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Effect of Fibre Hook on Comber Performance and Yarn Quality

Ranajit Kumar Nag et al. Department of Textile Technology Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1215

Abstract: The quality of yarn depends upon various factors. The factors are fibre properties, technological parameters, atmospheric condition etc. Among many, one important technological parameter is the orientation of fibre into the yarn. If fibre is better i.e. if the fibres are parallel toward the yarn axis, yarn properties become better. When fibre exists into intermediate products as hooked form, under certain condition it may deteriorate the comber performance. Again the working length of hooked fibre into the yarn axis become less and act as short fibre. This phenomenon deteriorates the yarn quality. So that the number of hook fibre into the yarn determines the yarn quality in large extent. Thus hooks not only determine the yarn quality and comber performance but also reduce the price realisation. For these reason we always try to reduce the number of fibre hook into the yarn. So, the removal of hooks or the straitening of fibre during processing is very important. We know that hooks generate mainly in carding machine and major portion of it is removed by comber machine. But the success of comber machine in this regard depends upon the way of feeding hooks toward the machine. The way of feeding hooks toward the comber machine depends upon the selection of machineries between carding and comber. This research paper deals only the method of reducing fibre hooks by selecting machineries between carding and comber. So that the yarn quality and process performance will be improved and the profit margin will be increased for a spinner from a given quality of cotton. For this experiment combed yarn was produced by using two flow charts (1. two machines and 2. three machines between carding and comber). During processing, comber performance was observed and after production yarn was tested. From the result it is seen that comber performance in addition yarn quality was better for the first procedure.

1.

Introduction

If fibers become straight toward the axis of the yarn, it can exploit the maximum possible contribution of its properties toward yarn properties. This oriented form of fibers show higher cohesive force i.e. higher yarn strength, better evenness of yarn, good looking appearance of yarn and so on. So that we can say, more oriented the fibre toward the yarn axis, better will be the yarn quality. The orientation of fibres depends on various factors, but mainly depends upon the processing parameters. Comber plays very important role for straightening the fibres, but its extent mostly depends on the way of fibre feeding toward the comber machine.

This paper mainly concern about fibre hook that affect the fibre orientation and to find out the way to minimise it. As we know that, the carding machine generates huge amount of hooks and the major portion of this hook is eliminated by comber. The performance of the comber depends upon the way of feeding fibre hook toward comber. The direction of fibre hook is changed after passing each machine, so that selection of machine between carding and comber is very important.

The experimental tasks of this research work were carried out at Youth Spinning Mills Ltd. Mirzapur, Tangail. Here two types of fibres were taken and those are Sankar (India) and CIS (Uzbekistan). Here combed yarn sample were produced by using ring frame. For each type of fibre yarn was produced by following two different machine sequences. For sample-I two machines (pre-comb drawing and super lap former) were used between carding and comber and for sample-II additional one machine (another draw frame before super lap former) was used between carding and comber. Tests for different products were taken at testing laboratory of Youth Spinning Mills Ltd.

2. Fibre hook in card sliver

Hook fibres are the fibres that have hook formed shape in one or both ends. They are mainly found in the sliver produced from the carding machine. The phenomena of formation of fibre hook was first investigated

by Morton and Yen in Manchester, UK. They introduced a small number of black tracer fibres and investigated the card web for different types of fibre hook. They assumed that of the fibres in the web:

more than 50% have trailing hooks, about 15% have leading hook, about 15% have double hook, and less than 20% of the fibres have no hook.

double hook, and less than 20% of the fibres have no hook. trailing hook leading hook

trailing hook

and less than 20% of the fibres have no hook. trailing hook leading hook Direction of

leading hook

20% of the fibres have no hook. trailing hook leading hook Direction of feed or delivery

Direction of feed or delivery

Fig: 1. Different types of hook

of feed or delivery Fig: 1. Different types of hook double hooks 3. Formation of fibre
of feed or delivery Fig: 1. Different types of hook double hooks 3. Formation of fibre

double hooks

3. Formation of fibre hook:

The hook fibres are mainly generated at the interaction or fibre transfer point of the cylinder and the doffer. During fibre transfer, the projecting ends are caught by the clothing of the doffer and taken up. So most fibres remain hanging as trailing hooks on the teeth of the doffer (A). Thus the majority of the fibres remain as trailing hook formed in the carded sliver. As the cylinder have a much higher surface speed than the doffer, some of the fibres remain caught at one end by the teeth of the cylinder. When these fibres condensate on doffer due to centrifugal force the result is leading hook fibre which is minority hooks.

