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Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II

Edited by EDWARD D. PALIK Institute of Physical Sciences and Technology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland

ACADEMIC PRESS, INC.


Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers
Boston San Diego New York London Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Contents
List of Contributors Preface xv xix

Part I

DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CONSTANTS Introductory Remarks

Chapter 1

EDWARD D. PALIK
II.

r.

m. IV.
V. VI. VII.

Introduction The Chapters The Critiques The Tables The Figures of the Tables General Remarks Errata References Convention Confusions R. T. HOLM Introduction Units Wave Equation Polarization Fresnel's Amplitude Reflection Coefficients Nomenclature Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Methods for Determining Optical Parameters of Thin Films E. PELLETIER Introduction An Example of Comparison between the Different Techniques of Index Determination Principle Methods of Index Determination Sensitivity and Accuracy of the Determination Methods Overlapping and Tests of Validity of the Model Results and Conclusion References

3 3 5 6 7 7 8 11 21

Chapter 2 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.

21 22 22 26 37 50 51 52 52

Chapter 3

57 57 58 60 64 67 71 71

I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

VI

Contents

Chapter 4 I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

The Attenuated Total Reflection Method G. J. SPROKEL AND J. D. SWALEN Introduction Surface-Plasmon Oscillations Optical Analysis of ATR Structures Guided Modes Applications of ATR Conclusion References

75 75 77 81 84 87 94 94 97
97 98 101 109 112 118 120 122 122

Chapter 5
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Chapter 6

Optical Properties of Superlattices P. APELLANDO. HUNDERI


Introduction The Classical Optical Response of a Multilayer System Semiconductor Superlattices Amorphous Superlattices Collective Excitations Lattice Disorder The Effect of Nonlocal Dielectric Functions Concluding Remarks References Caiculation of the Refractive Index of Compound Semiconductors below the Band Gap B. JENSEN
Introduction The Quantum-Density-Matrix Formulation of the Complex Dielectric Constant Comparison with Experimental Results Summary References

125
125 128 138 147 148

I. II. III. IV.

Chapter 7

Caiculation of Optical Constants, n and k, in the Interband Region A. R. FOROUHI A N D I. BLOOMER


Introduction The Extinction Coefficient, k(E), and the Refractive Index,

151
151 154 163 166 174 175

I. II. III. IV. V.

n(E)
Discussion Examples Summary References

Chapter 8

Temperature Dependence of the Complex Index of Refraction MICHAEL E. THOMAS Introduction Temperature Dependence of n and k

177 177 179

I. II.

VII

III.

Conclusions References Measurement of n and * in the XUV by the Angle-of-Incidence Total-External-Reflectance Method

199 199

Chapter 9

203

MARION L. SCOTT
I. II. III. IV. V. Introduction General Considerations Aluminum Reflectance versus Angle in UHV Determination of n and k Comparison with Other Results References 203 204 206 207 210 212 213

Chapter 10 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the 6-35 eV Region


J. BARTH, R. L. JOHNSON, AND M. CARDONA
I. iL Introduction The Bessy VUV Eilipsometer Theory Results and Comparison with Reflectance Spectra Summary Acknowledgment References

m.

IV. V.

213 217 226 237 244 245 245

Chapter 11 Methods Based on Multiple-Slit Fourier Transform


Interferometry for Oetermining Thin-Film Optical Constants in the VUV/Soft X-Ray Range ROMAN TATCHYN I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Introduction to MSFTI Fundamental Dimensional Constraints and Inequalities Relationship of MSFTI to Alternative Metrological Techniques General Experimental Equations and Sensitivity Analysis A Characterization of the Optical Constants of Au Using MSFTI in the 280-640 e V Range Problems and Prospects in Sample Preparation Prospects for MSFTI in Other Spectral Regimes Summary Acknowledgments References Determination of Optical Constants from Angular-Dependent, Photoelectric-Yield Measurements H.-G. BIRKEN, C. BLESSING, A N D C. KUNZ I. II. III. Introduction Theoretical Background Experimental Details 279 280 285 247 253 254 258 265 270 272 273 274 274 247

Chapter 12

279

VIII

Contents

IV. V. Chapter 13

Examples Conclusions and Future Prospects References Determination of Optical Constants by High-Energy, Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) J. PFLGER AND J. FINK Introduction Description of an EELS Experiment Scattering Cross-Section Exact Determination of the Loss Function Kramers-Kronig Analysis Brief Summary of the Evaluation Procedure Comparison with Reflectivity Measurements Optical Properties of TiC, VC, TiN, and VN References Optical Parameters for the Materials in HOC I and HOCH EDWARD D. PALIK Introduction The Parameters References

286 289 292

293

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Chapter 14

293 295 297 298 299 300 300 303 310

313

I. II.

313 313 334

Part II Subpart 1

CRITIQUES Metals An Introduction to the Data for Several Metals DAVID W. LYNCH A N D W. R. HUNTER 341
341 341 342 344 345 347 354 357 364 367 374 376 385 387 396 397 408 409

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.

