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Journal

ofSound

and

Vibration

(1990), 136(3), 361-372

ACTIVE

VIBRATION

CONTROL

OF

PROPELLER

SHAFTS

A.

BAZ,

J.

GILHEANY

AND

P.

STEIMEL

Mechanical

Engineering

Department,

The Catholic University of America,

Washington, D.C. 20064,

U.S.A.

(Received

3 August

1988, and in revised form

22 May

1989)

The development of an active control system for suppressing the longitudinal vibrations

of propeller shafts is described. The control system consists of a self-contained pneumatic servo-controller which is powered by compressed air. A theoretical model is presented

which describes the interaction

between the propeller shaft system and the active controller.

The theoretical performance of the system is predicted under various design and operating conditions with and without the active controller. Theoretical predictions are compared

with experimental results on a prototype controller for a shaft excited by a 0.15

m diameter

three-bladed

propeller.

Results

indicate

that the active controller

is capable

of attenuating

the longitudinal vibrations of the shaft by approximately 1-l dB over a frequency range

of O-10 Hz. The simplicity and

reliability of the active control system suggests its potential

as an attractive alternative to currently available passive control systems.

 

1. INTRODUCTION

 

Longitudinal

vibrations

 

of

propeller

shafts

excited

by

thrust

fluctuations

of

propellers

are

recognized

to

be

a

major

source

for

excitation

of

ship

hulls

[l-3].

Such thrust

fluctuations

are attributed

primarily

to the presence

of the propeller

in the non-uniform

 

wake

of the

hull

[4,5],

the hydrodynamic

 

pressures

developed

by a cavitating

propeller

[6]

or the

dynamic

characteristics

of the propeller

itself [7]. Extensive

exerted

to

reduce

such

longitudinal

vibrations

in

order

to

minimize

efforts have been hull excitation.

Recently,

these efforts have been focused

toward

meeting the current

have

resulted

in propeller

shafts

that

are

long,

hollow

and

operate

design trends which at high rotational

speeds.

As a result, the dynamics

of the propeller

shaft become

more

modes of shaft vibrations can be dominant over the operating speed

complex as several range.

 

Passive vibration

reducing

systems have been utilized for many years as the only means

for damping

propeller

shaft vibrations,

as reported

by Goodwin

[8], Mano et al. [9] and

Ojak [lo]. Emphasis in Goodwin’s paper is placed on the resonance changer (RC)

developed

.by Michell Bearings

Ltd

in 1944.

The

RC uses a massive

oil reservoir

to absorb

and

counteract

the

propeller

shaft

vibration.

In Mano’s

article,

the passive

damping

is

achieved by a conventional mass absorber is utilized.

hydraulic

damper,

whereas

in Ojak’s study a classical tuned

Common

among all these passive damping

systems is that their effectiveness

is limited

to a narrow frequency range about the frequency to which they are tuned. They are also

massive and add considerable

weight to the system. Furthermore,

passive

Nevertheless,

systems are by

their very nature

ineffective

at very low excitation

frequencies.

such passive

systems are rather simple to operate and require no external energy for their operation.

The

above

cited

dynamic

limitations

of passive

vibration

reducers

have

led

to

the

consideration of active control systems. Lewis and Allaire [ll] have suggested the use

of actively controlled

magnetic bearings to reduce the forces transmitted

from the propeller

shaft to the hull. Their theoretical

results indicate

that minimizing

the transmitted

forces

 

361

0022460X/90/030361

+ 12 $03.00/O

@

1990 Academic Press Limited

  • 362 A. BAZ ET AL.

would be accompanied

by large shaft vibrations.

Their

proposed

control

system design,

which remains to be tested, will not be simple to implement

due to the inherent instabilities

and non-linearities of magnetic bearings. Further, magnetic bearings are extremely

expensive.

 
 

The purpose

of this study

is to develop,

model

and validate

through

measurements

on

a prototype an active control system which is simple, reliable and which has favorable

dynamic characteristics

 

to

achieve

stable

operation.