Doffer A

is leading hook fibre which is minority hooks. Doffer A Main cylinder T Fig: 2 Technique
is leading hook fibre which is minority hooks. Doffer A Main cylinder T Fig: 2 Technique

Main cylinder T

Fig: 2 Technique of formation of trailing and leading hook

4. Removing fibre hooks by comber

From the following figures we can see that comber machine can straightens only the leading hooks. The nippers grip the fibres at the tip and circular comb straightens out the hooks at the leading end as it sweeps the fibre fringe. But if the fibre hooks are present as trailing hooks as figure 3.b. then either the nippers grip the hooked end or may not be gripped at all. Result is fibre will go to delivery sliver as hooked form or the fibre is treated as short fibre and will be wasted.

N N L T C C C
N
N
L
T
C
C
C

Fig. 3a. Combing the leading hook fibre by comber

Fig. 3.b. Combing the trailing hook fibre by comber

N- Nippers C- Cylinder L- Leading hook T- Trailing hook

5. Effect of number of passages between carding and comber

After passing each operation of processing i.e. one machine the direction of the strand is reversed. As stated earlier that comber machine can straighten out the leading hooks only, so that to present the majority hooks in leading form, there must be even number of passages between carding and comber. This is shown in figure 3.a. For even number of passages two machines are used and for normal case those are pre-comb drawing and super lap former.

To comber

Lap former
Lap former
pre-comb drawing and super lap former. To comber Lap former Carding Pre-comb drawing Comber lap Direction

Carding

Pre-comb

drawing

lap former. To comber Lap former Carding Pre-comb drawing Comber lap Direction of feeding Card sliver

Comber lap

To comber Lap former Carding Pre-comb drawing Comber lap Direction of feeding Card sliver can Drawing

Direction of feeding

Card sliver can

Drawing sliver

can

Fig.4.a. Reversal of fibre hooks in even number of passages prior to comber

Now imposing another drawing frame between carding and comber gives the majority of the hooks would be presented to comber as trailing direction comber shows inferior performance.

Carding Drawing-I Drawing-II Card Drawing Drawing
Carding
Drawing-I
Drawing-II
Card
Drawing
Drawing

Lap former

To comber

Card Drawing Drawing Lap former T o c o m b e r Comber lap Direction
Card Drawing Drawing Lap former T o c o m b e r Comber lap Direction

Comber lap

Drawing Lap former T o c o m b e r Comber lap Direction of feeding

Direction of feeding

sliver can

sliver can

sliver can

Fig.4.b. Reversal of fibre hooks in odd number of passages prior to comber

6. Fibre information

Name of the fibre and origin

Test result

Sankar

Staple length – 1 1 8 Spinning consistency index - 142 Upper half mean length

Staple length – 1 1 8 Spinning consistency index - 142 Upper half mean length – 29.9 mm Uniformity index – 83.2 % Short fibre index – 9.3% Micronaire value (range) – 3.6-5.0 Average micronaire value – 4.23 Strength – 29 gm/tex Moisture content - 7.6% Maturity ratio – 0.88 Elongation at break – 4.3% Neps – 114 neps/gm

India

CIS

Uzbekistan

Staple length – 1 1 8 Spinning consistency index - 142 Upper half mean length

Staple length – 1 1 8 Spinning consistency index - 142 Upper half mean length – 29.3 mm Uniformity index – 81.7 % Short fibre index – 10.2% Micronaire value (range) – 3.9-5.0 Average micronaire value – 4.47 Strength – 30.8 gm/tex Moisture content – 8.5 % Maturity ratio – 0.87 Elongation at break – 5.3% Neps – 234 neps/gm

7. Procedure

For this research work combed ring yarn was produced, but the process flow chart was different for producing two samples. For sample-I, 24 cans of sliver were produced by pre-comb drawing machine. Then eight laps were made by super lap former from these cans of sliver. Then combed sliver were

produced by comber. Then 12 ring cops of 30 Ne yarn were produced by using post-comb drawing, simplex and ring frame at last.

For sample-II after producing sliver from pre-comb drawing again the sliver was passed through the same machine and then super lap former was used to produce mini lap. The rest of the process was same as to produce the yarn for sample-I . Different tests were performed for combed sliver, post-comb drawn sliver, roving, yarn and noil for each sample.

8. Test results (i)Sankar cotton

Material

Sample - I

Sample – I

Noil extraction

19.9 %

22.57%

Length properties of noil

2.5

% Span length – 18.99 mm

2.5

% Span length – 19.83 mm

50

% Span length – 12.74 mm

50

% Span length – 13.70 mm

 