Introduction References Alkali Metals References Lithium (Li) References Sodium (Na) References Potassium (K) References Chromium (Cr) References Iron (Fe) References Niobium (Nb) References Tantalum (Ta) References

Contents

IX

Beryllium (Be) E. T . A R A K A W A , T . A . C A L L C O T T , A N D YUN-CHING CHANG References Cobalt (Co) L. W A R D References Graphite (C) A. B O R G H E S I A N D G. G U I Z Z E T T I References Liquid Mercury (Hg) E. T. A R A K A W A A N D T. I N A G A K I References Palladium (Pd) A . B O R G H E S I A N D A . PIAGGI References Vanadium (V) G. G U I Z Z E T T I A N D A . PIAGGI References 480 472 477 465 469 453 461 440 449 421 425 435

Subpart 2

Semiconductors Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) E D W A R D D. PALIK, O . J . G L E M B O C K I , A N D KENICHI T A K A R A B E Acknowledgments References Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) D A V I D F. E D W A R D S A N D R I C H A R D H. W H I T E References Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (ASa, ^As) O. J . G L E M B O C K I A N D K. T A K A R A B E Acknowledgments References 515 515 505 513 492 492 501 489

Contents

Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) H. PILLER References Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) L. WARD References Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) DAVID F. EDWARDS A N D RICHARD H. WHITE References Silicon-Germanium Alloys (SUGe,-*) J. HUMLICEK, F. LUKES, AND E. SCHMIDT References Lead Tin Telluride (PbSnTe) H. PILLER References Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg,_,CdJe) P. M. AMIRTHARAJ Acknowledgments References Selenium (Se) EDWARD D. PALIK Acknowledgments References Cubic Silicon Carbide (-SiC) SAMUEL A. ALTEROVITZ AND JOHN A. WOOLLAM References Tellurium (Te) EDWARD D. PALIK Acknowledgments References Tin Telluride (SnTe) H. PILLER References

559 563 579 586 597 601 607 611 637 639 655 666 667 691 693 694 705

706 709 713 713 725 727

Contents

Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) L. WARD References Subpart 3 Insulators Aluminum Oxide (Al203) FRANQOIS GERVAIS References Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON) Spinel WILLIAM J. TROPF AND MICHAEL E. THOMAS References Notes Added in Proof Barium Titanate (BaTi03) CHUEN W O N G , YE Y U N G TENG, J . ASHOK, A N D P. L. H. VARAPRASAD Acknowledgments References Beryllium Oxide (BeO) DAVID F. EDWARDS A N D RICHARD H. WHITE References Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) D. F. BEZUIDENHOUT References Amorphous Hydrogenated "Diamondlike" Carbon Films and Arc-Evaporated Carbon Films SAMUEL A. ALTEROVITZ, N. SAVVIDES, F. W. SMITH, AND JOHN A. WOOLLAM References Cesium lodide (Csl) JOHN E. ELDRIDGE References Copper Oxides (CiijO, CuO) CARL G. RIBBING AND ARNE ROOS References

737

747

761 764 777

780 781 789

793 793 sos 807 815 825 837

840 853 857 875 878

XII

Contents

Magnesium Aluminium Spinel (MgAljOJ WILLIAM J . TROPF A N D MICHAEL E. THOMAS References Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) T H O M A S M. COTTER, MICHAEL E. T H O M A S , A N D W I L L I A M J . TROPF References Magnesium Oxide (MgO) DAVID M . ROESSLER A N D DONALD R. HUFFMAN Acknowledgments References Polyethylene [CJUX J . ASHOK, P. L H. VARAPRASAD, A N D J . R. BIRCH References Potassium Bromide (KBr) EDWARD D. PALIK References Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KH2P0 KDP) and
Three of Its Isomorphs

883

887 899

903 919

939 939 957

968 989 992

IOOS

DAVID F. EDWARDS A N D RICHARD H. WHITE References Sodium Fluoride (NaF) I. OHDAL A N D K. NAVRTIL References Strontium Titanate (SrTi03) FRANCOIS GERVAIS References Thorium Fluoride (ThF,) I. OHLiDAL A N D K. NAVRTIL References 1054 1037 1049 1024 1035 1008 1021

Contents Water (H20) MARTIN R. QUERRY, DAVID M. WIELICZKA, A N D DAVID J . SEGELSTEIN References Yttrium Oxide (Y203) WILLIAM J . TROPF A N D MICHAEL E. THOMAS References Notes Added in Proof

xiii 1059

1063 1079

1084 1086