present tense. Do not get the -ing suffix. Make the interrogative and negative without TO DO. The modals are followed by the short infinitive (without TO), except OUGHT Are replaced by modal equivalents for the tenses and moods they do not have.

1. Use CAN/COULD to express ability and permission (COULD is more polite): 1. ........... you fill in this application form for me? 2. They .............. build better houses.

3. I ............ give a response to this fax message, because they ............ supply me with all the information I needed. 4. ...................... I go to the customs and take the samples on your behalf? 5. What ..... he see in the hall of the airport? 6. He .... join the yacht club as soon as he is through with his last exam. 7. The CEO says that everybody ...... take part in the discussion.

2. Fill in the blanks with CANT/COULDNT + present or past infinitives to express deduction and reproach: 1. The customer says that the meat ........ (be) good after so many days. 2. It ........... (be) his secretary who answered the phone. She was on lunch break.


3. You .................. (pay) the companys debt last month. Now we are in litigation with our suppliers. 4. They ......... (pay) this order. Their company is bankrupt. 5. KORN ........ (win) MTV awards last year. They didnt enter the competition.

3. Use MAY or MIGHT to express permission or possibility: 1. Let us book our tickets today so that when we go to the station there ..... be no unnecessary hurry and excitement. 2. Those who have finished their paper .. leave the lecture-hall if they go quietly. 3. They spoke in whispers so that the people in the next room .... not know of their presence in the house.

4. Fill in the blanks with MUST or NEED to express obligation: Note. In questions must and need are often similar in meaning, but need cannot be used after question words; when using need the speaker hopes for a negative answer:

a. ............ I take the exam this semester? No, but next semester you must. b. Where .......... I put this file? c. .............. I attend the meeting too? d. ........... I pay the telephone bill today? Im so busy.

5. Fill in the blanks with OUGHT TO, MUST, HAVE TO, SHOULD to express advice: 1. As the others insist on it you ......... do as they say. 2. You ...... go to the mountains. You look very tired. 3. You ...... finish your work before going on holiday. I know I ............ 4. You ........... take these pills three times a day as the doctor has told you to. 5. You .......... smoke cigars, they will ruin your health. 6. Robert looks quite ill. He ...... have a rest. 7. I want to get as thin as a movie star. What .......... I do? You .......... see a doctor about it. 8. You ........ stop drinking, or else you will get drunk.

Decide if sentences in each pair are similar in meaning or not. Write Y for yes and N for no. 1. We have to work more. 2. Youd better leave. 3. You must be tired. 4. You mustnt write that. 5. You shouldnt stay so long. 6. Id better go now. 7. I ought to visit her. We must work more. You should leave. You should be tired. You dont have to write that. You ought not to stay so long. I must go now. I have to visit her. Y

Match the sentences in column A with their more diplomatic rephrasing in B.

1. Can we meet again tomorrow? 2. Thatll be very expensive. 3. We have a problem. 4. Can I interrupt for a moment? 5. Can I go back to the point about terms? 6. Therell be a delay.

a. There might be a small delay. b. Perhaps we could meet again tomorrow? c. Could I just interrupt for a moment? d. Could I just go back to the point about terms? e. It seems we have a slight problem. f. Wont that be quite expensive?



Which is the correct, (a) or (b)?

1. Julie goes to (a) church (b) the church every Sunday. 2. Go straight ahead to (a) church (b) the church, then turn left. 3. Im a bit upset. Lees in (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. Hes quite ill. 4. My sister works at (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. Shes a cleaner. 5. In Britain, children go to (a) school (b) the school from nine oclock until four oclock every day. 6. My wife is away on business in (a) Far East (b) the Far East. 7. The highest mountain in (a) the Himalayas (b) Himalayas is (a) Mount Everest (b) the Mount Everest. 8. Shes travelling in (a) the Europe (b) Europe and (a) Middle East (b) the Middle East.

a. Spaghetti (b) The spaghetti you ate yesterday was for todays dinner. 9. I like (a) spaghetti (b) the spaghetti.


Fill in the blanks with a or an where necessary. 1. My neighbour is .. photographer. 2. Theyll pay him .. thousand .. week. Its .. enormous salary, but he is .. managing director after all. 3. I have .. hour and .. half for lunch. 4. .. friend of mine is expecting a baby. It its .. girl shes going to be called Etheldreda. What .. name to give . girl! 5. The lamp is broken. Do you have .. screwdriver?


In each pair of sentences, fill in one blank with the, and the other blank with -- (no article). 1 A I am not motivated by _____ money. B When are you going to pay back _____ money I lent you? 2 A The scientist could not work out _____ age of fossils. B We never refuse to give someone a job on the basis of _____ age.

3 A _____ mistakes you have made cost us a great deal of money. B Don't worry. Everybody makes _____ mistakes. 4 A This book will give you _____ information you need. B CD-ROMs can store large quantities of _____ information. 5 A _____ visitors must be accompanied at all times. B _____ visitors are on a fact-finding mission from Brazil. 6 A _____ Japanese imports are currently at very high levels. B It is very difficult to sell to _____ Japanese.

Business Communication Report

Following the memo at page ...., the PR Manager asked an employee, Alison, to look into the offer of travel agencies. She booked such a programme but, unfortunately, it was badly organised. Alison has written personal comments on the advertised package, then wrote a report and presented it in front of the management. See the instructions below.

Spend the best days of your life-time with memorable events!


We provide:

The hotel is near the airport

a relaxing atmosphere in a unique scenery

opportunities to practice water sports diving, water-skiing, wind-surfing

Not enough equipment. Only 1 instructor.

in-door entertainment finest jazz band

Some of us had to share rooms.

comfortable single-rooms in a 3-star hotel

The chef must be English

exceptional cuisine by our French chef

& it rained all day long!

By the end of the holiday, you will feel in an excellent mood!

For any further information, please contact Laura Trevelyan on 0122 2323

Rearrange the following paragraphs and lines in order to get the correct report and rewrite it. 1. Alison McGuire 2. According to my findings, the quality of services advertised was not fully provided. 3. FROM: Alison McGuire, PR Assist. Manage 4. August 18, 2010 o o The hotel is located in a very noisy area (near the airport) There are not proper facilities to practise water sports: insufficient sport equipment and shortage of staff (only one instructor) The condition of providing single rooms was not observed and sixteen clients had to share rooms The cuisine is far from excellence (food was lacking taste and imagination)

5. TO: Barbara Cooper, PR Manager 6. Report on ARIZONA DREAM CORPORATE EVENTS 7. Therefore, I consider the package to be unsuitable for the companys 20ty anniversary. I suggest making further inquiries to find a proper venue. As well, we could ask for 25% refund for my staying there. 8. For example, I could notice the following: 9. As requested by the PR Manager on 4 August, I attended the 3-day package offered by ARIZONA DREAM CORPORATE EVENTS at the Blue Lagoon Hotel from 15-17 August

Tip! Writing reports is in some way similar to writing memos: both of them have to be clear, concise and correct (the rule of the 3 Cs.). In addition, reports have to be decisive, that is decisions should be made on their basis. The report will include: Reference of the subject and the context, or the reason of writing Findings, well organised through paragraphs, headings, bullets etc. Writers own suggestions. All in all, a well-written report would enable the reader to take further action.

Case study/Activity:
Read two reports on the same programme. They are poorly written and organised, with grammar mistakes. In pairs, find the mistakes. Then discuss what is wrong with the structure of both reports and compare your ideas with another pair. Suggest ways to improve them. 1. The advertisement included false informations. It promised a relaxed atmosphere. The hotel was placed near a airport. We were promised much opportunities to make sports but had not enough equipment. Any of us shared rooms however the ad promised singles. The company should check programmes if they fulfil their promises and collect references before sending us there.

1. Report on 3-days program Unfortunately, the program to which I attended was not organised good. They had promised high experienced instructors but there were only one with no experience (he was very young). Also, we had little equipments for the water sports: diving, water-skiing, wind-surfing Despite of the ad, we sat by twos in the room, which I finded embarrassed. On the top, the foods they offered were limited and tasteful, not to mention that it has rained all the time! I suggest that we ask for 50% of our moneys back and that we do not make businesses with these company in future. Joan

In this unit you will:
learn about banking vocabulary and services; learn to change currency, to open an account; practise grammar issues: Present Perfect Simple, Present Perfect Continuous.

Lets talk!
Do you know what services does the banking system provide for people? Are you familiar with the term current account? Who can open a current account? Why is such a type of account very convenient for most people? What do you think electronic banking is? How would you define money? What is it good for? What do you think it would have happen if money had not existed? Think how people used to trade their goods in former times. Describe a situation when you were out of cash and realised the importance of every coin. Do you think money is the most important wealth man possesses?

Vocabulary Warm-up
1. Match the words with their synonyms: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. spend variable withdraw borrow default purchase a) b) c) d) e) f) take money from a bank account take for temporary use to fail to pay money owed to buy likely to change often to use money to pay for something

2. Match the words with their opposites: 1. spend a) deposit

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

variable withdraw borrow default purchase open an account

b) c) d) e) f) g)

lend save close an account fixed pay back sell

3. Fill in a preposition to complete the sentence: a) If you owe money, you are ___ debt. b) If you pay money before due time you pay advance.

c) If you have a savings account, you are keeping your money ___ the bank. d) If you take money out of your bank account, you are withdrawing funds ____ your account. e) When you give back money that you borrowed you are paying ___ your debts.

4. Explain the difference using whereas: a) A savings account usually has a high interest rate, whereas a check account has a low interest rate. b) A fixed interest rate doesnt change with time, c) Your gross income is your income before you pay taxes, d) A deposit is when you put money into your account,

5. Match the column on the right with the definitions: yearly gross income interest credit evaluation savings credit discount mortgage co-signing a) b) c) d) a sum of money made available for you to borrow a process that shows if you can pay back a loan money not spent an arrangement with a bank which allows an account holder to draw on funds in excess of the amount on deposit e) annual f) the act of reducing the selling price of merchandise g) the maximum amount you can borrow h) the fee charged by a lender to a borrower for the use of borrowed money i) your income after you pay income taxes and expenses

money default net income automated teller machine credit limit overdraft facility

j) funds k) a loan to buy a house or property l) a machine that dispenses money when a personal coded card is used m) fail to pay back a loan n) a promise to pay another person's debt arising out of contract if that person fails to do so o) your income before you pay taxes

BANKING SERVICES A reporter, who wants to keep her newspapers readers well informed about banking services, is interviewing a bank manager: Reporter: I consider it is important that people should know more about the services a bank, particularly yours, can offer. Manager: First of all people should know that our bank is a universal bank, that is, it carries out all types of banking operations (commercial and investment banking) and thats why so many people bank with us. R: - Would you please be more specific? M: - For instance we can open current accounts (checking accounts) or deposit accounts for our customers. Most of them are already familiar with the former one, which allows individuals and businesses to deposit money and withdraw funds for their day-to-day expenses. It enables one to use a check for payment instead of hard cash. People can ask our bank to pay their rent, phone, gas, or electricity bills and they receive a bank statement/statement of account that reports all transaction. We can also pay amounts of money at fixed intervals to another account on the bases of a standing order signed by the account holder. The latter type of account is a savings account and it brings interest. We also have overdraft facilities or, as the Americans say, credit lines. R: Please explain what an overdraft means. M: An overdraft is a bank account, which owes money to the bank, the holder being in debt or in the red. An overdraft allows a customer to spend more money than is deposited in his account. People can get loans and mortgage loans from us, and pay back in monthly instalments.