The

active

controller

is

a

self-

contained pneumatic servo-controller which is powered by high-pressure air.

 
 

2. ACTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM

 

2.1.

PRINCIPLE

OF

OPERATION

 

A schematic drawing of the

self-contained

active

controller

is shown

in Figure

1. The

propeller shaft A carries a propeller P at one end and is coupled to

a servo-piston

 

B at

its other

end. The servo-piston

moves inside

a servo-cylinder

C

and

is mounted

against

the thrust block

D. If the propeller

shaft moves to the right under

the action

of fluctuating

 

thrust

forces,

the shaft shoulder

S pushes

the three-way

servo-valve

R to

the

right.

When

the shaft

displacement

exceeds

the overlap

of the servo-valve,

 

high pressure

air begins

to

flow into

the right

chamber

of the servo-cylinder.

However,

for shaft

displacements

lower than the valve overlap,

the valve connects

the right chamber

to the ambient.

At the

same time,

as the shoulder

 

S releases

the servo-valve

L, it connects

the left chamber

of

the

servo-cylinder

to

the

ambient.

Under

these conditions

a

differential

pressure

is

developed

across the servo-piston

which tends to actively

resist the shaft’s motion

to

the

right. Similar active resistance

is generated

when

the

shaft

moves

to

the

left

 

as

the

servo-valves

channel

the

compressed

air to create

control

 

forces

that

counteract

the

exciting thrust forces.

 

Figure

1. Schematic

drawing

of the active control

 

system.

 

Thus,

thrust-induced

motion

of the

shaft

is sensed

by the servo-valves

and

the com-

pressed

gas is channeled

by

the

servo-valves

to

the

servo-cylinder

to oppose

the

said

motion,

resulting

in active

suppression

of longitudinal

vibrations

of the

shaft.

A unique

feature

of the described

active control

system is that the shaft vibration

can be controlled

without

the need

for any electronic

sensors

or control

circuits.

 

PROPELLER

SHAFT

ACTIVE

VIBRATION

CONTROL

363

2.2.

MATHEMATICAL

MODEL

 

The object of the model is to describe the interaction

between

the propeller

 

shaft system

and

the

pneumatic

active

controller

as

influenced

by

various

design

and

operating

conditions.

 

2.2.1.

Propeller

shaft

system

 

The propeller

shaft system

is considered

as a lumped

parameter

system

consisting

of

a single

total

mass

M,.

The

stiffness

and

damping

of

the

shaft

and

its supports

are

combined

into a single equivalent

stiffness and damping

K,

and

C,, respectively

(a

list

of nomenclature

is given in the Appendix).

If the

shaft

is subjected

to

a thrust

force

T,,

then

its equation

of motion

can be written

as

 
 

(M,+M,)j;+C,~+(K,+K,)x=

T,-(P,-P,)S--Fsign(i).

 

(1)

The propeller

thrust

for an N-blade

propeller

of diameter

D rotating

at

n

rps

is given

by Cl21

 
 

T,=[K,+K>sin(N2rrnt)]pD4n2,

 

(2)

where

K,-

and

K

$

are

the

static

and

fluctuating

thrust

coefficients,

respectively.

 

The

 

M,,

C,,

Kr

and K’,

can be obtained

from manufacturer’s

data

or

propeller parameters can be measured

experimentally,

as

will be

described

later.

In equation

(2), only

the

predominant

periodic

component

of the thrust

is considered.

This component

occurs

at

the blade

rate frequency

[N(27rrm)]. Higher

harmonics

occur,

due

to their relatively small magnitude; for example,

see reference

but they are neglected [l].

2.2.2.

Control

system

The

characteristics

of

the

control

system

are

governed

by

the

characteristics

of

the

servo-valve

and cylinder.

 

Servo-cylinder.

