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Assessment

Hossein Askarian Abyaneh

a,b,c

Majid Al-Dabbagh

c

Mehdi Taleshian

b

Hossein Kazemi Karegar

a,b

D.Lidgate

d

M.Janatian

e

Saeed Amirdashti

e

hossein.askarian@eng.monash.edu.au

a

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering MONASH University, Australia

b

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Amir Kabir University, Iran

c

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering RMIT University, Australia

d

Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Napier University, U.K

e

Tehran Electricity Company, Iran

Abstract

A new approach for the prediction of Overcurrent (O/C) and earth Fault (E/F) protection system

performance under phase and earth conditions is described in this paper. The approach is a

generalized assessment program being flexible in both system analysis and protection performance

prediction. The first of these enables the effects of mutual coupling between any parallel

transmission lines for a fault in any place is taken into account. The second, however, considers

different types of both O/C and E/F relays characteristics models. The paper concluded by the

results of a study carried out on practical power system networks. These illustrate the applicability

of the algorithm and the clarity of its output.

Key words- Electrical Engineering, Protection Systems, Assessment

1. INTRODUCTION

The performance of an individual protective relay is

relatively easy to establish on most power systems, as

is the performance of a complete protection scheme

for say, a single transmission line. However, it

becomes increasingly difficult to predict how different

schemes will interact as the size of the power system

network increases. This is particularly true for

complex interconnected power system networks where

the failure of relays to detect faults and operate in the

correct sequence could result in large sections of the

network being deprived of power.

One of the cheapest and simplest forms of power

system protection is provided by the inverse

Overcurrent relay (O/C). Such relays are relatively

easy to set so that they will protect the system from

short circuit faults in an adjacent component.

However, the main advantage of using O/C relays is

that each relay can, by an appropriate choice of

setting, act as the back-up relay to a relay nearer the

fault position and operate, after a suitable time delay,

to clear the fault in the event of protection or circuit

breaker failure elsewhere in the system. Determination

of the settings of all the O/C relays in a large power

system network, is itself difficult, although several

techniques, including both ordinary and optimal

computational procedures, are available [1-6]. The

assessment of the protection performance for such a

system is, however, virtually impossible by manual

means and temporary alterations to the system, such

as outages for maintenance, cannot be easily taken

into account. Of necessity, therefore, computational

assessment procedures have been proposed [1,7].

In an earlier work [8], a computer algorithm was

proposed which would assess the performance of one

type of O/C relays being normal inverse overcurrent

protection systems for both phase and earth faults on

complex interconnected power systems. This

algorithm took into account parallel lines and

transformers, teed points, multiple bulk supply points,

directional and non-directional relays and

instantaneous high-set elements. Although, this

algorithm was flexible, it did not take into account

some very important aspects of power systems and

protection. It did not include a generalized fault

analysis, for example it could not consider mutual

coupling between parallel feeders and for protection

aspect, different types of O/C relays i.e. inverse, very

inverse and extremely inverse for different

manufacturers. The work to be described in this paper

is the development of the algorithm to take these

factors into account.

2. GENERALISED FAULT ANALYSIS

The magnitude of the zero sequence component of the

mutual impedance between adjacent circuits can be,

typically, 50% of the self-impedance of either circuit

2

and should, therefore, be taken into account in earth

fault calculations. The positive and negative sequence

components of the mutual impedance are, however,

much smaller and can be neglected.

The determination of the zero sequence current paths

for a network to take account of mutual coupling is, of

course, affected by the fault position. In ordinary

method admittance matrix is considered for short

circuit calculation, mutual coupling is not taken into

account. For example if numbers of parallel lines are

more than two, the existing approach does not work.

To solve these, a new method in which mutual

coupling for each case is automatically included is

introduced. Therefore, the existing procedures for

fault calculations are described first, then the

weakness of the method for protection prediction

purpose is outlined, and after that, the new fault

analysis method is given.

In the existing method the admittance matrix is made

first and from that, equation (1) is composed [8].

[I

T

] = [ Y

bus

] [ V

T

] (1)

In Equation (1), I

T

is injection currents vector to the

bus vector, V

T

bus voltages vector, Y

bus

admittance

matrix. Y

bus

is made as follows:

ij

j i ij

Z

Y

1

,

=

(2)

=

=

n

j

ij ii

y Y

1

(3)

where n is number of lines connected to the bus i.

