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Introduction To Mobile Phone Parts.

Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures. First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands. There are three major sections inside a mobile phone Power Section Radio Section Computer Section Power Section: A power section deals with power related tasks such as power distribution or charging the battery so this section can be divided into two sub sections like. Power Distribution A power distribution section is built around an "power IC" it takes 3.6V power from battery and regulates its power and then distributes to the other components used in mobile phone circuit. in some mobile phones tech "RF Power amplifier" uses more Power than provided bye mobile phone's battery .i.e. 4.7 V or 5.6 V in some phones. the power Ic with a power boaster coil is used to increase voltages. so we can say that power IC is used to provide power to other components how much they needed. either less than battery voltage or more than it. Charging Section A charging section works for battery charging purposes.it is often consists a fuse, a coil, a protecting diode, a filter capacitor and charging IC and some other discreet. the charging section helps battery to be charged when it needs and when battery is charged, charging IC reads its state of charge and feels it full charged and then disconnects charging from it. Radio Section: A radio section has basically a set of four main functions.wich are. Band Switching RF Power Amplification Transmitter Receiver Band Switching: In the modern mobile phone communication techniques. the frequency of mobile phone

communication is divided into three bands GSM (operates on 900 MHz) DCS (operates on 1800 MHz) PCS (operates on 1900 MHz) the third band is used only in USA whereas the first two bands are used in the rest of the world. band switching is done bye a "ceramic antenna switch" it reads from the radiation dispersed in the air and then switches to the appropriate band. in the very first phase of mobile phones there were single band handsets which operated on single frequency band but now a days all the handsets are dual band or tri band in operation. RF Power Amplifier RF power amplifier is often called as ".PA" or"Transmitter" its functions is to amplify or boast the power which is being transmitted to air, so may it would be able to communicate with long distances. a typical .PA can amplify rf power up to 0.6W or 600mW. This amount of rf power is sufficient to communicate nearly 20 to 25 kilometers in open area, but all the PA's are controlled by there rf signal processor, so if we are near our cell base tower the PA of our phone will transmit low power but if we are far away it will produce its maximum power. Transmitting A mobile phone's rf section is basically built around an rf IC which is often called rf signal processor whereas in nokia it is called hagar IC in some hand sets and in some hand sets it is called Mjoelner. irrespectively of the brands and verity of names we call it rf signal processor. this IC works as transmitter and receiver as well. working as transmitter it takes instructions from phone's computer and also takes audio data from audio section and creates radio waves then mixes audio data to its radio waves according to the instructions given by computer section. this mixer of audio and radio is sent to PA to amplify its strength Reciever A reciver section for rf waves is built in rf IC, as it is said that this IC works for dual purposes first transmitting and section recieving. in the recieving section of mobile phones a radio signal is gather from ceramic antenna switch and then it is filtered and sent to rf IC to further process. in rf IC signal is detected and then rectified for audio and data which is sent to audio IC or computer section. Computer Section: A computer section in mobile phone consists of two main functions CPU(central processing unit)

Memory (RAM, FLASH, COMBO CHIP) CPU: A CPU is used in mobile phones as a central processing arithematic or controler. the cpu controls various functions in mobile phones like signal, display, sound converting(DSP), charging, power on, rf channel controler, rf tx power conroller, LEDs, vibrator, data processing, data storing etc. so we can say that if a cpu is damaged in any mobile phone it cannot be repaired unless the CPU is not replaced but this type of fault is not even seen to me ever either memory chips can be damaged. in brand Nokia CPU is named with two different words (MAD or UPP) Memory: there are two main types of memories used in mobile phones RAM (Random Access Memory) The RAM is used in mobile phones to store user data in mobile phones. So these a days we can store pictures, messages, ringtones, applications, themes and other these type of things in mobile phones so CPU stores these types of data in the RAM of our mobile phones. Flash (eeprom, ROM etc) The flash chip is used in mobile phones to hold mobile phone's operating system in it. so if the flash chip is damaged in mobile phones the phone cannot power on properly because all the instructions to start a mobile phones and its various tasks like call making , display etc are stored in the flash chip of mobile phones. Combo Chip In smoe mobile phones there is a combined type of memory used which is called combo memory chips these types of memories work for both like RAM and Flash.The clear example of this type of memory is used in Nokia 1100. Note: Multy Media Cards are not a part of mobile phones becaues they are used externally. Mobile Phone Function

Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures. First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands.