With the perfect

gas law assumed,

the continuity

equations

for

the

air

flowing into and out of the servo-cylinder

chambers

are:

 

ti,

= (I+ V, + P,Ai)/RT,

 

and

nijlZ=(lj2VVZ+P2Ai)/RTs,

 

(394)

where

the subscripts

1 and

2 refer

to

the

right and

left chamber

of the servo-cylinder,

respectively.

The

mass flow rates

ti,

and

fiz are determined

from the servo-valve

flow

equations.

 

Servo-valves. The pressure flow characteristics

of a servo-valve

that

has

an upstream

pressure of

P,, and a downstream

pressure

of

Pd are given

by

[13]

 

ti = CdWYC,RUT;1/2r’/Y(I_ r(Y-‘)/Y)‘/2

for

r >

r,,,

(5)

 

ti = c~wYc~P,T;“~

for

r <

r,,,

(6)

where

Y is the

width

of the valve

port.

The constants

c,

and

c2 are given

by

 

cl = (2yl[R(y-

l)l)"', ~~=(~/R[(y+1)/2]~~-‘)‘~)“~.

 

(798)

Equations

(5)

and

(6)

are

used

to determine

the

mass flow rates

tii

and

ti,

through

the right and left servo-valves based on the upstream and downstream pressures as well

as the

travel

direction

of the propeller

shaft

as given

in Table

1 where

x,, is the

overlap

of the servo-valves.

A block

diagram

of the active control

system showing

schematically

the interaction in Figure 2.

between

the servo-valves,

servo-cylinder

and the propeller

shaft is given

  • 364 A.

BAZ

ET

AL.

TABLE

1

 

Pressure

across

the servo-valves

 
 

Valve

Right

servo-valve

 

Left

servo-valve

 

Shaft

travel

direction

p,,

P,

Y

P,,

pd

Y

x>Oand

x<x,,

P,

P"

x0-x

PZ

P"

x0

x>xo

P,

PI

x-x,

P*

PU

x0

x<Oand

x>xo

P,

P,,

X0

PZ

P,

-x0-x

x<x,

P,

R,

x0

P,

PZ

-x-x0

 

ml

 

Servo-valve

-

Servo-cylinder

 

Propeller

shaft

-

 

m2

 
 

Figure 2. Block diagram

of the active control

system.

 
A. BAZ ET AL. TABLE 1 Pressure across the servo-valves Right servo-valve Left servo-valve Shaft
 

Figure 3. Photograph

of a prototype

of the active control

system.

 

TABLE

2

 

Geometric,

flow

and

dynamic

characteristics

of prototype

 

Parameter

c.5

 

(Ns/m)

&%)

&%I

Value

2.31

0.22

1.9

200

200

Parameter

V 1.2

cdwt

 

+j

&

(cm31

(4

5

Value

4.4

3.87

2E-3

0.063

+ Clippard

Instrument

Lab., Inc., Cincinnati,

Ohio

(Valve No. MJV-3).

PROPELLER

SHAFT

ACTIVE

VIBRATION

CONTROL

365

System prototype. A photograph of a prototype of the active control system mounted on

a shaft equipped

with a 0.15 m diameter

three-bladed

propeller

is presented

in Figure

3.

The main geometrical, flow and dynamic characteristics of the system are given in Table

2. The propeller parameters

M,

and

C,

are measured experimentally using procedures

 

similar to those

outlined

by Brooks [ 141. Briefly, the damping

coefficient

C, is calculated

from the logarithmic

decrement

obtained by monitoring the free vibration of the propeller

shaft in air and in water. The added mass Ma is obtained from the change in the period

of oscillation.

The

thrust coefficient KT is measured at zero advance ratio by monitoring

 

the thrust

developed

at different

propeller

speeds.

In this process,

the deflection

of the

spring

K,

is calibrated

to obtain

the propeller

thrust

force.

3. SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE

The

performance

of the active control

system is evaluated

by subjecting

the propeller

shaft

to step and sinusoidal

thrust

forces

of variable

magnitudes

and frequencies.

3.1.