As can be seen, to consider mutual coupling in

equations (2&3) when a fault in a parallel line

happened, and for example one of the circuit breakers

on the faulty line has tripped, an special arrangement

is needed to include relevant mutual coupling. If

number of parallel lines is more than two, again

different procedure is needed.

However, in this paper a new generalized approach is

proposed which can solve the mentioned problem

easily and automatically. In the method

T

I matrix is

obtained using different procedures as follows.

a) The first equation is the relation between injections

and line currents matrix.

m L nm n T

I C I =

(4)

where

n: numbers of buses,

m: numbers of lines,

I

Tn

:Injection current matrix.

I

Lm:

Line current matrix.

C

nm:

Relationship matrix between I

T

and I

L.

b) Second equation expresses the relation between bus

voltages and line currents.

m L nm n T

I Z V =

(5)

m T mn m L

V Z I

1

=

(6)

where

T

V : Differential voltage between two ends

of lines

Z : Impedance matrix including lines

impedances and mutual coupling.

For example for two parallel lines with mutual

coupling shown in the Fig.1, the relevant equation

which include Z bus matrix with mutual coupling is

revealed as equation (7).

Fig.1: Two parallel lines with mutual coupling

For mutual coupling we have:

3

2

1

3

2

1

3 2

2 1

2 1

0 0

0

0

I

I

I

Z

Z M

M Z

V V

V V

V V

(7)

c) Equation (8) expresses the relation between

differential voltage of each line and bus voltages:

1 * 1 * 1 * n m V m T

V C V = (8)

where

V : Voltage matrix

V

T

: Differential voltage matrix

C

V :

Coefficient matrix.

If I

T

is substituted from equation (6) into equation (4)

and then V

T

is substituted from equation (8) into the

obtained equation then:

n Vmn mm nm I n T

V C Z C I

1

= (9)

where

M

3

V: Voltage matrix

C

V,

C

I:

Coefficient matrix

Z: Impedance matrix including lines

impedances and mutual coupling

It can be seen all I

T

matrix elements can be calculated

easily from equation (9), and from equation (4) all

lines currents can be obtained. Of course topological

changes and mutual coupling easily can be included in

Z matrix equation as shown in equation (7).

Therefore by comparing equation No. (9) with No. (1)

We will have:

V I bus

C Z C Y

1

= (10)

The last equation (10) is an equation in which mutual

coupling has been considered.

It should be noted that if a fault in a parallel line

occurred, a new bus in the fault point is added. The

faulty line is divided into two new lines and mutual

coupling of each part is considered according to the

percentage of line length in each part automatically in

equation (7).

3. PROTECTION MODELLING

A typical inverse time overcurrent relay has two

values to be set, the pickup current value (I

p

), and the

time dial setting or time setting multiplier (TDS or

TSM). The pickup current value is the minimum

current value for which the relay operates. The time

dial setting defines the operation time (T) of the

device for each current value, and is normally given as

a curve T versus M, where M is the ratio of the relay

current, I, to the pickup current.

The relay characteristic can be modelled by the

equation (11) where ) (

, i pi

I I f can be written as

equation (12) [3,5]. This model is an approximate

method and it is not quite precise model.

The model is expressed as:

i i pi i

i i pi i

TDS I I f T

or

TSM I I f T

* ) , (

* ) , (

=

=

(11)

3

1

2

) / (

) , (

k I I

k

I I f

k

pi i

i pi

+

= (12)

Where, T

i

, I

i

and I

pi

are relay operation time, current

flowing the relay and relay current setting. k

1

, k

2

and

k

3

are constants.

The more precise and flexible model being sachdev

linear model is used in this paper and shown as

equation (13) [9]. For different types of overcurrent

relays characteristics the coefficients,

4 1 0

,..., , a a a

,

are obtained using curve fitting technique.

4

4 1 0

) 1 /( .... ) 1 /( ) , ( + + + =

i i i pi

M a M a a I I f (13)

where

M

i=

I

i/

I

pi

In assessment procedure, the relays are operated

sequentially. Therefore on a real power system, a

relay, which eventually operates to trip its circuit

breaker, may have started to operate previously. The

times of operation from inspection of the tripping

current may not, be the expected time. Thus, the

previous TSM or TDS will not be valid. This is

overcome by calculating a virtual TDS or TSM [7,10].