Uniformity ratio – 67.59 Short fibre index – 36.68

Uniformity ratio – 68.86 Short fibre index – 32.99

Combed sliver

U

% - 2.59

U

% - 2.62

CVm – 3.23 % Neps/gm - 44

CVm – 3.27 % Neps/gm – 36

Finisher sliver

U

% - 1.68

U

% - 1.99

CVm – 2.1 %

CVm – 2.50 %

Roving

U

% - 2.84

U

% - 2.94

CVm – 3.58 %

CVm – 3.70 %

Yarn

Nominal count – 30 Actual count _ 29.88 TPI – 19.92

Nominal count – 30 Actual count _ 29.98 TPI – 19.92

U

% 9.04

U

% 9.24

CVm – 11.42 Thick places (+50%) – 20.3 Thin places (-50%) – 0.00 Neps (+200%) – 24.3/km H- 5.11 IPI- 44.6 CSP 2772

CVm – 11.67 Thick places (+50%) – 26.3

Thin places (-50%) – 0.20 Neps (+200%) – 25.6.3/km H- 4.96 IPI- 51.8 CSP 2591

(ii) CIS cotton:

Material

Sample - I

Sample – I

Noil extraction

16.64 %

20.47%

Length properties of noil

2.5

% Span length – 19.45 mm

2.5

% Span length – 21.40 mm

50

% Span length – 13.24 mm

50

% Span length – 15.34 mm

 

Uniformity ratio – 67.72 Short fibre index – 37.45

Uniformity ratio – 71.58 Short fibre index – 28.02

Combed sliver

U

% - 2.41

U

% - 2.98

CVm – 3.03 % Neps/gm - 40

CVm – 3.75 % Neps/gm – 30

Finisher sliver

U

% - 1.67

U

% - 1.97

CVm – 2.12 %

CVm – 2.51 %

Roving

U

% - 2.69

U

% - 2.76

CVm – 3.38 %

CVm – 3.47 %

Yarn

Nominal count – 30 Actual count _ 29.92

Nominal count – 30 Actual count _ 29.87

TPI – 19.92 U % 9.14 CVm – 11.53 Thick places (+50%) – 18.50 Thin

TPI – 19.92 U % 9.14 CVm – 11.53 Thick places (+50%) – 18.50 Thin places (-50%) – 0.20 Neps (+200%) – 15.56/km H- 4.66 IPI- 34.3 CSP 2876

TPI – 19.92 U % 9.53 CVm – 12.03 Thick places (+50%) – 22.1 Thin places (-50%) – 0.8 Neps (+200%) – 27.7/km H- 4.90 IPI- 50.6 CSP 2591

9. Discussion

From the above results it is observed that there is a noticeable increase in noil extraction percentage for sample-II with respect to sample-I. Analysing the noil it is seen that both 2.5% span length and 50% span length have increased for sample-II and SFI also increased as well. These phenomenons indicate that in sample-II more fibres are getting wasted with longer fibres. Thus it can be said that proper utilization of the length properties of the fibres are not exploited for sample-II and it is probably due to feeding trailing hooked form fibres toward comber for using three passages between carding and comber. The nep content in the combed sliver for sample-II is lower than that of sample-I. The probable reason behind this may be higher wastage percentage. So that, there is a possibility of removing more neps. If the quality parameters i.e. U% and CV% of the combed sliver, post comb drawn sliver and roving are observed, it is seen that there is clear deterioration trend for the materials of sample-II than sample-I. This is probably due to retaining of hook fibres into delivered sliver. As hooked fibre act as short fibre and result is irregularity generation.

For sample-II, the value of U%, CV%, IPI of yarn also higher than that of sample-I. Not only that the value of CSP is also low for the same yarn. It means the lower quality yarn is produced for sample-II though the waste percentage is higher. So that, it is proved that additional one drawing passage between carding and comber deteriorates the yarn quality. It is probably due to feeding trailing hook toward comber. As the comber could not remove it and passed it into the yarn as hook form or became wasted. The retaining hooked form fibre in the yarn reduces the actual fibre length contribution to yarn and acted as short fibre. As a result the yarn structure becomes less uniform and this phenomena may be the reason of the deterioration of yarn quality. But there is no remarkable change in hairiness level. It may be described as there is no change of number of fibres in yarn cross section, due to producing same count of yarn from same fibre for both the samples.

10. Conclusion

Form this experiment it is found that sample-I shows better comber performance as well as the yarn quality than that of sample-II. So that, it can be concluded from this research work that two intervening processes leading to three processes between carding and comber gives less waste and better yarn quality. So that not only recommended the even number of passages between carding and combing but also the direction of slivers should not be reversed in any way prior to comber.

The authors had the intention to perform the study for different counts of yarn, but unfortunately it was not possible due to some limitation of the mill. But the authors were fortunate as they could use two types of raw cotton having different properties. The authors also feel fortunate as modern and running machineries (both processing and testing) were used in this research work.

11. References:

1.Manual of Textile Technology-Vol-I Author-W. Klein 2. Textile Yarns-Technology, Structure and Applications Authors- B.C. Goswami, J.G. Martindale, F.L. Scardino 3.USTER Statistics 2001