PERFORMANCE

WITH

STEP

THRUST

EXCITATION

Step thrust

excitation

of the propeller

shaft is accomplished

by suddenly

engaging the

 

stationary

shaft to a motor running

at a predetermined

speed. The resulting thrust subjects

the propeller

shaft system to an axial step force that displaces it from its unloaded position,

pushing

it against the thrust block. Samples of the resulting time history of shaft displace-

ment are shown

in Figure

4 for different

propeller

speeds.

The controller

is powered

by

an air supply pressure

of 1.68 atm for the displayed

time responses.

The shaft experiences

a sudden displacement from its assumed extreme left position when the thrust force is

applied at time A. The shaft displacement reaches an extreme value which is limited

by the maximum

physical

travel

of the servo-valves.

The axial displacement

of the

shaft

between

its two extreme

positions

occurs with the controller

deactivated.

The controller

2

0.003 -

 

E

i

O*OOl

-

-ii

-O*OOl -

 

n .e

-

-0.003

-

2

s

-0.005-

 

A

-o*oor

 

I

I

I

 

0.0

0.5

I.0

1.5

2.0

Figure

4.

Time

history

of

propeller

shaft

(a)

680,

(b)

1120 and

(c)

830 rpm.

 

1

Z-5

(b)-

3.0

Time (s)

displacement

when

subjected

to

step

thrust

loading

at

speeds

of

366 A. BAZ ET AL. is activated at time B and the resulting response of the
366
A.
BAZ
ET
AL.
is activated
at time
B and the resulting
response
of the shaft depends
on the magnitude
of
its thrust
force relative
to the servo-control
force:
i.e., the air supply pressure
times
the area of the servo-piston.
If the thrust is less than the control force, the shaft experiences
oscillatory behaviour
as demonstrated
by
the
large
overshoot
as shown
in Figure
4(a).
The controller
adjusts the pressure
inside the chambers
of the servo-cylinder
to completely
counteract
the
propeller
thrust
force
and
the
shaft
returns
to an equilibrium
position
determined
by the valve overlap.
If the thrust
force is larger than
the servo-control
force,
the control
force
is
not
adequate
to counteract
the thrust
force
and
the shaft
does
not
move from its extreme position,
as is shown
in Figure
4(b).
However,
if the
thrust
force
and the servo-control
force are optimally matched, the shaft returns to its final equilibrium
position without overshoot, as is shown in Figure 4(c).
Comparisons between the experimental results of Figure 4 and corresponding theoretical
predictions
of the time history
of shaft displacement
at propeller
speeds
of 680, 1120 and
830 rpm are presented
in Figure 5. Review of these figures indicates that the theoretical
model adequately
predicts
the performance
of the control system. However, the theoretical
model
exhibits
faster and underdamped
response
in comparison
with performance
of the
experimental
prototype.
This
can be attributed
to friction
in
the
sliding
bearings
and
water seals which was not included in the theoretical model.
0.007
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I
I
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0.005
8
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::
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0.003
5
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$
0.001
=
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ci
-0.001
0.0
0.5
I.0
I.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0.007
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
7
(b)
(cl
E
E
0.005
_
8
9
B
e
0.003
-
‘E;
f
tl
0.001
-
=
g
a’
-O.OOl_
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
0.0
0.5
I.0
I.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0.0
0.5
I.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Time
(5)
Figure
5.
Comparison
between
theoretical
(-)
and
experimental
(-
)
time
histories
of propeller
shaft
displacement
when
subject
to
step
thrust
loading
at speeds
of
(a)
680,
(b)
1120 and
(c)
830 rpm.
A summary
of the performance
characteristics
of
the
air supply
pressure
and
the
propeller
speed
of the control
is presented
system as a function
in Figure 6. Contours
of
iso-percentage
overshoot
at different
supply
pressures
and propeller
speeds
are shown
in
Figure 6(a).
For a fixed supply
pressure,
the system performance
is observed
to
be highly
oscillatory
and becomes
unstable
when the propeller
speed
is very low. Alternatively,
at
high propeller
speeds the servo-system
is not capable
of producing
a control
force sufficient
to counteract
the thrust force. Between these two observed limits, the control system
 

PROPELLER

SHAFT

ACTIVE

VIBRATION

CONTROL

 

367

-7

’ $j

Percenioge

overshooi

1

 

Weak

servo

 

z

680

n

(a)

I

::

I360

% B

4

8

Weok

servo

 

CT

 

1190-

 

I

v

I

I

I

(b)

I

I

I.66

I.61

 

I.95

 

2.06

2.22

 

Supply

pressure

(ato)

Figure

6.