1 0 1

/ ). ( t TSM t t TSM

NEW

= (14)

1 0 1

/ ). ( t TDS t t TDS

NEW

= (15)

where

TSM

NEW

: Virtual TSM

TDS

NEW

: Virtual TDS

t

0:

Operation time related to TDS/TMS until

the current flowing the relay changes

t

1:

Total operation time related to the new

fault current with the previous TDS/TMS

4. TESTING PROCEDURE

A flow chart of the computer algorithm developed in

this work is shown in Fig. 2. The input data required

for testing procedure are those that would normally be

required to calculate the fault currents for single phase

to earth faults plus the protection system configuration

and settings. The main difference in the data

requirements between this algorithm and the algorithm

developed in the previous work [7] is that in this case,

the zero sequence components of the mutual

impedances between parallel lines are also required.

As in the previous work, the relay performance setting

is carried out in three parts i.e. unit protection failure,

adjacent circuit breaker failure and remote circuit

breaker failure. Firstly, however, the positive,

negative, and zero sequence admittance matrices for

the network are composed including, for parallel lines,

both self and mutual admittances.

4

Primary relay

failure

considered?

Has relay failure

at far end

considered ?

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Fig.2: Flow chart of the computer algorithm

After composing these matrices, the fault current

flows are calculated according to the equations (4-9).

It should be noted that fault position can be anywhere

either on a bus or any place on a line. The torque

direction for directional overcurrent relays is

computed next. To compute O/C relays operating

times, the sachdev model is used according to the

section III. In other word, the sachdev characteristic

model coefficients of any Overcurrent relay being

inverse, very inverse and extremely inverse of any

manufacturer which are previously calculated, stored

in a file. The operating time of the relevant relays are

calculated and the relevant relay settles in the list for

the first selected fault position.

After each circuit breaker trip, the virtual time settings

of all overcurrent relays are calculated according to

section 3 and the procedure continued until the fault is

isolated.

When the fault is isolated, the algorithm proceeds to

the next fault position. If not, the algorithm performs

the new fault calculation for the new situation. Fault

current lines are again calculated and after calculating

relays operating times, the fastest relay is chosen and

added to the list. This continued until fault is

completely isolated.

This procedure is repeated for all fault positions and

all three stages of the assessment procedure for each

fault position.

In this procedure, time for circuit breaker to be fully

opened is considered equal to 0.1 second.

5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

5.1 Norweb Network

A single line schematic diagram of Norweb network

that has been used to test this algorithm is shown in

Fig. 3. The network and protection information data

are given in Ref. [8], which are not shown here

because of pages limitation. The relays installed on

the network are all CDG11 by normal inverse

characteristics and are manufactured by GEC.

For a three fault on line no.3 at 20% of its sending

bus, the relays no. 3 and 23 should operate to isolate

the fault. Whilst Table 1, which shows relays

sequence operation, reveals after operation of relays 3

and 23, relay no. 11 and 12 being on the generator has

tripped.

It is seen that although fault will be seen by relays no.

3 and 23, however before full opening of their related

circuit breakers, two relays on generator feeders will

operate. Therefore, circuit breakers of generator

feeders are ripped as well as the line circuit breakers.

Hence, it can be understood that there is a

miscoordination between generator feeder relays and

the line relays.

The other problem is the total time clearing of fault

that is high, i.e. more than 2 seconds. This clearing

time may cause the power system apparatus to be

damaged.

Start

End

Read input data

Determining main and backup relays

Compose the network configuration

Fault calculation

Calculation of relay operating times

Is there any

relay operated?

Change in network due to relay operation

Virtual TSM calculation

Writing results in output

Fault cleared?

5

5.2 TEHRAN Electricity Network

Fig. 4 shows 230Kv Tehran Electricity Network. The

system is equipped with different relay characteristics.

These characteristics are definite time, normal inverse,

very inverse and long time inverse relays. Some of the

relay information showing types, time setting range,

and obtained coefficients of Sachdev models are given

in Table 2. Line and other system information are

listed in Ref. [10].

Table 3 shows the result of a phase to ground fault

occurred on line no. 34 and at the 5 percent of its

sending bus.

It should be noted that although the values of the

operating times represented in the last column of

Table 3 are relay operating times only, however fault

current recalculation and relative operating times are

taken into account after the relevant circuit breaker

operation.

For this fault, relays 36 and 37 must operate to isolate

the faulted line. It is seen that at first, relay number 37

operates but then relay 39 and 36 are operated

respectively up to 0.155 seconds. In addition, it is seen

that before full opening of related circuit breaker of

relay no. 36 i.e. 0.155079 seconds plus 0.1 seconds,

totally 0.255079 seconds, two relays i.e. relays

number 58 and 61 are tripped. In other word line no.

