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Overcurrent and Earth Fault Protection Systems


Assessment

Hossein Askarian Abyaneh
a,b,c
Majid Al-Dabbagh
c
Mehdi Taleshian
b
Hossein Kazemi Karegar
a,b

D.Lidgate
d
M.Janatian
e
Saeed Amirdashti
e

hossein.askarian@eng.monash.edu.au

a
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering MONASH University, Australia
b
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Amir Kabir University, Iran
c
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering RMIT University, Australia
d
Faculty of Engineering and Computing, Napier University, U.K
e
Tehran Electricity Company, Iran

Abstract

A new approach for the prediction of Overcurrent (O/C) and earth Fault (E/F) protection system
performance under phase and earth conditions is described in this paper. The approach is a
generalized assessment program being flexible in both system analysis and protection performance
prediction. The first of these enables the effects of mutual coupling between any parallel
transmission lines for a fault in any place is taken into account. The second, however, considers
different types of both O/C and E/F relays characteristics models. The paper concluded by the
results of a study carried out on practical power system networks. These illustrate the applicability
of the algorithm and the clarity of its output.

Key words- Electrical Engineering, Protection Systems, Assessment

1. INTRODUCTION

The performance of an individual protective relay is
relatively easy to establish on most power systems, as
is the performance of a complete protection scheme
for say, a single transmission line. However, it
becomes increasingly difficult to predict how different
schemes will interact as the size of the power system
network increases. This is particularly true for
complex interconnected power system networks where
the failure of relays to detect faults and operate in the
correct sequence could result in large sections of the
network being deprived of power.

One of the cheapest and simplest forms of power
system protection is provided by the inverse
Overcurrent relay (O/C). Such relays are relatively
easy to set so that they will protect the system from
short circuit faults in an adjacent component.
However, the main advantage of using O/C relays is
that each relay can, by an appropriate choice of
setting, act as the back-up relay to a relay nearer the
fault position and operate, after a suitable time delay,
to clear the fault in the event of protection or circuit
breaker failure elsewhere in the system. Determination
of the settings of all the O/C relays in a large power
system network, is itself difficult, although several
techniques, including both ordinary and optimal
computational procedures, are available [1-6]. The
assessment of the protection performance for such a
system is, however, virtually impossible by manual
means and temporary alterations to the system, such
as outages for maintenance, cannot be easily taken
into account. Of necessity, therefore, computational
assessment procedures have been proposed [1,7].
In an earlier work [8], a computer algorithm was
proposed which would assess the performance of one
type of O/C relays being normal inverse overcurrent
protection systems for both phase and earth faults on
complex interconnected power systems. This
algorithm took into account parallel lines and
transformers, teed points, multiple bulk supply points,
directional and non-directional relays and
instantaneous high-set elements. Although, this
algorithm was flexible, it did not take into account
some very important aspects of power systems and
protection. It did not include a generalized fault
analysis, for example it could not consider mutual
coupling between parallel feeders and for protection
aspect, different types of O/C relays i.e. inverse, very
inverse and extremely inverse for different
manufacturers. The work to be described in this paper
is the development of the algorithm to take these
factors into account.

2. GENERALISED FAULT ANALYSIS

The magnitude of the zero sequence component of the
mutual impedance between adjacent circuits can be,
typically, 50% of the self-impedance of either circuit

2
and should, therefore, be taken into account in earth
fault calculations. The positive and negative sequence
components of the mutual impedance are, however,
much smaller and can be neglected.

The determination of the zero sequence current paths
for a network to take account of mutual coupling is, of
course, affected by the fault position. In ordinary
method admittance matrix is considered for short
circuit calculation, mutual coupling is not taken into
account. For example if numbers of parallel lines are
more than two, the existing approach does not work.
To solve these, a new method in which mutual
coupling for each case is automatically included is
introduced. Therefore, the existing procedures for
fault calculations are described first, then the
weakness of the method for protection prediction
purpose is outlined, and after that, the new fault
analysis method is given.

In the existing method the admittance matrix is made
first and from that, equation (1) is composed [8].

[I
T
] = [ Y
bus
] [ V
T
] (1)

In Equation (1), I
T
is injection currents vector to the
bus vector, V
T
bus voltages vector, Y
bus
admittance
matrix. Y
bus
is made as follows:


ij
j i ij
Z
Y
1
,
=

(2)

=
=
n
j
ij ii
y Y
1
(3)

where n is number of lines connected to the bus i.