There are three major sections inside a mobile phone

Power Section Radio Section Computer Section Power Section: A power section deals with power related tasks such as power distribution or charging the battery so this section can be divided into two sub sections like. Power Distribution A power distribution section is built around an "power IC" it takes 3.6V power from battery and regulates its power and then distributes to the other components used in mobile phone circuit. in some mobile phones tech "RF Power amplifier" uses more Power than provided bye mobile phone's battery .i.e. 4.7 V or 5.6 V in some phones. the power Ic with a power boaster coil is used to increase voltages. so we can say that power IC is used to provide power to other components how much they needed. either less than battery voltage or more than it. Charging Section A charging section works for battery charging purposes.it is often consists a fuse, a coil, a protecting diode, a filter capacitor and charging IC and some other discreet. the charging section helps battery to be charged when it needs and when battery is charged, charging IC reads its state of charge and feels it full charged and then disconnects charging from it. Radio Section: A radio section has basically a set of four main functions.wich are. Band Switching RF Power Amplification Transmitter Receiver Band Switching: In the modern mobile phone communication techniques. the frequency of mobile phone communication is divided into three bands GSM (operates on 900 MHz) DCS (operates on 1800 MHz) PCS (operates on 1900 MHz) the third band is used only in USA whereas the first two bands are used in the rest of the world. band switching is done bye a "ceramic antenna switch" it reads from the radiation dispersed in the air and then

switches to the appropriate band. in the very first phase of mobile phones there were single band handsets which operated on single frequency band but now a days all the handsets are dual band or tri band in operation. RF Power Amplifier RF power amplifier is often called as ".PA" or"Transmitter" its functions is to amplify or boast the power which is being transmitted to air, so may it would be able to communicate with long distances. a typical .PA can amplify rf power up to 0.6W or 600mW. This amount of rf power is sufficient to communicate nearly 20 to 25 kilometers in open area, but all the PA's are controlled by there rf signal processor, so if we are near our cell base tower the PA of our phone will transmit low power but if we are far away it will produce its maximum power. Transmitting A mobile phone's rf section is basically built around an rf IC which is often called rf signal processor whereas in nokia it is called hagar IC in some hand sets and in some hand sets it is called Mjoelner. irrespectively of the brands and verity of names we call it rf signal processor. this IC works as transmitter and receiver as well. working as transmitter it takes instructions from phone's computer and also takes audio data from audio section and creates radio waves then mixes audio data to its radio waves according to the instructions given by computer section. this mixer of audio and radio is sent to PA to amplify its strength Reciever A reciver section for rf waves is built in rf IC, as it is said that this IC works for dual purposes first transmitting and section recieving. in the recieving section of mobile phones a radio signal is gather from ceramic antenna switch and then it is filtered and sent to rf IC to further process. in rf IC signal is detected and then rectified for audio and data which is sent to audio IC or computer section. Computer Section: A computer section in mobile phone consists of two main functions CPU(central processing unit) Memory (RAM, FLASH, COMBO CHIP) CPU: A CPU is used in mobile phones as a central processing arithematic or controler. the cpu controls various functions in mobile phones like signal, display, sound converting(DSP), charging, power on, rf channel controler, rf tx power conroller, LEDs, vibrator, data processing, data storing etc. so we can say that if a cpu is damaged in any mobile phone