40 has become unelectrified which is main problem

for co-ordination.

6. CONCLUSIONS

The further development of a generalized computer

algorithm for the assessment of the performance of

overcurrent relays has been described in this paper. It

was shown that the specific additions to the algorithm

are flexibility of the program in both fault analysis and

protection. In fault analysis, it can be highlighted the

capability of dealing with mutual impedance between

parallel lines. In protection aspect, capabilities of

considering different types of relays and modelling

different relays characteristics within the assessment

algorithm for different power system networks are

illustrated.

7. REFERENCES

[1]. J.P. Whiting and D. Lidgate,Computer prediction of IDMT

relay settings and performance for Interconnected power systems,

IEE Proceeding; Gen, Trans & Distribution; 1983, Vol. 130, No. 3 ,

pp. 139-147.

[2]. Sutherland, P.E., Protective Device Co-ordination in an

industrial Power System with Multiple Sources, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Application, Vol. 33, Issue 4, July-August

1997, pp. 1096-1103.

[3]. A. Urdenata, L. Perez and H. Restrepo, Optimal Co-ordination

of Directional Overcurrent Relays Considering Dynamic Changes in

the Network Topology, IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. 12,

No. 4, Oct. 1997, pp. 1458-1463.

[4]. C.W.So., K.K., Li,Time Co-ordination Method for Power

System Protection Evalutionary Algorithm, IEEE Trans. On

Industry Applications, Sept.-Oct. 2000, pp. 1235-1240.

[5]. C. W. So, K. K. Li, The Influence of Time Coordination

Method on Supply Reliability, IEEE Industry Applications

Conference, 2000, Vol.5,pp.3248.

[6]. H. Askarian Abyaneh, R. Keyhani, Optimal Co-ordination of

Overcurrent Relays in Power System by Dual Simplex Method,

AUPEC 95, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia,

1995.

[7]. Lidgate, D., Askarian Abyaneh, H., Computer Assessment of

IDMT Relay Performance for Phase and Earth Faults on

Interconnected power systems, IEE Proceedings, pt.c, Generation,

Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 135, No. 2, March 1989, pp.

157-165.

[8]. H. Askarian Abyaneh, Assessment of IDMT and Distance

Relay Setting, Ph.D Thesis, UMIST, U.K., Oct. 1988.

[9]. IEEE Committee Report, Computer representation of

Overcurrent Relay Characteristics, IEEE Trans. on Power

Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 1656-1667. July 1989.

[10]. M. Taleshian, An Assessment of Various Overcurrent and

Earth Fault Relays Settings on Interconnected Networks, Msc.

Thesis, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Jan. 2001.

Table 1: Relays Sequence Operation for Fault on Line 3

Faulted Bus No Iteration Operating relay No Relay Near Bus Relay far Bus Operating time

12 1 3 1 4 0.94673

12 2 23 1 2 1.86066

12 3 11 1 Generator 1.95729

12 4 12 1 Generator 1.95729

* Fault is isolated.

Table 2: Coefficients of Sachdev models of relay TEHRAN network

Relay Manufacturer Type TSM a0 a1 a2 a3 a4

ASEA4 ASAA Very Inverse 0.05-1.1 1.6439 12.827 -10.66 9.2134 -2.566

CDD1 GEC Normal Inverse 0.1-1 1.0427 0.86124 -0.36684 0.13002 -0.014097

CRP9D1 MITSUBISHI Normal Inverse 1-11 0.7243 4.7503 14.474 -4.7714 0.56421

RSAS1 BBC Long Time Inverse 0.1-1 -1.1803 216.26 -258.43 197.08 -50.252

MCGG22 GEC Normal Inverse 0.1-1 1.9302 9.0873 -0.9542 0.15479 -0.007884

6

Table 3: Relays Sequence operation for fault on line no. 34

Faulted Bus No Iteration

Operating relay

No

Relay Near Bus Relay far Bus Operating time

36 1 37 24 28 0.105161

36 2 39 28 24 0.140191

36 3 36 28 24 0.155079

36 3 61 15 14 0.196

36 3 58 13 14 0.252

* Fault is isolated.

Fig.3: NORWEB Network

L40 L39

L38

L35

L34

L44

` L43

Fig.4: TEHRAN Network

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