R. Would you give us some more details about travellers checks? M: They have different values, are meant to those who travel abroad who can use this means of payment for accommodation and travelling expenses. They may be used to pay hotel and restaurant bills, may also be exchanged for the local currency and, as they replace cash, they are a wise choice. The user is protected against contingencies. As to the other services, we can operate transactions on the stock exchange, or give people advice on investments. R: On behalf of our readers I thank you for your kindness, and complete information. M: You are welcome.


Affirmative: S + have (prez.) + V (past participle) Negative: S + have (prez.) + not + V (past participle) Interrogative: Have (prez.) + S + V (past participle)?

I, you, we, they HAVE WRITTEN he, she, it HAS WRITTEN I, you, we, they HAVE NOT WRITTEN he, she, it HAS NOT WRITTEN HAVE I, you, we, they WRITTEN HAS he, she, it WRITTEN

We use Present Perfect for an action happened at an unspecified time before now, with expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc. TIP! Never use Present Perfect with: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived abroad, at that moment, that day, one day, etc.

The Present Perfect puts emphasis on: the result of an action: He has written several novels. an action that is still going on: School has not started yet. an action that stopped recently: She has made the coffee. a finished action that has an influence on the present: I have lost my car keys. action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking: We have never been to Paris.

1. The following people have just completed different actions. Write positive sentences in the present perfect simple a) He / apply / for a new job. b) The boy / play / on the computer. c) Sandra and William / water / their garden. d) Andy / repair / his bike. e) Paul / help / Daisy with her homework. f) Brad and Louise / go / to the cinema.

g) Mother / meet / her best friend. h) The girl / draw / a picture. i) j) Father / read / a magazine. My friends / be / to a restaurant.

2. Write negative sentences in the present perfect simple about the people who failed to complete some actions: a) The housewife / not / wash the dishes. b) Mother / not / clean the house. c) She / not / air the rooms, either. d) The boys / not / water the flowers in the garden. e) The girl / not / make her bed. f) Father / not / buy bread and milk.

g) I / not / be to the butcher's h) Children / not / do their homework. i) j) They / not / tidy up their rooms, either. You / not / feed the cat.

3. Write negative sentences in the present perfect simple: a) You/finish/your work? b) They/ renew/ their driving licence?

c) The tourist/change/the money at the bank? d) Your neighbours/ move/ in their new house. e) Those workers/be/late for work? f) The secretary/call?

g) Your daughter/ graduate/ school? h) The meeting/begin/? i) The rain/stop?

4. Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple). a) (you / read / already) b) No, not yet. I only (buy) yet. c) (you / go) d) Yes. I (be) e) I (had) f) (You/choose) his latest book? it three days ago and I (have / not) the time

to the cinema last night? with our friends. (you / be) a fight with my friend last night. the correct alternative? since 1989. when he was university? to the cinema recently?

g) The countrys population (decreased) h) What languages (you/study) i) j) When I (be) When (you/open)

a child father used to recite me poems. this account? Chinese food? last week.

k) (You/ever/eat) l) We (rent) our parents flat

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Affirmative: S + to have (prez.) + been V- ing Negative: S + to have (prez.) + not + been V- ing I, you, we, they HAVE BEEN WRITING he, she, it HAS BEEN WRITING I, you, we, they HAVE NOT BEEN WRITING he, she, it HAS NOT BEEN WRITING

Interrogative: to have (prez.) + S + been V- ing?

HAVE I, you, we, they BEEN WRITING HAS he, she, it BEEN WRITING

We use the Present Perfect Continuous for: an action that started in the past and continued until present. What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? We have been talking for the last hour. an action that started in the past and ended a little before the moment of speaking: He has been reading the reports so far.

5. Put the verbs in the present tense continuous: a) I(study) b) How long (you/work) c) She looks tired. Yes, (she/type) d) Where (you be)? I (wait) e) He (smoke/not) f) Children (ride a bike) for 8 years. for two hours. in this house for 25 years. ? since breakfast and I am tired. in this bank? all day. here for ages.

g) We (live)

h) You are white from top to toe! What (you/do)

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Affirmative: S + have (past) + been V- ing Negative: S + have (past)+ not + been Ving Interrogative: Have (past) + S + been V- ing? I, you, we, they HAVE BEEN WRITING he, she, it HAS BEEN WRITING I, you, we, they HAVE NOT BEEN WRITING he, she, it HAS NOT BEEN WRITING HAVE I, you, we, they BEEN WRITING HAS he, she, it BEEN WRITING

We use the Past Perfect to express:

a past action completed before another past action or another moment in the past: They had settled all the problems when we arrived. I had read the report by noon.

with for, since, till, until, by the time, when for an action began in the past that was still continuing at that time or stopped at that time or just before it: We had just taken our seats when the performance began.

in indirect speech and sequence of tenses instead of present perfect or past tense when there is a past tense in the main clause: I have finished all the housework, mother said. Mother said she had finished all the housework. I worked hard, she added. Mother added that she had worked hard.

in conditional clauses type 3: He would have helped them if they had asked him.

TIP! NOTE the use of Past Perfect after hardly, scarcely, no sooner

THE FIRST SENTENCE THE SECOND SENTENCE HARDLY + had + subject + verb in + WHEN + verb in the Past Tense past participle SCARCELY + had + subject + verb in + WHEN + verb in the Past Tense the past participle NO SOONER + had + subject + verb + THAN + verb in the Past Tense in the past participle

e.g. Hardly had I entered the door when some guests arrived. Scarcely had the surgeon taken a nap when they called him back at the hospital again. No sooner had they switched on the gas than the stove exploded.

6. Put the verbs in brackets in the past perfect simple: a) It was obvious that something (happen) to them.

b) Did you ask what (happen) c) I (talk)

before that?

to all of the candidates by lunchtime. in Transylvania for over 30 years.

d) By that time my grandparents (live) e) He (go out) f)

of the office when the computer crashed. all night.

He felt tired because he (not sleep)

g) I (just put) h) He looked as if he (do) i) j) I (not hear) I (had)

the washing out when the rain started. something terrible.

from her for several months when she rang at my door this morning. a toothache for several days when mother took me to the dentist. the window.

k) Before I notice what the boy was doing, he (break) l) He could not remember where he (see )

that person before.

m) Hardly (he/begin) n) Seldom (we/hear) o) (I/know) her. p) Never (the woman/feel) q) No sooner (the guest/arrive)

to say a few words when they interrupted him. such a stupid thing. that she was going to behave like that, I would not have invited

so sad. than the ceremony started.

Case studies/Activities

You want to change currency in a bank. Imagine a dialogue with a bank officer and use the words and phrases below:

currency exchange desk,

foreign currency, the todays exchange rate, change, convert, cash, travellers cheque

You want to open a bank account in a bank. Imagine a dialogue with a bank officer and use the words and phases below: form of identification (identity card, passport, driving licence) proof of current address deposit account/savings account current account proof of income pay slips

9. Documents
In this unit you will: talk about different types of documents learn about commercial documents practise grammar issues: If Clauses write formal letters (letter of order and letter of confirmation)

Lets talk! What is a document? What is a commercial document?

Reading Ann: I'm new to this job; could you explain some of the terminology?

David: Yes, of course. I have a five minute break. What would you like to know? Ann: What's a bill of lading?

David: The bill of lading lists the merchandise shipped. It's included with every shipment or delivery. Ann: I see. Look, I get what pre-paid means: it means that the merchandise has been paid for am I right? David: Yes. Very well. Ann: But, what's COD?

David: Cash on delivery. Ann: What does that mean?

David: Exactly what it says: cash is paid upon receiving the goods. Of course, it could be a credit card or a check, as well. Ann: Oh, I understand. What's a PO?

David: Here, read the following pages and if you still have questions, then come to me again, OK?


OK, boss!

The order letter

An order letter or PO (purchase order letter) is the document that initiates the purchase and helps close the sale, the document that confirms to the seller that the customer requires a particular quantity of the product. Written as soon as the decision for the purchase has been made, by the person/company placing the request of purchase from another company a purchase order must have the following characteristics: It must be dated; It must give shipping details, name and address of the consignee, method of shipping, whether express or freight, and by what route; It must clearly indicate the product code or item number, the size and the quantities ordered. If merchandise is ordered from a catalogue, the person placing order must mention the date, the number, the page of the catalogue as well as the catalogue price. The date by when the order is expected to be delivered; The mode of payment; The name of the company or dealer with which the order is being placed.

The invoice An invoice is a commercial, legal document issued by a seller to the buyer, indicating the products, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller has provided the buyer. It indicates the buyer must pay the seller, according to the payment terms. The buyer has a maximum amount of days to pay these goods and are sometimes offered a discount if paid before. From the point of view of a seller, an invoice is a sales invoice. From the point of view of a buyer, an invoice is a purchase invoice. The document indicates the buyer and seller, but the term invoice indicates money is owed or owing. In English, the context of the term invoice is usually used to clarify its meaning, such as "We sent them an invoice" (they owe us money) or "We received an invoice from them" (we owe them money). Basically an invoice should include:

a unique identification number the sellers company name, address and contact information the company name and address of the customer invoiced a clear description of what goods or services are charged for the date the goods or service were provided (supply date) the date of the invoice the amount(s) being charged VAT amount if applicable the total amount owed adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invoice

Wicked Solutions 50 Software Drive London E1 3FR Tel: 0208 555 555 Company #:112334 VAT: 66-777-888

Invoice Number: Date: Due Date:

ABC001 20 December 2004 20 January 2005

To: Fees:

ABC Ltd Contracting Services 20 days at the rate of 600 per day 12,000.00

VAT 17.5% TOTAL Payment terms: Payment within 30 days.

2,100.00 14,100.00

Money transfer to the account below: Wicked Solutions Ltd, Sort Code: 20-21-22, Account No: 12345678

http://www.ir35calc.co.uk/how_to_prepare_an_invoice.aspx The bill of lading Shipping involves a contract between the ship owner, the shipper (the exporter) and the consignee (customer). This document is known as a bill of lading (referred to as B/L). It is issued by the carrier to the shipper of a particular good, acknowledging that specified goods have been received on board as cargo for conveyance to a named place for delivery to the consignee who is usually identified. B/L performs three main functions. It is: A contract of carriage. When signed it becomes a contract between the shipper and carrier. Proof of title to the goods. Whoever is stated on the BL owns the goods. Evidence of receipt of goods. This is a receipt given by the carrier to the shipper confirming that they have received the goods.