As can be seen, to consider mutual coupling in
equations (2&3) when a fault in a parallel line
happened, and for example one of the circuit breakers
on the faulty line has tripped, an special arrangement
is needed to include relevant mutual coupling. If
number of parallel lines is more than two, again
different procedure is needed.

However, in this paper a new generalized approach is
proposed which can solve the mentioned problem
easily and automatically. In the method
T
I matrix is
obtained using different procedures as follows.

a) The first equation is the relation between injections
and line currents matrix.


m L nm n T
I C I =
(4)
where
n: numbers of buses,
m: numbers of lines,
I
Tn
:Injection current matrix.
I
Lm:
Line current matrix.
C
nm:
Relationship matrix between I
T
and I
L.
b) Second equation expresses the relation between bus
voltages and line currents.


m L nm n T
I Z V =
(5)


m T mn m L
V Z I
1
=
(6)
where

T
V : Differential voltage between two ends
of lines
Z : Impedance matrix including lines
impedances and mutual coupling.

For example for two parallel lines with mutual
coupling shown in the Fig.1, the relevant equation
which include Z bus matrix with mutual coupling is
revealed as equation (7).
Fig.1: Two parallel lines with mutual coupling

For mutual coupling we have:

3
2
1
3
2
1
3 2
2 1
2 1
0 0
0
0
I
I
I
Z
Z M
M Z
V V
V V
V V
(7)

c) Equation (8) expresses the relation between
differential voltage of each line and bus voltages:


1 * 1 * 1 * n m V m T
V C V = (8)
where

V : Voltage matrix
V
T
: Differential voltage matrix
C
V :
Coefficient matrix.

If I
T
is substituted from equation (6) into equation (4)
and then V
T
is substituted from equation (8) into the
obtained equation then:


n Vmn mm nm I n T
V C Z C I
1
= (9)
where
M

3
V: Voltage matrix
C
V,
C
I:
Coefficient matrix
Z: Impedance matrix including lines
impedances and mutual coupling

It can be seen all I
T
matrix elements can be calculated
easily from equation (9), and from equation (4) all
lines currents can be obtained. Of course topological
changes and mutual coupling easily can be included in
Z matrix equation as shown in equation (7).

Therefore by comparing equation No. (9) with No. (1)
We will have:


V I bus
C Z C Y
1
= (10)

The last equation (10) is an equation in which mutual
coupling has been considered.

It should be noted that if a fault in a parallel line
occurred, a new bus in the fault point is added. The
faulty line is divided into two new lines and mutual
coupling of each part is considered according to the
percentage of line length in each part automatically in
equation (7).

3. PROTECTION MODELLING

A typical inverse time overcurrent relay has two
values to be set, the pickup current value (I
p
), and the
time dial setting or time setting multiplier (TDS or
TSM). The pickup current value is the minimum
current value for which the relay operates. The time
dial setting defines the operation time (T) of the
device for each current value, and is normally given as
a curve T versus M, where M is the ratio of the relay
current, I, to the pickup current.

The relay characteristic can be modelled by the
equation (11) where ) (
, i pi
I I f can be written as
equation (12) [3,5]. This model is an approximate
method and it is not quite precise model.
The model is expressed as:


i i pi i
i i pi i
TDS I I f T
or
TSM I I f T
* ) , (
* ) , (
=
=
(11)


3
1
2
) / (
) , (
k I I
k
I I f
k
pi i
i pi
+
= (12)

Where, T
i
, I
i
and I
pi
are relay operation time, current
flowing the relay and relay current setting. k
1
, k
2
and
k
3
are constants.

The more precise and flexible model being sachdev
linear model is used in this paper and shown as
equation (13) [9]. For different types of overcurrent
relays characteristics the coefficients,
4 1 0
,..., , a a a
,
are obtained using curve fitting technique.


4
4 1 0
) 1 /( .... ) 1 /( ) , ( + + + =
i i i pi
M a M a a I I f (13)
where
M
i=
I
i/
I
pi


In assessment procedure, the relays are operated
sequentially. Therefore on a real power system, a
relay, which eventually operates to trip its circuit
breaker, may have started to operate previously. The
times of operation from inspection of the tripping
current may not, be the expected time. Thus, the
previous TSM or TDS will not be valid. This is
overcome by calculating a virtual TDS or TSM [7,10].