Effect

of propeller

speed

and

supply

pressure

on measured

contours

overshoot

 

and

(b)

settling

times

of

the

active

controller

when

subjected

 

to

step

thrust

of (a) iso-percentage loading.

 

produces

 

a high degree

of overshoot

 

for shaft

speeds

close to the instability

limits and

low percentages

of overshoots

at higher shaft speeds. Contours

of iso-settling

time shown

in Figure 6(b)

indicate

that

an optimum

pressure

exists

for

a given

propeller

speed

for

which the settling

time

is minimal.

 

For

example,

a supply

pressure

 

of approximately

I*7 atm

is

found

to be optimal

for a propeller

speed

of approximately

800 rpm. Smaller

pressures

will result

in slower

responses

and high pressures

will cause

an oscillatory

response which requires time to decay.

 

3.2.

PERFORMANCE

 

WITH

SINUSOIDAL

 

THRUST

 

EXCITATION

 

The performance

of

the

control

system

is

also

determined

when

it is subjected

to

sinusoidal

excitations

at various

frequencies.

These excitations

are imparted

to

the

shaft

via a single-acting

 

pneumatic

cylinder equipped with a return spring which is mounted

in place of the propeller.

The cylinder

is energized

by high-pressure

air flowing through

a three-way

flow control

valve.

The

 

valve

is driven

by

a

cam

mechanism

running

at

controlled

speeds.

The

excitation

cylinder

has

a cross-sectional

of O-0025 m2, a

volume of 62.5 cm3 and its return spring has a stiffness

area of 1800 N/m.

In Figure 7(a)

is shown

the time history

of the shaft displacement

with an excitation

frequency

of

2 Hz

and

with

the

controller

deactivated.

It

can

be

seen

that

the

shaft

experiences

a vibration

with

a peak-to-peak

 

magnitude

of

about

0.004m.

When

the

controller

is activated,

the magnitude

 

of the vibration

decreases

to about

0.001 m,

as

is

  • 368 A.

BAZ

ET

AL.

368 A. BAZ ET AL.
 

PROPELLER

SHAFT

ACTIVE

VIBRATION

CONTROL

 

369

 

Time

(s)

Figure

8. Time

history

of theoretical

propeller

shaft

displacement

when

subjected

to sinusoidal

thrust

excitation

at a frequency

of

2 Hz

(a)

without

and (b) with the active controller.

 

shown

in Figure 7(b).

The

corresponding

theoretical

predictions

without

and

with the

controller, respectively, are shown in Figures 8(a) and 8(b).

It is important

to point out that the response

of the system to pure sinusoidal

excitations

results in the square

output

oscillations

displayed

in Figures

7 and

8. Such displacement

profiles

are attributed

to

the

highly

non-linear

nature

of the system

resulting

primarily

from:

the overlap

in the servo-valves,

the Coulomb

friction

in the servo-piston

and the

compressibility of the working medium.

The measured time response of the shaft at excitation frequencies of

5,

10 and

20 Hz

is shown

in

Figure 9.

It

is evident

that

the controller

maintains

its

effectiveness

in

suppressing

the shaft vibration

to excitation

frequencies

up to 20 Hz. Beyond

this limit

a noticeable

degradation

 

in effectiveness

is observed.

A comparision

between

the experi-

mental

and theoretical

frequency

responses of the controller

is shown

in Figure

10. The

figure shows the effect of varying the excitation

frequency

on the attenuation

ratio, which

is defined

as the ratio between

the vibration

amplitude

of the

shaft

with and without

the

controller.