The main elements specified on a B/L are: Shipper Consignor Vessel Port of loading Port of discharge Final destination Freight Number of b/l Number and kind of packages, description of goods Gross weight.

Working with words

1. Match the abbreviations of the invoice payment terms in column A with their meanings in column B.

A EOM 21 MFI 1 per cent 10 Net 30 COD Cash account CBS Bill of exchange CND Letter of credit CIA Net 30/70 CWO

B Cash on delivery Account conducted on a cash basis, no credit A documentary credit confirmed by a bank, often used for export End of month 21st of the month following invoice date 1 per cent discount if payment received within ten days otherwise payment 30 days after invoice date Cash with order Cash next delivery Cash before shipment Payment 30/70 days after invoice date Cash in advance A promise to pay at a later date, usually supported by a bank

2. Match the Romanian terms (1 - 7) with the corresponding English ones (A G). 1. factur 2. credit documentar 3. conosament 4. certificat de origine 5. contract de vnzare 6. certificate de asigurare 7. cambia A. documentary credit / Letter of Credit B. sales contract C. insurance certificate D. invoice E. certificate of origin F. bill of lading G. bill of exchange

3. Complete these sentences with one of the words in the box. What document is defined?

contract, document, documentary, exporter, goods, importer, prices, shipping, standard

This is a claim by the for payment from the importer under the terms of the sales . It should include a description of the , together with unit , if appropriate, amount payable, shipping marks and terms. All these details must also match exactly the information stipulated in the credit. This should also state the price of the goods as agreed by both and exporter, using the price items.
Text adopted from Michael Brookes, David Horner, Business English Engleza pentru afaceri, Editura Teora, 1998

Language focus IF Clauses

Conditional clauses are introduced by the following conjunctions: if, even if, even though, provided (that), so long as, on condition (that), in case, suppose/supposing that, unless (always followed by a verb in the affirmative). THE USE OF TENSES IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES TYPE OF CLAUSE

TENSE IN THE MAIN CLAUSE FURURE Ill go for a walk PRESENT You get always good marks IMPERATIVE Hurry up PRESENT CONDITIONAL We should buy the house I should go for a walk PAST CONDITIONAL We should have bought the house



TENSE IN IF CLAUSE PRESENT if the weather is fine. PRESENT if you learn well. PRESENT if you want to catch the train. PAST TENSE if we had money. if the weather were fine. PAST PERFECT If we had had money.

TIP! If can be dropped in a formal or literary style. Note that in such cases we put the auxiliary verb be, have, could or should, before the subject: Were I in your place, I should not do it. Had he found out about this, he would have been angry.

TIP! Future can be used after if when it introduces a direct object clause: I dont know if he will accept your terms.

1. Conditional sentences can function as promises, warnings or threats.

TIP! Unless cannot be used to make a promise.

Complete each sentence with either if or unless. 1) you dont wear a suit and tie, you wont be allowed into the club. (warning) 2) You wont be allowed into the club you wear a suit and tie. (warning) 3) you order now, youll get 10% discount. (promise) 4) Dont promise anything youre completely sure. (warning) 5) you pay within ten days, we will cancel all further deliveries. (threat) 6) we receive payment by the end of the week, we will be forced to consider legal action. (threat) 7) you give me 90 days to pay, Ill buy right now. (promise) 8) Ill take last years stock you take off 20%. (promise)

2. Conditional sentences are often used in negotiations. In order to test the ground, you may want to use the second type of If clause as an opening move in a negotiation. For example, If you gave us a 7% discount, wed make a firm order of 3,000 units. Now complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets use if + past tense and would + verb to make more tentative offers.

1) If you (reduce) the price by 10%, I (give) you firm orders in advance for one year. 2) If you (offer) an extended guarantee, we (can see) our way to reducing the price. 3) I (purchase) the equipment if you (throw in) the accessories. 4) My boss (put in) a bigger order if you (give) us a special price.

5) If you (ensure) free maintenance, we (buy) a new photocopier from you. 3. Complete the following sentences with the correct alternative. 1) We didn't vote in the last election, but if we (do) him. 2) I am busy now, but if I (be not) 3) I don't have money, but if I (have) , I would not have voted for

, I would gladly help you. , I would lend it to you. so fast.

4) Michael would not be fined so often if he (drive) 5) She didn't call, but if she (call) 6) If we (have) 7) If they (have) their friends. 8) If he (find out) 9) If you (tell) 10) (be)

, I would have spoken to her.

money next summer we are going to visit Moldavia. more time when they were in Romania, they could have visited all

he will be very angry. her, she would agree. this beautiful house in town, we would buy it. , we would dine in the garden. the window shop, you will pay for a new one. to eat at home.

11) It is rainy today, but if it (be) 12) In case you (brake)

13) Well have lunch out unless they (prefer)

Business Communication

Letter of order The letter in which a company expresses its decision to buy, on certain terms, some specific goods, is called letter of order. When placing an order it is essential to be accurate and clear. A letter of order should include: a friendly greeting in the first sentence of the letter, followed by the main point of your letter:

Thank you for your offer of 5 January 2012, accompanied by your latest catalogue Thank you for your offer of 5 January 2012 for the supply of which we accept the terms quoted, as follows:

Many thanks for letting us have your samples of so that we are now able to confirm our order of Referring to your offer of we are now placing an order as per order form enclosed Please find enclose our order No. for

requests, reminders, and notes on enclosures in the last paragraph of the letter:

We would appreciate delivery within the next 4 weeks and look forward to your acknowledgment. Please confirm receipt of our order. We look forward to receiving your reply. We look forward to doing business with you in the future.

Read the following letter of order and the functions to be found in an order letter. Should the letter be improved? If yes, how? If no, explain why not. Functions to be found in a letter of order: o o o o o Acknowledge receipt of offer. Express your reaction to prices and discounts. Place the order. Suggest terms of payment. Set deadline for delivery.

Evergreen Commodities Ltd. 36, Liberty Street, Bucharest Postal Code 032452 Romania Telephone and Fax: 021/XXXXXXX June 1, 2010 F. Bursa & Co. Ltd. Samsun, 3J2, Turkey Telephone: 0XXX-1610-1624 Fax: 0XXX-1610-1625 Dear Mr. Bursa, This is with reference to our meeting on June 10, 2010 when we visited your factory in connection with purchase of gym suits for school children.

We are pleased to place an order for 800 pairs of gym suits: 300 pairs - size 34,350 pairs - size 35, 250 pairs - size 36. We shall appreciate your shipping these goods so that they will reach us not later than August 25, billing them f.o.b. Constana. We look forward to your acknowledgment. Yours faithfully, VDobrescu Valentin Dobrescu, Assistant Manager Ref.: VD/ds

Letter of confirmation An order that has been received by a company must be confirmed at once, especially when it can be carried out. Study the Useful language below. Then do the exercise that follows it.

Useful language
Acknowledging receipt of the order Thank you for your order No. , which we received today. We acknowledge with thanks receipt of your quotation dated We want to tell you how pleased we are as it is our first dealing with you. Conforming that you are able to supply the goods and meet the conditions of the order We are happy to inform you that we can meet your order immediately. We are glad to confirm that we can supply your order. Taking action

We are now making arrangements for the shipment of your order. We are now dealing with your order and you may expect delivery within the next days. The order will be dispatched as soon as we get confirmation of the opening of the documentary credit from our bank.

Complete the following letter of confirmation.

Dear Ms Popescu, Thank you We are glad to from stock. The order has been put in hand and will be dispatched We are looking forward to the safe arrival of your order and receiving further orders from you. Yours sincerely, Mary Thompson Mary Thompson, Sales Manager

Case studies/Activities
1. In pairs, decide how you should complete the following sentences, using provided (that) or on condition (that): We might be able to reduce the number of hours worked We agree to work six days a week Talk to other pairs. Who has the funniest condition? Who has the most interesting solution? 2. The order form below and a letter of order will be sent to Mary Thompson, Sales Manager of The Best. Write the letter according to the guidelines.

Order No. SR 0152 Quantity 50 50 Item Red long skirts Red blouses Code RLS15 RCB12 Gross Total Discount 3% due Unit price 20 20 Total cost 1,000 1,000 2,000 60 1,940

Net amount

Terms: Payment on presentation of shipping documents.

Guidelines Your letter of order should mention that: you are sending an order form with the letter; you expect delivery within five weeks. State that you will not receive the goods after this date; you will pay by bankers draft as soon as the send the shipping documents; you are hoping for a trade discount of at least 10% for bigger orders.

Consolidation 1
I. Circle the correct answer: 1. My name Yvonne Pinochet and I from Montreal. a. are/come c. is/come b. is/comes d. are/comes

2. How to your office? a. do I get c. do I getting b. did I got d. I get

3. In twenty-four hours time on my yacht. a. I relax c. Im relaxing b. Ill be relaxing d. Id relax

4. By this time next year, the government . a. will resigned c. resigns b. will resign d. will have resigned

5. My friend, Tom, me good advice. a. always gives c. always 6. I you now. a. am believing b. believe c. believing 7. at work. a. I smoke never b. Never I smoke c. I never smoke 8. Tom often files home at the weekend. d. am believe b. gives always d. always give

a. take c. is taking

b. takes d. is takeing

9. The number of people using the Internet a. grow c. is growing b. grows d. growing

10. Tom in Libya on a fixed-term contract. a. is working c. works b. work d. working

11. a 20% discount for the duration of this trade fair? a. are they offering c. do they offer b. do offer d. offering they

12. My father his own company. a. runs c. is running b. run d. running

13. I his hotel accommodation by tomorrow. a. will have arranged b. will arranged c. have arranged d. will arrange 14. His plane to Heathrow at 12.35 pm. a. gets c. will gets b. get d. will get

15. Look at those clouds it rain. a. is going to c. a. will be c. will b. will d. going to b. will have d. be

16. Next year, the company five years old.

17. Be careful! That car . a. is going to fall over. b. will fall over. c. is going fall over. d. will going to fall over. 18. Over the next few years average temperatures a. will be rising. b. will rise. c. will be. d. rise.