1 0 1
/ ). ( t TSM t t TSM
NEW
= (14)


1 0 1
/ ). ( t TDS t t TDS
NEW
= (15)

where

TSM
NEW
: Virtual TSM
TDS
NEW
: Virtual TDS
t
0:
Operation time related to TDS/TMS until
the current flowing the relay changes
t
1:
Total operation time related to the new
fault current with the previous TDS/TMS

4. TESTING PROCEDURE

A flow chart of the computer algorithm developed in
this work is shown in Fig. 2. The input data required
for testing procedure are those that would normally be
required to calculate the fault currents for single phase
to earth faults plus the protection system configuration
and settings. The main difference in the data
requirements between this algorithm and the algorithm
developed in the previous work [7] is that in this case,
the zero sequence components of the mutual
impedances between parallel lines are also required.

As in the previous work, the relay performance setting
is carried out in three parts i.e. unit protection failure,
adjacent circuit breaker failure and remote circuit
breaker failure. Firstly, however, the positive,
negative, and zero sequence admittance matrices for
the network are composed including, for parallel lines,
both self and mutual admittances.

4
Primary relay
failure
considered?
Has relay failure
at far end
considered ?














Yes



No










No



Yes


No



Yes


No



Yes




Fig.2: Flow chart of the computer algorithm


After composing these matrices, the fault current
flows are calculated according to the equations (4-9).
It should be noted that fault position can be anywhere
either on a bus or any place on a line. The torque
direction for directional overcurrent relays is
computed next. To compute O/C relays operating
times, the sachdev model is used according to the
section III. In other word, the sachdev characteristic
model coefficients of any Overcurrent relay being
inverse, very inverse and extremely inverse of any
manufacturer which are previously calculated, stored
in a file. The operating time of the relevant relays are
calculated and the relevant relay settles in the list for
the first selected fault position.

After each circuit breaker trip, the virtual time settings
of all overcurrent relays are calculated according to
section 3 and the procedure continued until the fault is
isolated.
When the fault is isolated, the algorithm proceeds to
the next fault position. If not, the algorithm performs
the new fault calculation for the new situation. Fault
current lines are again calculated and after calculating
relays operating times, the fastest relay is chosen and
added to the list. This continued until fault is
completely isolated.

This procedure is repeated for all fault positions and
all three stages of the assessment procedure for each
fault position.

In this procedure, time for circuit breaker to be fully
opened is considered equal to 0.1 second.


5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

5.1 Norweb Network

A single line schematic diagram of Norweb network
that has been used to test this algorithm is shown in
Fig. 3. The network and protection information data
are given in Ref. [8], which are not shown here
because of pages limitation. The relays installed on
the network are all CDG11 by normal inverse
characteristics and are manufactured by GEC.

For a three fault on line no.3 at 20% of its sending
bus, the relays no. 3 and 23 should operate to isolate
the fault. Whilst Table 1, which shows relays
sequence operation, reveals after operation of relays 3
and 23, relay no. 11 and 12 being on the generator has
tripped.

It is seen that although fault will be seen by relays no.
3 and 23, however before full opening of their related
circuit breakers, two relays on generator feeders will
operate. Therefore, circuit breakers of generator
feeders are ripped as well as the line circuit breakers.
Hence, it can be understood that there is a
miscoordination between generator feeder relays and
the line relays.

The other problem is the total time clearing of fault
that is high, i.e. more than 2 seconds. This clearing
time may cause the power system apparatus to be
damaged.


Start
End
Read input data
Determining main and backup relays
Compose the network configuration
Fault calculation
Calculation of relay operating times
Is there any
relay operated?
Change in network due to relay operation
Virtual TSM calculation
Writing results in output
Fault cleared?

5
5.2 TEHRAN Electricity Network

Fig. 4 shows 230Kv Tehran Electricity Network. The
system is equipped with different relay characteristics.
These characteristics are definite time, normal inverse,
very inverse and long time inverse relays. Some of the
relay information showing types, time setting range,
and obtained coefficients of Sachdev models are given
in Table 2. Line and other system information are
listed in Ref. [10].
Table 3 shows the result of a phase to ground fault
occurred on line no. 34 and at the 5 percent of its
sending bus.

It should be noted that although the values of the
operating times represented in the last column of
Table 3 are relay operating times only, however fault
current recalculation and relative operating times are
taken into account after the relevant circuit breaker
operation.

