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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Setting

Introduction

The problem focuses in interacting with patients that are mentally-ill, the proper ways on handling and providing proper care they need. We know that this kind of patients are very unpredictable, they can be dangerous in ways that will result to injuries on the health provider.

Schizophrenia is a mental illness. The first acute episode can be a devastating experience, particularly as both the person experiencing the illness and those close to him will be unprepared1. About one in a hundred people world-wide experience at least one such episode at some time during their lives, although the highest incidence is in the late teens and early 20's. About a quarter of people who develop schizophrenia recover within five years. Approximately two-thirds of those who develop the condition experience fluctuating symptoms over many years. About ten to fifteen percent experience severe long term incapacity. In about one quarter of cases there is eventually a full recovery. The majority will have long periods of good functioning, with occasional problems. The recent discovery of new forms of treatment may lead to further improvement in rates of recovery, particularly if everyone involved, for instance, both the person with schizophrenia and their family, learns to understand how to cope2.

In schizophrenia the activity of chemical messengers at certain nerve endings in the brain is unusual and this may be a clue to the causes of the disorder. During what is sometimes

ENDNOTES

1 th

4 year CEU Students, A Comprehensive Case Study on Schizophrenia and Psychiatric

Patients. 1992, pages 16-18.


2

Dennis C. Daley. Dual disorders: mental illness. United States of America Hazelden

c1997.
3

Vernon F. Jones. Creating effective programs for students with emotional and behavior

disordes. Borton,MA:Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, c2004.


4

Frederick J. Fuoco. Behavioral procedures for a psychiatric unit and hallway house. New

York van Nostrand Reinhold c1951.


5

Andy K. Alazewski. Institutional Care and Mentally Handicapped. London Crown Helm

c1996.
6

Jerome H. Rothstein. Mental Retardation: Reading and Resources. New York Rinehart.

and Winston c1971,2nd ed.


7

William C. Cockerham. Sociology of mental disorder/William cockerham. New Jersey

Prentice Hall, c1996,4th ed.


8

Richard M. Sanders, Behavioral Modification in a rehabilitation facility. Edwardsville

Southern Illinois University. C1975.


9

Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Depression. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Illness. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Intervention. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Medicaion. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Mental.

10

11

12

13

14

Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Patient. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Schizophrenia.

15

CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

This chapter includes discussion on related foreign and local studies which provide relevant facts about Schizophrenia.

Foreign Literature Drexer, Sharon M. in the book, A guide to nursing management of Psychiatric patients. Provides information in dealing with psychiatric patients in terms of providing proper care and intervention for their recovery. Mendelson, Janice A. in A manual for the surgical management of the psychiatric patient. Discussed the surgical ways in treating a psychiatric patient, its benefits, side effects, its progress and the recovery of the patient.

Local Literature Vargas, Josefina Q. in World Fellowship for Schizophrenia and Allied Disrorders: Visit in Manila 2000. Destigmatisation: Promoting Partnerships among Families and Caregivers Towards A Caring Community

ENDNOTES

Jerome H. Rothstein. Mental Retardation: Reading and Resources. New York Rinehart

and Winston c1971,2nd ed.


2

Jerome H. Rothstein. Mental Retardation: Reading and Resources. New York Rinehart

and Winston c1971,2nd ed.


3

Jerome H. Rothstein. Mental Retardation: Reading and Resources. New York Rinehart

and Winston c1971,2nd ed.


4

http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article. http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article/10168/1402540? http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article/10168/1402540?pageNu

mber=2.
7 th

4 year CEU Students. A Comprehensive case study on Schizophrenia and Psychiatric

Patients. 1992, pages 16,17,18.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books without Author 4th year CEU Students, A Comprehensive Case Study on Schizophrenia and Psychiatric Patients. 1992, pages 16-18.

Books with Author Alazewski, Andy K. Institutional Care and Mentally Handicapped. London Crown Helm c1996. Cockerham, William C. Sociology of mental disorder/William cockerham. New Jersey Prentice Hall, c1996,4th ed. Daley, Dennis C. Dual disorders: mental illness. United States of America Hazelden c1997. Fuoco, Frederick J. Behavioral procedures for a psychiatric unit and hallway house. New York van Nostrand Reinhold c1951. Jones, Vernon F. Creating effective programs for students with emotional and behavior disordes. Borton,MA:Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, c2004. Livanainen, Matti C. A study on the origins of mental retardation. England Spastics International Medical [c1974]. Mendelson, Janice A. A manual for the surgical management of the psychiatric patient. Springfield, III. Charles C. Thomas c1963. Parr, Hester Q. Mental Health and Social space: towards inclusionary geographies. Poser, Charles M. Mental retardation:diagnosis and treatment. N.Y.: Harper and Row, [c1969].

Rothstein, Jerome H. Mental Retardation: Reading and Resources. New York Rinehart and Winston c1971,2nd ed. Sanders, Richard M. Behavioral Modification in a rehabilitation facility. Edwardsville Southern Illinois University. C1975.

Electronic Sources Http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article. Http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article/10168/1402540? Http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/content/article/10168/1402540?pageNumber=2. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Depression. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Illness. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Intervention. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Medicaion. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Mental. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Patient. Http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Schizophrenia.

Chapter 3

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary

This Chapter presents the findings of the study, the conclusion based on the data gathered and the recommendation that may be valuable to future reference.

Epidemiological and biological data strongly suggest an integral relationship between OCD and schizophrenia in the comorbid subgroup of patients. The epidemiological data strongly suggest a unique relationship between these 2 disorders, given the marked degree of comorbidity that has been consistently observed and which appears to represent more than just a spurious association. Although pedigree and genetic studies of this overlap group are limited, preliminary findings suggest intriguing genetic influences on comorbid symptom expression. The neurobiological data on each disorder suggest the involvement of common brain regions and neurotransmitter systems. However, more neuroimaging studies in the overlap group are required to determine whether specific structural abnormalities unique to this putative subtype are present Neuropsychological testing has generally revealed more severe impairment among patients in this comorbid group, which suggests a specific and active interaction between these 2 disease processes, but it has not identified a unique pattern of impairment.