19. During the seminar youabout negotiation strategies. a. will be learning b. will learning c. will be d. be learning

II. Put in the Simple Present Tense or the Present Tense Continuous of the verbs in brackets: 1. What he . now? (do) 2. I an apple every morning, but I ... one now. (eat, not eat) 3. Marys mother often a lot of things but she anything at the moment. (buy, not buy) 4. It often .. in spring and it .cats and dogs today. (rain) 5. Right now he his clothes. (put on) 6. Pupils a two months holiday every summer. (have) 7. What course the students on Monday morning? (have) 8. We the French course now. (not attend) 9. David to go to London. (want) 10. I I cant see as well as I used to. (admit) 11. Tom work at 4.00 p.m. most days. (leave) 12. While Tom (go) to the post office, Ben .. (take) the car in for inspection. 13. You to bed every night at half past ten, but you to bed now. (go, not go) 14. Each August we to Turkey for a holiday. (go) 15. They constantly parties until the early hours of the morning. (have) 16. I you. (believe)

17. They often (sing) in pubs, but this month they (work) in a theatre show every night. 18. These flowers lovely. (smell) 19. I (see) what you (mean). 20. He always me. (interrupt) 21. They always at The Ritz when they go to New York. (stay) 22. I about buying a red car. (buy) 23. Hello. I about flights to Tokyo. (inquire) 24. More and more people to find a different kind of holiday. (try) 25. She sometimes sugar with her coffee. (take)

Working with words

1. Complete the sentences below using words from the box. at, on, cruise, do, employee, employer, resorts, studies, taking, paper clip help, holiday, keyboard, near,

a. Derek is away holiday for the next two weeks. b. He always hard for his tests. c. What type of books you read? d. Good afternoon, Happy Holidays, Jill Barrymore speaking. How can I you? e. A is a small piece of bent wire used for holding pieces of paper together. f. Are you any holidays in August? g. There are a lot of Italian restaurants the centre. h. An is someone who is paid to work for someone else. i. j. l. I never take a lot of luggage on with me. What is a holiday? The set of keys on a computer or typewriter that you press in order to make it work is called a

k. Cruise ships are floating complete cities at sea.

m. She is sitting her desk writing letters. n. His allowed him to take the day off. 2. Put the words in the appropriate order to form sentences and then the sentences in the correct order to have a letter replying to an enquiry. you / to / I / forward / days / look / calling / few / in / a

Dear / Philips / Ms January / Thank / for / our / your / letter / you / of / 22 / about / enquiring / services / translation Re: / Services / and / Translation / Fees I / pleasure / have / in / highly / enclosing / latest / prices / brochure / and / price / from / list / which / can / you / see / our / that / are / our / competitive Lingua / Services / Galactic / development / offer / full / a / services / range / of / to / translation / help / you / in / the / of / sales / literature / and / sites / web Manager / sincerely / Yours / James / Brown / Sales

Reading comprehension
Sandra is working as a receptionist for the winter in a hotel in Hintertux, Austria. Read her email and say which of the sentences below it are true (T) or false (F).

Hi, Ann! Thanks for your thoughts. Yes, Im working very hard these days, but I can tell you that Im enjoying my new job. Its very interesting. Im meeting lots of different people. Its a good hotel, although it is little. The standard of service is high and the staff is well qualified. Everyone knows German and English. Some speak Russian and French, but none speak Romanian. Zillertall is a fantastic region and Hintertux is just one small resort belonging to it. I hear there is an old silver mine in Schwaz, 800 m deep inside the mountain. And some say the Swarovski Crystal-World transports children and parents into a breathtaking world of sparkling fantasy and reality and its just one hour away from me. Im planning to visit them when I can, but I dont have a lot of free time. What are you doing this winter? Do you want to visit me so we can explore the region together? Write soon, Sandra

1. Ann is enjoying her new job. 2. Sandra is having a meeting with different people in Hintertux. 3. Because the hotel is small, it is good. 4. Sandra speaks Romanian with her colleagues. 5. Sandra visits the silver mine whenever she can.

6. Sandra is inviting Ann to explore the Swarovski Crystal-World together.

Role play this telephone situation. Student A: you are a company employee who wants to arrange a meeting with a colleague (student B) from one of your subsidiaries. Try to find a time and place to meet. Its difficult because youre both very busy. You are free on Monday morning, Thursday afternoon and Friday morning. Eventually you succeed in arranging the meeting. Student B: you work in a companys subsidiary. One of your colleagues from the parent company calls you to make an arrangement. You are free on Tuesday afternoon, Wednesday and Friday morning. Explain why you cannot meet him/her when he/she suggests (give a reason). Suggest an alternative time. Finish the call by confirming the plans.

Translate the following memo. Use a dictionary and the tips below to help you.


read the whole text before you start translating think about the purpose of the text translate the general sense of each sentence, not every single word use good monolingual and bilingual dictionaries the translation should sound natural in your language

Beta Co. FROM: Managing Director TO: PR Manager DATE: May 1, 2010


SUBJECT: Organising the companys 20th anniversary The Board wishes to organize a special holiday for our top employees on this occasion. Before that, we need first-hand information on: 1. What is the best package offered by travel agencies 2. If the package advertised is still available Can you investigate and then give us your views on the most convenient offer for the

event. If possible, I would like to receive the report before the next Board Meeting on June 1.

1. These five people are members of a travel club who are meeting in order to plan their annual holiday. retired taxi driver a travel agent a business woman a French teacher a student Choose one of these roles. Decide what sort of holiday you would like. Make notes about the type of the holiday, the possible destination, the itinerary, the cost, the length of the trip, the type of transport, and the activities you want. Now discus with your colleagues. Eventually you must all agree on one trip. Try to persuade the others that your suggestions are the best, but be prepared to compromise. 2. Your boss wants you to work nine to ten hours a day. In groups discuss if it is OK to stand up for your rights and what you should tell him/her in order to make him/her change his/her mind and not fire you.

1. Read Saras mail and write back to her.

From: To:

Sara Willington <sarawill@gmail.uk> Mary Thompson <m.thompson@gmail.com>

Dear Mary, We are having a fantastic time in Florida. I cant wait to tell you everything about our holiday. Sadly the holiday finishes tomorrow. Our flight doesnt leave until 11.00 pm

and it lasts nearly a whole day! David is meeting us at the airport and were staying with his family for a few days when we get back. Im looking forward to playing with my grandson! How long are you staying in Romania? Is Paul with you? When are you back? I really want to know more things about the country you are visiting now so if you have enough time write to me about it and the people youve met.

Best wishes, Sara

2. Have a look at the following memo: FROM: Mr. Taylor (MD) DATE: 3/6/10 TO: all staff

May I remind you that all new lab equipment should be registered with Stores & Supplies, Room 26 (ext. 132). NB new pcs. must be notified before 17 hrs. All a/c nos. must be recorded.

Now rewrite the memo into full words.

Tip! In UK, the day precedes the year in dates.


2/5//09 = the 2nd of May, 2009 In US, the month often precedes the day. 2/5/09 = the 5th of February,

3. You are the new assistant manager. Write a memo to the whole staff asking them to put down their opinion about the MDs intention to change the schedule (the old one was from 7.30 am to 3.30 pm). Finally, set a deadline. 4. You are the Sales Director of Better Life Ltd. Your company manufactures and supplies office furniture. Your address is 78 Life Street, Brasov 500260, Romania. You are thinking about buying some new computers. Write a letter of enquiry to the Sales Director of Best IT to ask for general information about their computers. Their address is 18 Yellow Street, London, EC6 4AD. Use the full layout of a business letter.

Consolidation 2
Grammar & Functions
I. Circle the correct answer: 1. I university 10 years ago.
b. left d. leaved b. lived d. was leaving

2. Its been a long time since she us. a. visited c. was visiting b. visits d. has visited

3. We Friends on TV when the electricity suddenly went off. a. were being watching c. were watching b. watched d. watch

4. One of the advantages of travelling car is that you can stop whenever you like. a. in c. for b. on d. by

5. Britt swims than Leila. a. more faster c. more fast b. faster d. fastest

6. The statement Im afraid I cant come on Friday. Could we fix another time? is commonly used in making arrangements on the telephone. Match the expression with its function. a. Introducing yourself. b. Making arrangements. c. Changing arrangements. d. Responding. 7. The statement Could we meet next Friday? Is 11.45 convenient? is commonly used in making arrangements on the telephone. Match the expression with its function. a. Introducing yourself.

b. Making arrangements. c. Changing arrangements. d. Responding. 8. Tom files home last week. b. take c. took b. takes d. taken

9. What is the fashion in boots? a. last c. little b. latest d. least

10. Female Hollywood actors are now doing than men. a. good c. better b. best d. gooder

11. This is chair in the room. a. the most comfortable b. the most comfortablest c. the comfortablest d. the comfortable 12. It was thing I have ever done. a. the more difficult b. the difficultest c. the most difficultest d. the most difficult 13. She is her sisters. a. prettier c. prettier than b. prettyer d. prettyer than

14. He is lawyer I have ever seen. a. the badest c. the worstest b. the bader d. the worst

15. It was getting dark, so the children walked . a. the faster c. more faster b. faster and faster d. more and more fast

16. people in business do not go out to work; they go out to play! a. A lot of the successfuller b. Much of the successfullest c. Many of the most successful

17. Could I have more coffee? a. any c. not b. some d. a few

18. Id like bread. Is there left? a. any; some c. any; any b. some; any d. some; something

II. Put in the Simple Past Tense or the Past Tense Continuous form of the verbs in brackets: 26. What he . when you phoned him? (do) 27. I an apple every morning when I was young. (eat) 28. he . two interviews this week? (give) 29. Diana a skirt when she someone calling her name. (buy, hear) 30. It .. a lot last spring. (rain) 31. What course the students last year? (have) 32. We the French course last Monday. (not attend) 33. David to go to London. (want) 34. I I couldnt see as well as Tom. (admit) 35. Last August we by plane to Turkey. (travel) 36. They constantly parties until the early hours of the morning. (have) 37. I said I him. (believe) 38. He always me. (interrupt) 39. This time last week we abroad. (travel) 40. . your friends . to Cluj last month? (fly)

III. Correct the errors in the following sentences.

1. Mary Thompson has an advice for you.

2. We need informations from you. 3. The news are bad, Im afraid. 4. Diana makes many moneys. 5. She bought beautiful furnitures. 6. What mean of transport do you prefer? 7. The three childs built three small snowmans. 8. The travel broadens the mind. 9. How much sandwiches did you make? 10. Tom always puts many salts on his food. 11. They use many chocolate and spicy sauces in Mexican cooking. 12. Help us with our researches by filling in two questionnaires. 13. His baggages were lost.

Working with words

1. Complete the sentences below using words from the box. aisle, any, bill, chef, coffee, dessert, some, stuffed, waiter, with a) She doesnt drink much b) When you travel by plane, you can choose to sit by the window or in an ...seat. c) I want to have a too. d) Hungarian goulash is made beef and vegetables. e) Last night I ate chicken ...with ricotta cheese served with ratatouille. f) She doesnt like . kind of cheese.

g) Can I have bacon for breakfast? h) The has served the drinks to the group. i) j) Tom thinks there is a mistake on the . Ill ask the . to heat it up.

2. Put the words in the appropriate order to form sentences and then the sentences in the correct order to have a letter of complaint.

