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Section A: (a) List some of the problems (at least 5) that it can cause for society Action 1: Problems:

1. Idea Theft 2. Fraud and Deception 3. Peer Disrespect 4. Personal Integrity is damaged 5. Original author is not acknowledged through this Action 2: Problems: 1. Can creates charges of favoritism against organization 2. Can creates conflict of interests 3. Can cause loss of productivity by hiring undeserving person 4. Can create the situation of family discord 5. This can also cause law suits against organization Action 3: Problems 1. Creates biased professionalism 2. Creates biased decision making

3. Creates conflict of interest 4. Can cause discriminatory actions by employee for different suppliers 5. Can cause law suits against organization Action 4: Problems: 1. Can cause legal actions against organization if the truth about Saeed links known to other bidding firms 2. The quality of services can be compromised 3. Creates the situation of anti-trust for organization 4. Firm becomes dependent on one supplier if the contract is given to only single supplier repeatedly 5. Culture of bribery can flourish in the organization (b) State two ethical principles (The Golden Rule, Universalism, Slippery Slope, Utilitarianism, Risk Aversion, No Free Lunch, and The Social Contract Rule) that it breaches with an explanation. Try to use different principles for each action Action 1: Principle: Slippery Slope The Golden Rule

As slippery slope rule explains that if a particular action cannot be repeatedly taken then the person should never take that action and it is a wise option not to take that particular action at

any time under any circumstance. It is very well known that she cannot do it repeatedly and very much aware that this can cause her severe problems once she will be caught of doing it. So, she should avoid of doing it. It can become her habit of copying others work. At the same time, Amena would never want that someone else copy her work and present it with his/her name. If she does not want it to be done herself then she must not do it with others (The golden rule). Action 2: Principles: Universalism The golden rule

This action taken by Fahed breaches two major principles which are universalism and the golden rule principle. This is because Fahed would never want that anyone in the organization hire any undeserving person for an important post and at the same time Fahed would also never want it to be done to him that if he deserves a job and it would be allotted to someone else. Action 3: Principle: No Free Lunch Utilitarian Principle

No Free Lunch states that in the real business environment, there is nothing as a free lunch. According to this principle, if someone creates something which would be attractive and quite interesting to you and that something must has value so in this case the creator or the person who

offered that something to you will surely ask for compensation against that thing. The other breached principle is utilitarian principle because the action taken by Mary is not in the interest of the organization. Action 4: Principle: Universalism The Golden Rule

The breached principles by the action taken by Saeed are universalism and The golden rule. This is because he would never want that other bidding firms would do the same by using their links and on the other hand he would never want that someone do the same to him as well. Section B Situation 1: In this situation, there are two different scenarios in front of me. If I agree to the offer which is made by friend of giving him glowing review for me in exchange of same for him then there are some pros and cons involved in it. It is true that in this case, I will also have a very good and glowing review from my friend about me and I can get appreciation from my manager. But there are also some disadvantages related to this decision. As, if the reputation of my friend as a less efficient worker in front of all other employees and I would be the only one who will give him positive reviews then I will be caught for my wrong reporting and this can make bad name for me in front of upper management. So, by keeping this in my mind, I should give fair and true review of my friends performance. Keeping in view, the worst scenario that if I refuse my friend

for his offer then he will give negative review about my performance but it will not matter in front of my manager if my actual performance is good and different from the opinion of my friend. Situation 2: The decision in this situation is quite complex as it is for sure that if my company fails to get that contract then most of the employees of my company could lose their jobs. But if I would be able to get that contract then my company will not only make success but also the jobs of various employees can be survived. In this situation, Utilitarian principle of ethics can be applied. According to this principle one should take that decision which has higher or greater value than that of its consequences or harms which can be caused by this action. According to me, there are more and higher value of this action than its harms and consequences. It is very crucial for my company to win this contract and to save the jobs of various employees of my company so I will go for it. Section C: Question 1: In case of AIT, the situation could be better if Dell Inc. would take a bit more time to deliver Optiplex computers to AIT after rectifying the fault in the computers. There could be another option in a way that the officials of Dell Inc. must not refuse their fault of delivering AIT faulty products knowingly that the products are faulty before delivering those computers. Dell Inc. must agree in front of AIT that they delivered them faulty products but they are ready to compensate against it.

Question 2: The other customers of Dell didnt file suit against Dell Inc. because they came to know that Dell is compensating against the faulty products and ready to eliminate the fault in the products. Dell Inc. solved the issue out of the court with AIT and this prevented the issue to be more public. Question 3: The way Dell Inc. handled the issues with AIT is not entirely done in ethical manner. At the start of this issue, Dell Inc. was well known about the fault in its products before selling these to AIT, so ethically they must not do it. They should have first removed the faults in the product then should present it for selling purposes. There is another unethical practice performed by Dell is that they refused the fact that there is any fault in its products. They must not do it. They must accept their fault in front of AIT and must compensate against it in timely manner. Question 4: If both of the case of Dell and Toyota is analyzed then it can be found that at the start of both situations both companies denied their fault in front of customers. But by analyzing the facts, it can found that Dell handled the situation better than Toyota as they solved the situation out of the court and prevented to defame the name of the company. The issue of Toyota caught more attention than that of Dell. Section D: Many financial scandals and collapses have recently been occurred around the globe. The world has witnessed the major scandals of Enron, WorldCom, Shell, China Aviation Oil and Northern Rock. In IT and computer industry, the world has also witnessed many scandals. One of the most

recent scandals in IT industry is NSA Prism Scandal. In this, a person named as Edward Snowden from NSA (National Security Agency) acted as a whistleblower and stole and publicized the most secret information of USA in front of the whole world. It is considered that this scandal can cause computer industry of USA a loss of more than 35 billion dollars in Asian markets. Most of the buyers from Asia are now feeling reluctant to buy any computer based product from USA as there is threat of spying and stealing information from intelligence agencies of USA. This scandal also affected the bilateral relationships between USA and other countries around the globe because of the sensitivity of the issue. Presently, most of the companies from tech industry are denying and presenting clarification about any surveillance program known as Prism but the damaged has been done and it will take time to neutralize its affects.