The comparison

shows adequate

correspondence

between

theory

and experi-

ment, particularly for excitation frequencies up to 5 Hz.

 

4.

CONCLUSIONS

A theoretical

and experimental

study of an active vibration

control

system for propeller

shafts has been presented

in

this

paper.

The

theoretical

model

is used

to predict

the

system performance

under

 

step and sinusoidal

thrust

excitations.

Predicted

performance

is found to adequately

model experimental

results. The theoretical

model exhibits slightly

faster and underdamped response in comparison to experimental performance, These

Excitation frequency 5 Hz Figure 9. Time history of propeller shaft displacement when subjected to sinusoidal
Excitation
frequency
5
Hz
Figure
9.
Time
history
of
propeller
shaft
displacement
when
subjected
to
sinusoidal
thrust
excitation
at
frequencies
of
5,
10 and
20 Hz without
and
with
the
active
controller.

deviations

are

attributed

to

the

fact

that

friction

in

bearings

 

and

seals

is

not

included

in

the theoretical

model.

It

is worth

noting

that

the experimental

 

prototype

and

the theoretical

model

rely

in their

operation

on

two

three-way

servo-valves.

 

Such

an

embodiment

is

not

necessarily

the

most

favorable,

but

it

was

selected

based

on

available

hardware.

A single

three-position

four-way

valve

with

zero

overlap

would

be

a

much

better

configuration

 

for

the

servo-valve.

 
 

PROPELLER

SHAFT

ACTIVE

VIBRATION

CONTROL

 

371

 

IO

I

I

I

I

I

5-

 

E

9

0.

A

0

'0 L

0

 

-5-

 
  • .- s

??

 

'0

z

al

  • -10- 0

 

5

??

??

 

-15-

0

   

-20.

I

I

I

I

I

2

5

IO

20

50

100

 

Frequency

(Hz)

Figure

10.

Comparison

between

theoretical

(0)

and

experimental

(0)

frequency

responses

of the

active

controller.

The

effectiveness

of

the

described

active control

 

system

in

suppressing

the

axial

vibrations

of propeller

shafts

is clearly

demonstrated

by the results of the investigation.

The system is found

to attenuate

the amplitudes

of thrust-induced

vibration

by approxi-

mately 11 dB for excitation

frequencies

up to 10 Hz. Performance

is observed to deteriorate

rapidly

with increasing

frequency

above

this range.

The

use of a hydraulic

instead

of

a

pneumatic

controller

is suggested

as one means for extending

the performance

limits of

the system

to higher

frequencies.

The control

system

is observed

to be insensitive

 

to

reasonable

speed

variations

and

also can resist constant

thrust

loads.

In order

to avoid

the observed

instabilities

or weak servo characteristics,

 

an additional

control

loop should

be added

which

senses the propeller

speed

and adjusts

the air pressure

accordingly

for

optimal balance of the developed

thrust

load. This loop

can

be

designed

to operate

completely

passively

without

the need

for any electronics.

A flyweight

speed

governor

can

be used

to control

the preload

setting

on

the

supply

pressure

regulator

in order

to

provide

air pressure

that matches

the thrust

of the propeller

shaft

at its rotating

speed.

Nevertheless,

the described

active control

system provides

an attractive

alternative

to the

currently

available

passive

control

systems for control

 

of propeller

shaft vibrations.

 
 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

 

This

work

was

performed

under

National

Bureau

of

Standards

Grant

No.

60NANB6D0655.

 
 

REFERENCES

1.

R.

L.

HARRINGTON

1980 Marine

Engineering.

New

York:

Society

of

Naval

Architects

and

Marine

Engineers.

2.

F.

H. TODD

1962 Ship

Hull

Vibration.

London:

Edward

Arnold.

3.

F.

M.

LEWIS

1963 Transactions

of

the Society

of

Naval

Architects

and

Marine

Engineers

71,

293-326.

Propeller-vibration

forces.