Dear Sir / Madam,

during / I / writing / am / letter / to / this / complain / about / service / the / offered / to / family / and / my / myself / our / at / stay / your / recent / hotel. I / completed / Form / have / the / Feedback, / but / would / to / I / like / a / few / add / points / further. To / with / start, / on / we / arrival / told / we / the / were / suite / had / not / booked / free / was / and / we / offered / accommodation / were / instead / in / rooms / two / double. I / In / to / a / hotel / expect / find / three-star / a / TV / satellite, / but / wasnt / one / there / our / in / rooms. When / asked / receptionist / we / the, / said / she / werent / any / there / TVs / in / hotel / and / that / their / could / at / watch / TV / home / we. I / Finally, / must / room / the / service / mention / it / slow / very / was. On / first / the day, / had / I / wait / to / one / hour / cup / for / of / coffee / a. hope / you / I / appreciate / my / service / and / will / disappointment / take / to / consequently / improve / the / in / your / action / hotel. Yours faithfully,

Reading comprehension
1. Read the following text and decide if the statements following it are true or false. A friend or an enemy? Traffic and pollution problems have become a matter of concern in the whole world. The number of accidents is high and is continually increasing. Pollution, due to exhaust fumes, is remarkably high. But we cant deny that since the 1900s the rising popularity of the car has had a major impact on the way we live. Whatever you call them motorways, freeways, inter-state highways, autobahns, auto routes special roads have been built in almost every country in the world. And towns and cities have been redesigned to make it possible for drivers to come and go and stop between. Cars are a global issue. By 2010, the total number of cars in the world is expected to rise by almost 10 per cent, and the jobs of many millions of workers are dependent on our love of driving. The car has brought us many benefits. It has made our lives easier: it has given us the freedom to travel at any time of day or night, to go anywhere, to take other people with us, to transport things we couldnt carry without the car.
Text adapted from Rosi Jillett, Cutting Edge Intermediate/Upper Intermediate Video Workbook, Longman, 2001

1. The car has had a minor impact on our lives. 2. The popularity of the car has led to the construction of more and more roads. 3. The popularity of the car has led to towns being redesigned. 4. The car has given us the freedom to travel whenever we want wherever wed like to.


Translate the following cover letter Use a dictionary and the tips below to help you.

ERIC HENDERSON 11317 Bubbling Brook Court Cockeysville, MD 21030 Phone: 703-555-1456 Cell Phone: 571-555-1153 Email: ehender@aol.com May 4, 2008 Dallas Dalrymple General Dynamics 2941 Fairview Park Drive Suite 100 Falls Church, Virginia 22042-4513 Dear Mr. Dalrymple: My solid sales background, experience in DoD and other federal sales, as well as my success with management and client service, make me an ideal candidate for the VP of sales position that you are currently advertising. Throughout my extensive career, I have proven my motivation, sales expertise, management, and operational skills. For example, during my time as Director, Army Major Programs, and Director, DoD Sales, at FuturaFind, I have: Increased unit sales from $4 million annually to more than $30 million yearly. Boosted backlog from $3 million in 2001 to $40+ million in 2004. Overseen achievement of more than 50 percent of total company revenue out of three company business units. Most of my professional experience has been in organizations in which Ive successfully led teams to achieve a common purpose. The tools and techniques I have developed from this background apply directly to the skills that a VP of sales needs in your organization: proven leadership skills, strong organizational skills, critical teambuilding attributes, the ability to guide and direct the appropriate resources to maximize business capture and provide superior customer service, an outstanding track record of building business in the DoD sector, and intimate familiarity with federal government rules and regulations. My masters degree and military background bolster my qualifications. I am recognized for my energy, agility, and quick thinking/action, as well as for focusing on maintaining an outstanding team emphasizing customer service. I know I can be a key player on your team, and I would like the chance to prove that to you in an interview. Within a short time of your receiving this letter, Ill contact you to arrange a meeting in which we can discuss how I can guide your company in attaining DoD contracts, but please feel free to call me sooner at the number listed above or e-mail me. I look forward to meeting with you and bringing my talents to your firm. Thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely, Eric Henderson

read the whole text before you start translating think about the purpose of the text translate the general sense of each sentence, not every single word use good monolingual and bilingual dictionaries the translation should sound natural in your language

Prepare and give a short talk on one of these themes: The car of the future. Travel in the future. All public transport should be free. Romanian cuisine. Eating out in style. My favourite food / recipe.

1. The Europass CV is nowadays required by more and more employers. It enables you to make your skills and qualifications visible. Write your CV.

Europass Curriculum Vitae

Personal information

Insert photograph. Remove heading if not relevant

First name(s) / Surname(s)

First name(s) Surname(s) (remove if not relevant, see

instructions) House number, street name, postcode, city, country (remove if not relevant, see instructions) (remove if not relevant, see instructions) Mobile: (remove if not relevant, see instructions)



Fax(es) E-mail

(remove if not relevant, see instructions) (remove if not relevant, see instructions)


(remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Date of birth

(remove if not relevant, see instructions)


(remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Desired employment / (remove if not relevant, see instructions) Occupational field

Work experience


Add separate entries for each relevant post occupied, starting from the most recent. (remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Occupation or position held Main activities and responsibilities Name and address of employer Type of business or sector

Education and training


Add separate entries for each relevant course you have completed, starting from the most recent. (remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Title of qualification awarded Principal subjects/occupational skills covered Name and type of organisation providing education and training Level in national or international classification (remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Personal skills and competences

Mother tongue(s)

Specify mother tongue (if relevant add other mother tongue(s), see instructions)

Other language(s) Self-assessment Understanding Speaking Spoken interactio n Spoken productio n Writing

European level (*) Listenin Readin g g

Language Language
(*) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

Social skills and competences

Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Organisational skills and competences

Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Technical skills and competences

Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Computer skills and competences

Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Artistic skills and competences

Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Other skills and competences

Replace this text by a description of these competences and indicate where they were acquired. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Driving licence

State here whether you hold a driving licence and if so for which categories of vehicle. (Remove if not relevant, see instructions)

Additional information Include here any other information that may be relevant, for
example contact persons, references, etc. (Remove heading if not relevant, see instructions)

Annexes List any items attached. (Remove heading if not relevant, see

European Union, 2002-2010, http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu

2. Last week you visited Edinburgh and you bought a book for your cousin. Yesterday, at home, you discovered that the last two pages were torn. Write a letter of complaint to the Sales Manager of the Quality Books Bookshop, 15 Castle Road, Edinburgh, ED7 5HP, asking for either a full refund or another copy of the same book.

Consolidation 3
I. Circle the correct answer: 1. I havent seen Tom my last birthday. a. for b. science d. ago

c. since 2. English?

1. Have you ever learnt 2. Did you learnt 3. You learnt 4. You have been learning 3. He in the countryside for seven years. He still lives there. a. c. has lived have lived b. lived d. left

4. John Logie Baird the first public demonstration of television in 1926. a. give c. has given b. gave d. given

5. By the time I to the station, the train had left. a. get c. got b. had got d. have got

6. She only a few days. After that she got well again. a. was sicked b. has been sick

c. had been sick d. were sick 7. When I woke up, I realized I the alarm clock properly. a. didnt set c. hadnt set b. dont set

d. havent set

8. I the contract back to the legal department yesterday. a. send c. has sent b. sent d. has send

9. If I you, I would read the course.

a. would be c. am

b. will be d. were

10. Jill that Tom had lied to her. b. has discovered c. had discovered d. discovered e. discovers 11. By the time they to the party, most of the guests had gone home. a. had got c. get b. have got d. got

12. The cost of TV advertising considerably since the beginning of last year. a. rise c. has risen b. rose d. risen

13. If I were travelling around Europe, I by train. a. would have travel b. travelled c. would travel d. travel

14. If I enough time, Ill read Test Your Professional English: Law by Brieger. a. will have c. would have b. have d. had

15. Lou asked me Thomas still lived in Bucharest. a. whether c. weather b. that d. wheather

16. If I had known the answer, I you. a. had told c. would have told b. will tell d. am telling

17. If I knew the answer, I you. a. tell c. would tell b. will tell d. am telling

18. you tell me what papers I have to fill in? b. Must c. Can b. Might d. Shall

19. You smoke in hospitals and airports.

a. must c. mustnt

b. dont have to d. have to

II. Complete the sentences with the Present Perfect Simple or the Past Tense Simple form of the verbs in brackets: 41. I to get the pains three weeks ago. (start) 42. I the pains for three weeks now. (have) 43. My children a two months holiday last summer. (have) 44. I him when we were both working in Rome. (know) 45. David to go to London two years ago. (want) 46. Last week Tom work at 4.00 p.m. (leave) 47. Yesterday he . (come) into my office and (ask) for my help. I (tell) him that I would help him but he . (not seem) to trust my words. 48. When I .. (graduate) I was very determined to pursue a career in economics. But since then I .. (reconsider) my options and I (decide) to turn politician. 49. Bruce in San Francesco, where he attended the High School of Performing Arts. (grow up) 50. Louie My Restaurant since 1995. (own) 51. Jamie four cookbooks so far. (wrote) 52. I two articles about this trend and I can now understand her decision. (read)

Working with words

1. Complete the sentences below about strategic management using words from the box. Strategic, involves, manager, monitors, plan, process, resources, role, strategy

a. Strategic management is a , not a single event. b. management is how a business tries to achieve its goals, using any available . c. Normally strategic management a lot of communication and feedback, so subordinates have an important ... d. Good strategic management results and makes changes. e. Bill Gates is a good example of an effective strategic ...


Strategic management is a necessary process in order to achieve the objectives of the corporate ..

g. The strategic . is part of strategic management.

Reading comprehension
1. Read the text. All the people at the office are talking about Simona these days. Theres a rumor that Simona is going to get married soon, and everybody is convinced that the rumor is true. After all, if she werent going to get married soon, she wouldnt be asking everybody about houses for sale in the area. She wouldnt have requested two weeks off next month. And she definitely wouldnt be wearing a beautiful new ring from her boyfriend! According to the text the statement The people at the office think Simona wouldnt have gotten a new ring if she werent going to get married. is a. True b. False

2. Read the text. Mr. and Mrs. Munteanu didnt follow the directions on the box when they baked brownies yesterday. They really wish they had. If they had followed the directions, they would have used the right ingredients. And if they had used the right ingredients, the brownies probably wouldnt have been as hard as rocks! According to the text the statement Mr. and Mrs. Munteanus cookies would have been softer if they hadnt used the wrong ingredients. is a. True b. False

Translate the following report into Romanian. Use a dictionary and the tips below to help you.

read the whole text before you start translating think about the purpose of the text translate the general sense of each sentence, not every single word use good monolingual and bilingual dictionaries the translation should sound natural in your language

To: Happy Travellers Tourist Office From: Ann Barrymore Date: 15th March 2011 Subject: Local Traditions The purpose of this report is to suggest which traditions of the region might be of interest to visitors. The following might be of interest: Halloween Children dress up like witches, skeletons, monsters or other bad-looking creatures. They knock on peoples doors and call out trick or treat. The person at the door usually gives them sweets. Older people have parties where they dance and play games. Traditional food 1. Cheese pudding is a hot dish with flour, cheese, milk and eggs, which is usually served at Sunday dinner. 2. Christmas cake is a heavy cake with dried fruit served at Christmas dinner. 3. Meat pie is a baked dish with cooked meat and potato. Conclusions and recommendations In conclusion, I suggest that the brochure for tourists should also include photographs to illustrate these features. I believe that the local traditions mentioned in this report would appeal to visitors.