For this fault, relays 36 and 37 must operate to isolate
the faulted line. It is seen that at first, relay number 37
operates but then relay 39 and 36 are operated
respectively up to 0.155 seconds. In addition, it is seen
that before full opening of related circuit breaker of
relay no. 36 i.e. 0.155079 seconds plus 0.1 seconds,
totally 0.255079 seconds, two relays i.e. relays
number 58 and 61 are tripped. In other word line no.
40 has become unelectrified which is main problem
for co-ordination.

6. CONCLUSIONS

The further development of a generalized computer
algorithm for the assessment of the performance of
overcurrent relays has been described in this paper. It
was shown that the specific additions to the algorithm
are flexibility of the program in both fault analysis and
protection. In fault analysis, it can be highlighted the
capability of dealing with mutual impedance between
parallel lines. In protection aspect, capabilities of
considering different types of relays and modelling
different relays characteristics within the assessment
algorithm for different power system networks are
illustrated.

7. REFERENCES

[1]. J.P. Whiting and D. Lidgate,Computer prediction of IDMT
relay settings and performance for Interconnected power systems,
IEE Proceeding; Gen, Trans & Distribution; 1983, Vol. 130, No. 3 ,
pp. 139-147.
[2]. Sutherland, P.E., Protective Device Co-ordination in an
industrial Power System with Multiple Sources, IEEE
Transactions on Industry Application, Vol. 33, Issue 4, July-August
1997, pp. 1096-1103.
[3]. A. Urdenata, L. Perez and H. Restrepo, Optimal Co-ordination
of Directional Overcurrent Relays Considering Dynamic Changes in
the Network Topology, IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol. 12,
No. 4, Oct. 1997, pp. 1458-1463.
[4]. C.W.So., K.K., Li,Time Co-ordination Method for Power
System Protection Evalutionary Algorithm, IEEE Trans. On
Industry Applications, Sept.-Oct. 2000, pp. 1235-1240.
[5]. C. W. So, K. K. Li, The Influence of Time Coordination
Method on Supply Reliability, IEEE Industry Applications
Conference, 2000, Vol.5,pp.3248.
[6]. H. Askarian Abyaneh, R. Keyhani, Optimal Co-ordination of
Overcurrent Relays in Power System by Dual Simplex Method,
AUPEC 95, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia,
1995.
[7]. Lidgate, D., Askarian Abyaneh, H., Computer Assessment of
IDMT Relay Performance for Phase and Earth Faults on
Interconnected power systems, IEE Proceedings, pt.c, Generation,
Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 135, No. 2, March 1989, pp.
157-165.
[8]. H. Askarian Abyaneh, Assessment of IDMT and Distance
Relay Setting, Ph.D Thesis, UMIST, U.K., Oct. 1988.
[9]. IEEE Committee Report, Computer representation of
Overcurrent Relay Characteristics, IEEE Trans. on Power
Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 1656-1667. July 1989.
[10]. M. Taleshian, An Assessment of Various Overcurrent and
Earth Fault Relays Settings on Interconnected Networks, Msc.
Thesis, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Jan. 2001.



Table 1: Relays Sequence Operation for Fault on Line 3
Faulted Bus No Iteration Operating relay No Relay Near Bus Relay far Bus Operating time
12 1 3 1 4 0.94673
12 2 23 1 2 1.86066
12 3 11 1 Generator 1.95729
12 4 12 1 Generator 1.95729
* Fault is isolated.



Table 2: Coefficients of Sachdev models of relay TEHRAN network

Relay Manufacturer Type TSM a0 a1 a2 a3 a4
ASEA4 ASAA Very Inverse 0.05-1.1 1.6439 12.827 -10.66 9.2134 -2.566
CDD1 GEC Normal Inverse 0.1-1 1.0427 0.86124 -0.36684 0.13002 -0.014097
CRP9D1 MITSUBISHI Normal Inverse 1-11 0.7243 4.7503 14.474 -4.7714 0.56421
RSAS1 BBC Long Time Inverse 0.1-1 -1.1803 216.26 -258.43 197.08 -50.252
MCGG22 GEC Normal Inverse 0.1-1 1.9302 9.0873 -0.9542 0.15479 -0.007884

6

Table 3: Relays Sequence operation for fault on line no. 34
Faulted Bus No Iteration
Operating relay
No
Relay Near Bus Relay far Bus Operating time
36 1 37 24 28 0.105161
36 2 39 28 24 0.140191
36 3 36 28 24 0.155079
36 3 61 15 14 0.196
36 3 58 13 14 0.252
* Fault is isolated.


Fig.3: NORWEB Network











L40 L39

L38



L35

L34
L44
` L43





















Fig.4: TEHRAN Network