4.

N.

A. BROWN

1964 M.I.T.,

Department

of Naval

Architecture

and

Marine

Engineering,

Report

No. 64-7.

Periodic

propeller

forces

in nonuniform

flow.

5.

J.

P. BRESLIN 1975 Society of Naval

Architects

and Marine

Engineers,

Technical

Research

Bulletin

No.

l-34.

Techniques

for estimating

vibratory

forces

generated

by propellers.

 

6.

H.

LINDGREN

and C. A. JOHNSSON

1977 Proceedings

of PRADS-International

Symposium

on

Practical

Design

in Shipbuilding,

Tokyo,

343-350.

On the

influence

of cavitation

on propeller

excited

vibratory

forces

and

some

means

of reducing

its effects.

 
  • 372 A. BAZ ET AL.

 

7.

J.

E.

BROOKS

1979 Doctoral

Dissertation,

Mechanical

Engineering

Department,

The Catholic

 

Universiry of America. Vibrations of a marine propeller operating in a non-uniform inflow.

 
 

8.

A.

J.

H.

GOODWIN

1960 Transactions of the Institution of Marine Engineers 72(2), 37-78. The

 

design of a resonance changer to overcome

excessive

axial

vibration

of propeller

shafting.

 
 

9.

M. MANO, Y. OCHI and K. FUJH 1977 ZHZ Engineering Review 10, 25-41. Prevention

 

and

 

remedy

of

ship

vibration.

10.

W. OJAK 1984 Journal

of Ship Research

28(2),

118-140.

Vibration

force

reducer

and

a

new

approach

to

ship

vibration.

11.

D. LEWIS and P. ALLAIRE 1986 ASLE-Reprint No. 86-AM-2A-2,41st

Annual Meeting,

Toronto.

Control

of

oscillating

transmitted

force

of

axial-thrust

bearing

with

a

secondary

magnetic

bearing.

 

12.

P. MANDEL.

1969

Water, Air and Interface

Vehicles. Cambridge,

 

Mass.:

M.I.T.

Press.

13.

J.

F.

BLACKBURN,

G. REETHOF and J. SHEARER 1960 Fluid Power Control. Cambridge,

Mass.:

M.I.T.

Press.

See

pp.

214-234.

14.

J. E. BROOKS 1976 Bethesda:

David

Taylor Research

Center Report No. 76-0079.

Added

 

mass

of marine

propellers

in

axial

translation.

 

APPENDIX:

NOMENCLATURE

 

A

area

of servo-piston

CS

 

lumped

damping

coefficient

of propeller

shaft

system

cd

valve

discharge

coefficient

Cl.2

constants

D

propeller

diameter

F

frictional

force

between

servo-piston

and

cylinder

 

KS

 

lumped

stiffness

of propeller

shaft

system

KT

static

thrust

coefficient

Kf

fluctuation

thrust

coefficient

 

K,

stiffness

coefficient

of servo-valve

M,

 

added

mass

of propeller

MS

lumped

mass

of propeller

shaft

system

 

m1.2

mass

flow

through

right

and

left

servo-chambers,

respectively

 

N

number

of propeller

blades

propeller

rotational

speed

;I2

 

pressure

in right

and

left

servo-chambers,

respectively

 

P

.u,d

pressure

upstream

and

downstream

of servo-valve

P I,2

rate

of pressure

change

in right

and

left

servo-chambers,

respectively

 

R

perfect

gas

constant

r

downstream

to upstream

pressure

ratio

 

r,

critical

pressure

ratio

corresponding

to choking,

0.528

for

air

sign

(i)

sign

of shaft

velocity

T,

propeller

thrust

T,

absolute

air temperature

t

time

V

1.2

volume

of right

and

left

servo-chambers,

respectively

 
 

..

x, x, x

 

longitudinal

displacement,

velocity

and

acceleration

of shaft,

respectively

 

Y

ratio

of specific

heats

at constant

pressure

and

temperature

 

w

valve

area

gradient

P

density

of water