1. You are the General Manager of a small company which manufactures and supplies office furniture. You have a shortlist of people for the post of Sales Manager. One of the female

candidates is clearly the best qualified person for the job. However, you know that some of your best customers would prefer a man. If you appoint a woman, you will probably lose some sales. What should you do?
(adapted after Cotton D., Falvey D., Kent S., Intermediate Business English, Pearson Education Limited, 2000)

2. Hold a debate on one of these topics: Everyone should have the right not to work. All workers should have at least four weeks holiday every year. Retirement at 55 should be compulsory for everyone.

1. You recently visited a trade fair in an English-speaking country and you feel it would be good for your company to have a stand at this fair next year. The head of the marketing department has asked you to write a report, describing what you saw and experienced at the trade fair this year and explaining why your company would benefit from having a stand there next year. Write your report.

Practice File 1
Language Focus - Present Simple
We use the Present Simple Tense to talk about: Permanent situations and facts She lives in Craiova. Bucharest is the capital city of Romania. Regular habits and routines I travel a lot on business trips. I call my parents every day. Feelings and opinions We like the nice things in life. I think they are wonderful students. Timetables and schedules The train arrives at 10.45. Exams start on February 1st. Present Simple is also used in Time Clauses to express the future after when, before, till, until, as soon as. e.g. When you come, Ill be ready.


Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets:

a) These gates will remain shut until the train ....(pass). b) It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another till they .. (be introduced) to each other. c) Ill ring you up whenever I ... (have) time. d) As soon as she .... (learn) to type Ill get her a job.


Give short answers for each question, beginning as shown. Use contractions ( Im instead of Im not):

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Are you twenty five? Do you think they are right? Is she studying literature? Can you use a computer? Will you be there on Monday?

Yes, I am Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes,

No, Im not No, No, No, No,

7. Does he call you often?




Write a question for each answer:

a) How is your sister? b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k)

Shes fine, thank you. It takes me half an hour to get to work. Id have some coffee, please. Two, English and French. John is very bright and enthusiastic. The 21st of October. 5 euros and 50 cents. Its half past ten sharp. How do you do? Im a consultant. J-o-n-a-t-h-a-n

Working with words


Ask questions about the building and the facilities of a company mentioned below. Begin with: Is there a/an ? Are there any ? Is the building ?

car park


crche Internet spacious recreational facilities nice to work in


Have a look at the organization of a company:

1. Production Production

2.Marketin g Marketing


4.Human resources Training

Buying (Purchasing) Customer Account Financial Services

Distribution Research & Development

Sales Advertising

Personnel Wages and Salaries

Now read the definitions below. Which workplace do they describe? The first one has been done for you.

a) We purchase supplies. 3. b) The products come here and we deliver them to customers. c) We place advertisements in magazines. d) We pay the staff. e) We sell the products to customers. f) We arrange courses for the staff.

g) We recruit new employees. h) We invoice customers. i) j) We manufacture the products. We deal with taxation, investment and cash.

k) We plan how to sell new products to customers.

Business Communication
Look at his memo. What makes it difficult to follow? What is wrong about it?

Dear Mr. John. Im writing to explain that a new employee, Sean OHara, will join our company on July 1. He will be a new accountant and he will work for us from Monday to Friday, except on Saturdays because hes got some problems with his health. If you dont mind, I want you to put him in a good room, maybe that his desk can be in front.

Now rewrite the memo in a suitable way.

Practice File 2
THE PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS The Present Tense Continuous is formed according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + to be (present) + V-ing Negative: subject + to be (present) + not + V-ing Interrogative: to be (present) +subject + V-ing

AFFIRMATIVE I am/ Im writing You are/ Youre writing He is/ Hes writing She is/ writing It is/ Its writing We are/ Were writing You are/ You re writing They are/ Theyre writing

NEGATIVE I am/ Im not writing You are not/arent writing He is not/isnt writing She is not/ isnt writing It is not/isnt writing We are not/arent writing You are not/arent writing They are not/arent writing

INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Am I (not) writing? Are you (not) / Arent you writing Is he (not) / Isnt he writing? Is she (not) /Isnt she writing? Is it (not) /Isnt he writing? Are we (not) /Arent we writing? Are you (not)/Arent you writing? Are they (not)/Arent they writing?

The Present Tense Continuous is used with the adverbs: now, at the moment, in this very moment, today, this week/ month/year..., these days/weeks/months etc. The Present Tense Continuous expresses: an action happening now: I am sitting down, because I am tired. Whos making such a noise? The professor is giving a lecture. Who are you writing to? an action happening about this time but not necessarily this very moment: She is teaching at a university in the USA this year. My children are studying aboard. an action that is to take place in the near future: What are you doing tonight?

We are meeting our friends at 7 oclock and we are going to the theatre. a repeated action that the speaker finds annoying or unreasonable; the use of always, forever, constantly, continually is compulsory : This pupil is always forgetting his exercise book. You are always complaining about something. She is forever getting late. They are coming only when Im busy. Used with the first person (singular and plural) it shows that the repeated action is often accidental: Im always forgetting to lock the door.

VERBS NOT USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORMS MODAL VERBS: can, may, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to, need, dare. TO BE when it means to exist; EXCEPTION: used in the continuous forms, be helps the speaker to make a momentary characterisation: You are being boring! You are being cheeky! He is being rude! She is being very realistic! TO HAVE when it means to possess; EXCEPTION: have can be used in the continuous forms when its meaning is other than to possess: We are having fun at the party. He is having breakfast now. VERBS THAT DENOTE FEELINGS, EMOTIONS: to love, to like, to dislike, to hate, to prefer, to wish, to please, to hope, to refuse, to regret, to worship; VERBS THAT DENOTE MENTAL ACTIVITY: to assume, to know, to understand, to agree, to disagree, to believe, to think (that), to suppose, to fancy, to imagine, to intend, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to DONT FORGET, to forget, to seem, to surprise, to require, to realize, to recall, to expect, to mind.

DONT FORGET! Some of these verbs are used in the continuous forms when they mean: TO EXPECT - to await: We are expecting news from him. TO ASSUME - accept as a starting point: Im assuming that you have time to learn all this. VERBS OF SENSES (involuntary actions): to feel, to taste, to smell, to see, to hear, to look (to appear): Silk feels soft. Roses smell good. Pizza tastes good. Can you see that ship at the horizon? Can you hear noise at the door? The clerk looks tired. DONT FORGET! These following verbs can be used in the continuous forms when they are used in their proper meaning: to feel (to touch, to, to experience something physical or emotional), to smell (to notice or discover something using the nose), to taste (to put food or drink in your mouth to find out what flavour it has), to see (to meet or visit someone, to have an appointment, to have a romantic relationship with someone, to take someone somewhere by going there with them), to hear (to have news), lo look: I am feeling the fabric. He is feeling tired. The girl is smelling the roses. The cook is tasting the food. Im seeing the interviewer tomorrow. Hes seeing his guests to the gate. Youll be hearing from me soon. Why are you looking at me like this? OTHER VERBS THAT ARE NOT USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORMS: to deserve, to own, to possess, to matter, to belong to, to contain, to keep, to concern, to signify: TO COST:

This car costs a lot of money. BUT: Food is costing more and more these days. (to get more expensive) TO DEPEND ON: This depends on him. BUT: Everybody is depending on him. (to rely on) TO HOLD (to contain): This box contains 2o kilograms of flour. BUT: The little child is holding his mothers hand.

THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE = V-ing The present participle of the verbs is formed by ending ing added to the infinitive: read listen pick The spelling of the present participle: When verbs end in a single e, this final e is dropped before - ing: write writing reading listening picking

EXCEPTIONS: to age, to dye, to singe and verbs ending in ee - to agree, to see: age dye singe agree see ageing dyeing singeing agreeing seeing

One-syllable verbs ending in a consonant preceded by a vowel double the final consonant before - ing: stop sit run stopping sitting running



verbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable contains one vowel and ends in a single consonant double this consonant if the stress falls on the last syllable: admit begin prefer BUT: budget enter budgeting entering admitting beginning preferring

verbs ending in l double this final consonant: travel signal travelling signalling

Verbs ending in y add -ing without any change in the spelling of the consonant: play try hurry playing trying hurrying

Verbs ending in ie transform it to y and add ing: to lie to die lying dying Exercises 1. Make these sentences interrogative and then negative: a. The weather is getting colder and colder. b. It is pouring. c. The sun is shining in the sky. d. The clerks are attending a meeting with the manager. e. That gentleman is knocking at our door. f. The maid is answering the door.

g. The two friends are chatting over a glass of beer in the pub. h. Look! Those pedestrians are crossing the road now. i. The little girl is looking at herself in the mirror.


The secretary is moving the files and folders from one drawer into another.

2. Complete the sentences with the verbs given. Use the present continuous to imply that the situation is or may be temporary. a. This year Mary English in a school in Ankara. (teach) b. Banks more money these days to encourage business to expand. (lend) c. the Eurovision Song Contest place in Greece this year? (take) d. Even though Sally says she better, I think she still weight. (feel, lose) e. I money to go to the next World Cup. (save) f. Ben and Tom a lot of tennis this summer. (play)

g. We live in Bucharest, but we part in an international music festival here in London. (take) h. you with her letters while she is away? (deal) i. Eva only just from the operation and still it difficult to move about. She most of her time in bed. (recover, find, spend)

Practice File 3
WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURITY THE FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE The Future Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliaries shall (for the first person singular and plural) although it is more common to use will and will for the second and third persons singular and plural + bare infinitive of the main verb according to the pattern: Affirmative: subject + shall/will + V Negative: subject + shall/will + not + V Interrogative: shall/will + subject + V e.g. We shall be there on time. He will not come earlier. You will help him later. Will you help him later? You will not help him later.

INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) I, we shall write/ I, We shall not /shant write Shall I, we (not) Ill, Well write write?/Shant I, we write? You, he, she, it, You, he, she, it, they will not/ Will you, he, she, it, they they wont write. (not) write? will write Wont you, he, she, it write? Youll, hell, shell, itll, theyll write



The Future Tense Simple is used to express: an action that will happen in future. To specify the future moment when the action takes place the following adverbs or adverbial phrases are used: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next/ week, month, year, soon, in a months time, in three weeks time etc. decisions made at the moment of speaking. e.g. It's cold. I'll close the window. DONT FORGET! Will often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use will to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use will when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use will not or won't when we refuse to voluntarily do something. e.g. I will send you the information when I get it.

