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Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia that is characterized by an inflammation of the lung generally associated with, and

following a bout with bronchitis. This is really a specific type of pneumonia that is localized in the bronchioles and surrounding
alveoli. This article provides a general overview of this condition, including symptoms and treatment options for those who have been
diagnosed with bronchopneumonia. The most common pneumonia-causing bacterium in adults is Streptococcus pneumoniae
(pneumococcus)

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Etiologic Agent: Predisposing Factors:


• Bacteria * Elderly
• Virus * Hospitalization
* Immobilization
* Immune Deficiency
* Long Term Illness
* Smoking

Microorganism enter alveolar


Spaces by droplet inhalation


Inflammation occurs


Alveolar fluid increase


Ventilation decreases as secretion thicken


Bronchopneumonia

Empyema Pleurisy
(collection of pus & liquid (Inflammation of membrane)
From infected tissue)

Lung Abscess
(collection of pus, inflammation
& destruction of tissue)


Cancer of the lung


Death

Pathophysiology:

Inoculation of the respiratory tract by infectious organisms leads to an acute inflammatory response in the host that is typically 1-2
weeks in duration. This inflammatory response differs according to the type of infectious agent present.

Viral Infection
These are characterized by the accumulation of mononuclear cells in the submucosa and perivascular space, resulting in partial
obstruction of the airway. They clinically manifest as wheezing and crackles.

Disease progresses when the alveolar type II cells lose their structural integrity and surfactant production is diminished, a hyaline
membrane forms, and pulmonary edema develops.

Bacterial Infection

The alveoli fill with proteinaceous fluid, which triggers a brisk influx of red blood cells and polymorphonuclear cells (red
hepatization) followed by the deposition of fibrin and the degradation of inflammatory cells (gray hepatization).

During resolution, intra - alveolar debris is ingested and removed by the alveolar macrophages. This consolidation leads to decreased
air entry and dullness to percussion. Inflammation in the small airways leads to crackles. Wheezing is less common than in viral
infections.

Inflammation and pulmonary edema resulting from these infections causes the lungs to become stiff and less distensible, thereby
decreasing tidal volume. The patient must increase his respiratory rate to maintain adequate ventilation.

DRUG STUDY

DRUG USES SIDE EFFECTS CONSIDERATIONS

Generic Name: Prophylaxis and Headache, N&V, • When given by


Salbutamol treatment of palpitations, nebulization, use face
bronchospasm d/t Tachycardia, tremor, mask or mouthpiece
Brand name: reversible obstructive bronchospasm • Monitor pulmonary
Ventolin proventil airway disease. status
Inhalation solution for
Classification: acute bronchospasm
Sympathomimetic attacks. Stimulates
beta-II receptor of
Dosage: bronchi leading to
½ tsp – tid broncho dilation

DRUG USES SIDE EFFECTS CONSIDERATION

Generic Name: Prophylaxis and Anorexia • Assess for any allergic


Hydrocortisone treatment of chronic N&V reaction
sodium succinate bronchial asthma, Lethargy • Monitor v/s, I&O, and
perennial rhinitis, Headache weight
Brand name; symptomatic Fever • Avoid alcohol and
A-hydrocort solucortef sarcoidosis Joint pain caffeine
Desquamation
Dosage: Myalgia
15 mg – IV q6 Weight loss
Hypotension
Classification:
Corticosteroids
DRUG NAME USES SIDE EFFECTS CONSIDERATION
Generic Name: Analgesics and Rare side effects: Check the time and
Paracetamol antipyretic commonly dosage before
used for relief of fever, Hives; rash; administering.
Brand Name: head aches and other Shortness of breath.
Tylenol, Biogesic minor pains and aches. Assess for possible drug
Tempra Prolonged & habitual reactions.
use may lead to liver
Route: damage or failure.
Oral, Rectal

Dosage:
Q4h/Q6h

Available forms:
Tablet and suppository

DRUG NAME USES SIDE EFFECTS CONSIDERATION


Generic Name:
Cefuroxime For lower respiratory Most common: Asses for possible S&S
tract infection due to S. Diarrhea/loose stools, of drug reaction.
Brand Name: pneumoniae, UTI’s due abdominal pain & N/V
Zinacef, Ceftin to e. coli & skin and Asses for anemia &
skin structure due to s. renal dysfunction.
Route: aureus
IV

Dosage:
125 mg/q6

Classification:
Cephalosporin, Second
Generation

DRUG NAME USES SIDE EFFECTS CONSIDERATION


Generic Name:
Ceftriaxone For lower respiratory Most common: Asses for possible S&S
tract infection due to S. Diarrhea, rash, nausea, of drug reaction.
Brand Name: pneumoniae, UTI’s due pain, induration
Rocephin to e. coli & skin and tenderness at injection Asses for GI disease.
skin structure due to s. site
Route: aureus Monitor renal
IV dysfunction.

Dosage:
250 mg

Classification:
Cephalosporin, Third
Generation

DRUG NAME USES SIDE EFFECTS CONSIDERATION


Generic Name:
Ambroxol HCL A mucolytic agent used GI side effects like Asses for possible S&S
in the treatment of epigastric pain, gastric of drug reaction.
Brand Name: respiratory disorders fullness may also occur.
Bromussyl, Ambolyt associated with viscid or Rare allergic responses Asses for GI disease.
excessive mucus. It is such as eruption,
Route: the active ingredient of urticaria & Monitor renal
IV link Mucosolvan or link angioneurotic edema dysfunction.
Mucoangin. may also occur.
Dosage & Strenth
Syrup 30mg/5 ml