I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it. Will you help me move this heavy table? Will you make dinner? I will not do your homework for you. I won't do all the housework myself! Shall used in the second and third person carries the idea of promise: e.g. He shall come. You shall receive a present. Shall with the meaning (trebuie) s...is used in requests for orders or advice, offers, suggestions: e.g. Where shall we put this? Which one shall I take? Shall I fetch you a glass of water? Shall I open the window? In American English will is used for all persons in the future;

FUTURE TENSE NEVER OCCURS IN: Conditional sentences; instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used. e.g. Youll miss the train if you get up late. He wont pass the exam unless he learns.

NOTE: Unless has negative meaning (dac nu) and is always followed by a verb in the affirmative. Time Clauses: like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future: - Simple Present is used if the actions in the two sentences are simultaneous: Well discuss this matter when I come. - Present Perfect is used if the action in the subordinate clause is prior to that in the main clause: Ill go to the cinema after I have finished my homework.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS The Future Continuous is formed according to the patterns: Affirmative: subject + shall/will + be + V-ing Negative: subject + shall/will +not + be + V-ing Interrogative: shall/will + subject + be + V-ing

AFFIRMATIVE I, we shall be writing You, he, she, it, they will be writing

NEGATIVE I, we shall not be writing You, he, she, it, they will not be writing

INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Shall I, we (not) be writing? Will you, she, he, it, they (not) be writing?

The Future Continuous is used to express: an action in progress at a particular moment in the future. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. The progressive character of the action will be expressed by adverbs or adverb phrases: at...oclock, then, by that/ the time, this time tomorrow/ next week/ next month/, from...to (de la ...la), all the week/ month/ year through. e.g. This time tomorrow I shall be shopping. What will you be doing at eight oclock tonight? an action that will take place for a certain period of time in future: e.g. I shall be teaching tomorrow between 9 and 12 oclock.

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE The Future Prefect Simple is formed according to the patterns: Affirmative: subject + shall/will + have + past participle(=V-ed/V3) Negative: subject + shall/will +not + have + past participle Interrogative: shall/will + subject + have + past participle

AFFIRMATIVE I, you, he, she, it, they will have written

NEGATIVE I, you, he, she, it, they will not have written

INTERROGATIVE (NEGATIVE) Will I, you, she, he, it, they (not) have written?

We use the future perfect for actions that will have finished before a stated time in the future. e.g. We will have moved house by the end of June.

The time expressions we use with the future perfect are: before, by, by then, by the time, until/till (only in negative sentences) OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURITY Present Tense Continuous We use the present continuous: to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged.

e.g. Shes making a speech at the conference next week. to emphasise that we are talking about a definite arrangement, we prefer the present continuous.

e.g. Were having a party on Sunday, 12th November. Can you come? to talk about personal plans or predictions.

e.g. Im really exhausted. Im just staying in to watch TV tonight.

Going to We use S + to be + going to + V: to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged.

e.g. Were going to do some climbing in the Pyrenees.

TIP! When we talk about an intention to do something in the future, although no definite arrangement has been made, we prefer going to rather than the present continuous. e.g. Before I go to China next year, Im going to learn some Cantonese. to talk about permanent future situations.

e.g. People are going to live longer in the future. to make or report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control, whose cause is present or evident. I think its going to rain soon. Look at that tree! Its going to fall!


Present Tense Simple We use the present simple to talk about future events that are part of some official arrangement such as a timetable or a programme. e.g. Their plane arrives at 5.00 am. The next meeting of the committee is on November 5th.

Be to S + to be to + V is used to talk about formal or official arrangements, formal instructions, and to give orders. It is particularly common in news reports to talk about future events. We only use S + to be to + V to talk about things that can be controlled by people. e.g. Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. The European Parliament is to introduce a new law on safety at work. If humans are to survive as a species, we must address environmental issues now.

Be about to, be on the point of S + to be about to + V and S + to be on the point of + V-ing refer to the next moment. e.g. I think the play is about to start now. Mary is on the point of resigning.

Be due to S + to be due to + V refers to scheduled times. e.g. The play is due to start in five minutes.

Exercises 1. Make these sentences interrogative and then negative: a) Sophie will be shopping at this time tomorrow. b) Ill go to the theatre next Monday. c) Their train arrives at 4.00 p.m. d) Next year the company will be ten years old. e) I am going to stop smoking. f) We are flying to Scotland tomorrow.

g) Theres going to be an increase in the price of oil. 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal tense indicated in italics: a) We ................................. (meet) him outside the cinema at 6.30 p.m. (Present continuous) b) They .................................(find) a new supplier. (Going to) c) I expect it (be) another good year for us. (Future simple) d) Im busy now but I (call) you back in half an hour. (Future Simple) e) He . (have) lunch with Tom Barrymore on Friday at 1 p.m. (Present continuous) f) you .. (come) to the concert? (Future continuous)

g) By the time you get home I . (clean) the house from top to bottom. (Future perfect) h) I.. (let) you know when she (get) here. (Future simple, Present simple) i) I still (not feel) very well, so I think I (see) the doctor some time this week. (Present continuous, going to) We (get off) the train in Brasov and (continue) by bus. (Present simple x2)


k) I (say) more about that topic in my next lecture. (Future continuous)

Practice file 4
Language focus
Countable and uncountable nouns

Write in a or an where necessary to make complete sentences: 1. Katie rarely has biscuit with her coffee. a 2. Mary eats apple every morning. . 3. Tom doesnt like milk in his tea. . 4. Peter normally eats meat for lunch. . 5. Robert occasionally puts butter on his potatoes. . 6. Joan usually has salad with her roast beef. .

Most of these sentences have a mistake in them. Correct them. If there is no mistake, write right. The first one has been done for you 1. Its very difficult to find a cheap accommodation in London. to find cheap accommodation... 2. Its not a bad room, but the furnitures take up too much space. . 3. As an old friend, may I give you some piece of advice? .. 4. We need up-to-date informations to make right decisions. .. 5. Please give me some paper to finish my report. ..

Fill in the gaps with the singular or the plural form of the noun in brackets: 7. Young people have spirit of ............................... (adventure) 8. Im reading Alices ...................... in Wonderland. (adventure) 9. The history of the ancient .......................... of Asia is fascinating. (people) 10. He enjoys meeting ............................ from different countries. (people) Some, any, no Affirmative SOME She has some good Interrogative Can I have some tea? Negative

ideas. ANY Any good ideas will help. Does she have any good ideas? She doesnt have any good ideas. She has no good ideas.


Much, many, a lot

There are other different ways to express quantity: with countable nouns: a(n), few, a few, many, both (of), several, neither (of) (e.g. a few dollars, several pounds) with uncountable nouns: very little, not much, a little, less, much, a great deal of (e.g. very little money, less tax)

with both countable and uncountable nouns: some, any, no, none, hardly any, half,

all, a lot of, lots of, (not) enough, more, most (e.g. some money, hardly any cash) Underline the right answer: 1. We have bought (much / many) peaches and apricots for a fruit salad. 2. How (much / many) many glasses do we still have? 3. There is (little / few) orange juice left in the bottle. 4. I have received ((much / many) valuable information for my article. 5. She made (few / little) mistakes in her report. 6. (Much / Many) people visited the new exhibition. Fill in the gaps with suitable expressions of quantity from the list below. a few some some more a couple hardly any a lot any at least three

A: Can you lend me money? I forgot to go to the bank. B: Well, Ive only got pound left. A: Oh, dear. I need quite . Dont worry, Ill go to the bank when I go shopping.

B: If youre going shopping, can you get me of bottles of water? You can get bottled water at shop on the high street. A: Yes, and we need tins of tomatoes. Im making spaghetti bolognese tonight. Weve got beans. Shall I get beans as well? B: All right.

Business Communication
The main parts of a letter of Complaint are; State reason for writing letter Expand on complaints. State first complaint State second complaint

Call to action. Demand compensation.

Case study/Activity:
Study the different prepositions in these sentences:

The sauce is made of butter and parsley. Oatmeal is made from oats. Porridge is made in Scotland. The chocolates are made by hand. The menu is made up of starters, main courses, and desserts.

Take an object from your handbag, or choose an object from the room and make up sentences about it, using the expressions in bold above.

Practice file 4

I, he, she, it WAS I, he, she, it WAS NOT WAS I, he, she, it?

You, we, you, they WERE You, we, you, they WERE NOT WERE you, we, you, they?

TO HAVE REMEMBER! HAD is the past tense of to have for all persons. COULD is the past tense of can for all persons.

Conjugation of a regular verb in the past tense simple AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE Did I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they work?

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, I, you, he, she, it, they worked we, you, they did not/ didnt work

Conjugation of an irregular verb in the past tense simple

AFFIRMATIVE I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they wrote

NEGATIVE I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they did not/ didnt write

INTERROGATIVE Did I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they write?

1. Put the verbs in the past tense: Last week we (go) on holiday at the seaside. We (leave) early on Monday morning. We (stay) in a lovely hotel by the sea. The weather (be) lovely all week. It (not rain) at all. We (spend) most days sitting on the beach. Every evening we (have) dinner in the hotel restaurant or in a club in town. The food and service (be) excellent. After dinner we (walk) along the beach in the moonlight. We (return) on Sunday evening. It was such a beautiful holiday that we (not want) to come back. 2. Make question to match the following answers:

1. They arrived late at night. 2. It cost a lot of money. 3. I bought it from the new outlet. 4. We dont know why he did that. 5. It took us several hours to drive back home. 6. The secretary told him. 7. She studied languages abroad. 8. The manager retired last month. 3. Rephrase the following sentences about the weather expressed by IT WAS + ADJECTIVE by THERE WAS/WERE + A NOUN: Model: It was terribly cold last winter. There was a terrible cold last winter. 1. It was rainy last autumn. (use a lot of) 2. It was awfully muddy last autumn. 3. It was cloudy last autumn. 4. It was awfully snowy last winter. 5. It was awfully frosty last year. 6. It was awfully windy yesterday. 7. It was awfully stormy yesterday. 8. It was awfully hot these three last summers (use heat). 9. It was awfully foggy yesterday morning. 10. It was terribly dusty in the park. 11. It was terribly sleety two days ago. 12. It was terribly droughty these four last years. 13. It was stormy last spring. 4. Choose the correct answer from those given. 1. ................... he in when his wife called? a. Wasn't b. Weren't c. Were being d. Was been 2. .................... she answer the telephone when he called? a) Did b) Do c) Is d) Are

3. It................ a nice evening to go out for a walk. a) weren't b) wasn't c) was being not d) was not being 4. Yesterday, he.................. all day at the office. a) works b) worked c) is working d) work 5. The driver ................. his car in time to avoid the accident. a) didn't stop b) don't stop c) not stopped d) not doing stop 6. I.................. to the bank to deposit some money. a) go b) gone c) went d) going 8. We............... sandwiches on our picnic. a) eats b) ate c) eated d) eaten She................. a bicycle until she had an accident. a) rid b) ride c) ridden d) rode

5. Give the correct forms of the verbs: The old woman She I (fall) when she (drop) her bag when she (get) wet while (cross) the road. (run) after the bus. (walk) in the rain.

While the maid As soon as I Some children

(clean) the hotel room a thief (get) under the shower, the telephone (slip) and (fall) while they

(enter) through the window. (ring). (climb) the mountain.

When she (have) lunch a waiter (drop) a plate of soup in her lap. As it (start) to rain we (cancel) the picnic.

Practice file 6
Language focus


Complete each sentence with a word or phrase for the box below: could must dont have to mustnt didnt have to have to had to

must have

might have


1. Before we agree, well have to study the draft in more detail. 2. You .. to type the letter yourself the secretary will do it for you. 3. Sorry I cant join you now. I .. finish my report by the end of the day. 4. Luckily, the meeting was postponed, so I to stay long at work. 5. You . smoke here. The college has a non-smoking policy. 6. Im not sure, but I think we . made a mistake. 7. Tom . leave early, so he missed the conference. 8. In my opinion, they accept out proposal. Its the best theyll get. 9. If they send us all the information, we ... give them the answer in due time. 10. Liam looked so tired he . had a very busy day.


Rewrite these phrases to make them more diplomatic:

1. That will be difficult. 2. I want to make a change in the plan. 3. Can I finish what I was saying? 4. We wont meet the deadline. 5. Your proposal is not good. 6. I need more time for that.

.... ....


Usage a before a consonant or a semivowel an before a vowel or mute h

The indefinite article is used: with singular nouns when mentioned for the first time with singular nouns which represent a class of things after the verb to be: - with man, woman, child, etc. - to express nationality, profession in expressions of price, speed, ratio (a/an = per) with certain numbers

Examples a man a hat a watch a university a European an apple an egg an uncle an island an hour I live in a nice flat. She has a daughter. A fridge is a very useful thing in our homes. A child needs love. Dont shout at him! Hes only a child. I am a Romanian. He is an architect. (but He is elected director temporary position) 15p a kilo 65 km an hour six times a day 11,000 a month a dozen a hundred a thousand 1 kilo = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half (but half a kilo) Its a pity. Its a shame. What a nice man! Such a long way!

in some expressions and exclamations

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE Usage The definite article is used: before objects that are unique or wellknown before a noun defined by a phrase or clause before a singular noun which represents a class of objects with adjectives to represent a class of people collectively before superlatives, ordinal numbers with proper names: - seas, rivers, group of islands - chains of mountains, deserts - certain countries and cities - newspapers, ships, hotels - organisations - plural surnames (= the whole family) - names consisting of noun + of + noun or adjective + noun after prepositions Examples the earth the stars the sea the wind the shop round the corner the place where I met him The washing machine has made life easier for housewives. The old have to be respected. The English have many hobbies. the best results the first place the Pacific the Thames the Azores the Carpathians the Sahara the Netherlands the Hague the Times the Titanic the Ritz the European Union the BBC (but Kodak IBM names of companies) The Johnsons will go on holiday. the Tower of London the Gulf of Mexico the British Museum the Far East He laid his notebook on the table.

ZERO ARTICLE Usage There is no article (zero article): before plural nouns before uncountable and abstract nouns before names of meals Examples I bought apples and grapes. Money does not bring happiness. (but The happiness of the young married was great.) He has bacon and eggs for breakfast. (but The breakfast I had in that hotel was excellent.) History studies past events. (but The history of that country is fascinating.) He arrived home. She is at work now. He went to university (to study). She goes to church on Sundays (to pray). He was taken to hospital (as patient). He is at sea (as sailor). I went to town to buy clothes. (but This is the new home for orphans. Ill wait for you outside the university. The church is a very old building. The hospital was renovated. He goes to the sea every summer.) Uncle David Mr Norfolk Asia North America Canada Central Europe Madagascar Everest Lake Ontario London Venice Regent Street Hyde Park

before names of subjects before home, work, school/ college/ university, church, hospital, sea, town

with some proper names: names and surnames continents, countries, regions islands, mountains, lakes cities, towns, streets, parks before noun + numbers

chapter 5 5

page 123

room 476

bus 19


Business Communication
Write a report for your company about the following: you were sent on a residential language training course for five days. Unfortunately, the course was not satisfactory. Imagine what it might get wrong. Then write the report and suggestion what your company should do. Write 100-200 words.

Practice file 7
THE IRREGULAR COMPARISON Some adjectives have irregular comparisons: COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY better worse more less farther, further later older, elder nearer SUPERLATIVE RELATIVE the best the worst the most the least the farthest, the furthest the latest, the last the oldest, the eldest the nearest, the next

POZITIVE good, well bad, ill, badly much, many little far late old near

The following adjectives and adverbs have the same form: Adjective close daily early fair far fast hard high late low right wrong Adverb close daily early fair far fast hard high late low right wrong

These adverbs have two forms: without -ly fair free high late most near pretty right with -ly fairly freely highly lately mostly nearly prettily rightly ADVERBS

Adverbs usually qualify a verb or a verb phrase and tell more about the manner, time, place or circumstances of the action or state denoted by the verb or verb phrase. e.g. The old woman walked slowly. We return soon. Samantha drives carefully. Suddenly I heard a noise. An adverb can also modify an adjective or another adverb. e.g. This is a very beautiful girl. I was pleasantly surprised. I can see it quite clearly.

Types of adverbs:

Adverbs of time

Provide information about the time of the activity or state denoted by the verb. Examples are: today, yesterday, last year, ago, soon, early, late, daily, already, before etc. e.g. I have seen him before. She visited us yesterday. He died 2 years ago.

Adverbs of place

Provide information about the place of the activity or state denoted by the verb. Examples are: here, there, above, up, down, below, out, in, far, near, away etc. e.g. Please come here. I couldnt find him anywhere. We looked for him everywhere.

Adverbs of manner

Answer the question how or in what manner. Examples are: slowly, carefully, sweetly, honestly, sincerely, truly, stupidly, beautifully, badly etc. Note that most adverbs ending in ly function as adverbs of manner. e.g. She walked fast. He cried aloud. They fought bravely. You must work hard.

Adverbs of degree

Show the degree or extent of an action or state. Examples are: little, enough, much, too, many, fully etc. e.g. She was very sweet. He is quiet wrong. You are absolutely correct. I have almost finished.

Adverbs of frequency

Answer the question how often. Examples are: often, never, ever, always, sometimes, generally, usually, seldom, rarely, hardly ever, frequently, once, firstly, secondly, again, etc.

e. g. He called me twice. He has always been very helpful. I have never seen him before.

Interrogative adverbs

Interrogative adverbs are used at the beginning of a sentence to ask questions. Examples are: when, where, how, why etc. e.g. Why are you crying? When are you going to get a job? How are you? Where do you live? Place of adverbs Adverbs should be placed as nearly as possible to the verbs they modify. Although some adverbs can occur only in fixed positions in a sentence, most adverbs can come at different places in a sentence. With intransitive verbs place the adverb immediately after it.

e.g. He laughed aloud. He worked hard. She smiled sweetly. They walked fast. She spoke fluently. They arrived late. She walked slowly. They sang beautifully. With transitive verbs place the adverb immediately after the object.

e.g. She combed her hair carefully. He drew the picture beautifully. She offered her help willingly. She suffered the pain bravely. He refuted the charge effectively. He gave his reply immediately. Adverbs of time (always, before, never, often) are usually placed before the verb.

e.g. He seldom comes to see me. They never admitted their fault. We always try to help him. When the verb consists of an auxiliary verb and a principal verb, the modifying adverb is placed between the two. If there are two auxiliaries, the adverb is placed between them.

e.g. He was greatly praised for his brave act. I have always wanted to write a novel. I should never have thought it possible. One couldnt possibly have suspected her. I have not had the time to look into the matter. An adverb is placed before an adjective or another adverb which it modifies. The adverb enough comes after the adjective which it modifies. e.g. He was foolish enough to trust her. She is old enough to take care of herself. The adverb only should be placed immediately before the word which it modifies. Note the change in the meaning of a sentence according to the change in the position of only. e.g. Only Alice helped me to finish the work. (Only Alice and no one else helped me to finish the work.) Alice only helped me to finish the work. (Alice helped me to finish the work, but she didnt actually do the work.)

e.g. She is very beautiful. You are absolutely correct. She is rather careless.


1. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives: dry, common, honest, handsome, noble, narrow, pleasant, polite, clever, severe, sincere, shallow, humble, remote, healthy, tender, convenient. 2. Make sentences according to the patterns: a) Model: tall/ my brother/ my mother/ my father My brother is tall. My mother is taller than my brother. But my father is the tallest of all. high/ house/ block of flats/ sky scraper; rich/ I/ he/ she; nice/ my daughter/ my niece/ my Goddaughter; cheap/ a tie/ a pair of socks/ a handkerchief; fat/ a turkey/ a pig/ a cow; tasty/ an apple/ an ice-cream/ a chocolate b) Model: expensive fur coat/ she/ to see This was the most expensive fur coat she had ever seen. exciting view/ we / to admire: wonderful holiday/ the children/ to spend difficult task/ the accountant/ to solve; handsome actor / the woman/ to be introduced; amusing joke/ the entertainer/ to tell. educated person/ the audience/ to listen to; 3. Comment on the following statements using BE + NEVER/ ALWAYS + ADJECTIVE. Model: My brother is not cold. Well, you know your brother, hes never cold. He is tired. Well, you know him, hes always tired. 1. Our neighbours are late again. 2. These dogs are hungry again. 3. Isnt father hot? 4. He is thirsty again. 5. The boss is angry again. 6. These clerks are hard working people.

7. That man is rude again. 8. Mary is afraid of our dog. 9. My sister is being careless again. 10. The Browns are noisy again. 4. Can + be + adjective has the meaning of capacity. Change the following sentences into this construction, omitting the underlined adverbs: Model: Little Mary is sometimes very annoying. Little Mary can be very annoying. 1. She is sometimes very sarcastic. 2. Children are sometimes very naughty. 3. He is quite amusing when he wants to be. 4. This drug is occasionally useful in the treatment of pneumonia. 5. Some persons are sometimes extremely helpful. 6. Women are very curious most of the time. 7. Women are talkative most of the time. 5. Fill in the words in brackets as adjective or adverb like in the example. e.g.: Peter works ______ (slow). Answer: Peter works slowly. 1. This worker 2. Mandy is a 3. The class is 4. Max is a 5. You can 6. It's a 8. He is a 9. He drives the car 10. The dog barks reads a book. (quick) girl. (pretty) loud today. (terrible) singer. (good) open this tin. (easy) day today. (terrible) . (good) . (careful) . (loud) driver. (careful)

7. She sings the song

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