it cannot be repaired unless the CPU is not replaced but this type of fault is not even seen to me ever either memory chips can be damaged. in brand Nokia CPU is named with two different words (MAD or UPP) Memory: there are two main types of memories used in mobile phones RAM (Random Access Memory) The RAM is used in mobile phones to store user data in mobile phones. So these a days we can store pictures, messages, ringtones, applications, themes and other these type of things in mobile phones so CPU stores these types of data in the RAM of our mobile phones. Flash (eeprom, ROM etc) The flash chip is used in mobile phones to hold mobile phone's operating system in it. so if the flash chip is damaged in mobile phones the phone cannot power on properly because all the instructions to start a mobile phones and its various tasks like call making , display etc are stored in the flash chip of mobile phones. Combo Chip In smoe mobile phones there is a combined type of memory used which is called combo memory chips these types of memories work for both like RAM and Flash.The clear example of this type of memory is used in Nokia 1100. Note: Multy Media Cards are not a part of mobile phones because they are used externally.

Mother Board System This Lesson is intended to make you aware of the Fundamentals of a mobile phone's mother board and I want to teach you about what a typical mother board. A typical mother board is constructed using two main things Fiber Plate Copper Plate These two plates are joined in three forms. Single layer board Double layer board Three or tripple layer board A single layer board is constructed yusing one copper plate and the other fiber plate. Its one side is copper faced and other is fiber faced. while a Double layer board is made with two copper sheets ad fiber sheet.Its one side is copper faced and the other is also copper faced and the

fiber is stcked between two copper sheets.this kind of board holds electronic components on both of its side because both copper sided prints anre inter connected with one another on proper places A three layer board is made with three copper sheets and two fiber sheet.as it is shown below. Basics about Mother Boards Different mother boards have different views but many things are common in different brand mother boards.first common thing is ,every mother board has radio Section on top of the mother board A typical mobile phone has various types of faults which can be distributed in two main kinds of faults Hardware faults Software faults Setting Faults Hardware Faults: Hardware faults in mobile phones are related to mother boards of mobile phone, batteries and any physical fault will be amount to hardware faults. I have pointed out as much hardware faults as much i remeber this time but if you have a fault which is not listed below you can tell me by clicking here I willo be glad to know that it would be a great help for me too.The list of common hardwarefaults is given below. dead set condition no charging battery empty auto charging low signal No signal voice problem vibrator problem ringer problem backlight problem auto turn off hanging problem insert sim (no sim card inserted shows on the screen) keypad problem display problem Software problems: hanging problem no signal dead set display contact service (contact retailer, contact service provider) Test mode not charging

Setting problem: call divert sim lock security code country lock cnfiguration of SMS configuration of GPRS configuration of call Filters .antenna Switch .. What Are They? Antenna Switches are used in Mobile Phones extensively at the very first stage of the point of entry of the signal (called the received signal Rx) into the mobile phone which also eventually becomes the point of exit for the outgoing signal or the transmitted signal Tx. ANTENNA SWITCH .. FILTERS .WHAT ARE THEY? ANTENNA SWITCHES OR DIPLEXERS ARE DEVICES WHICH transmit and receive on the same antenna at the same time, reject unwanted signals and feed two different signals to the same antenna. (ANTENNA SWITCH IS ALSO KNOWN AS A DIPLEXER ! ) The common application for a diplexer is to connect a dual band mobile radio's two antenna connections to a common feed line and antenna. A diplexer is a simple high and low pass filter connected together. The filters are explained in detail below. Diplexers are three-terminal frequency-dependent devices that can be used as a separator or a combiner of signals. It can have more than three terminals also. The device consists of two fixed tuned bandpass filters sharing a common port. The common port and the output of the two filters (RX and TX) form the three terminals of the diplexer. Signals applied to common port are separated in accordance with their passband frequencies of the filters. Signals applied to either uncommon port are isolated from the other uncommon port and are combined at the common port. As is common knowledge, a FILTER is a device which removes unwanted items from a mix and provides us with a finished product which is a pure

final product of our requirement. Electronic filters are electronic circuits which carry out the signal processing functions, specifically intended to enhance wanted signal components and/or remove unwanted ones. SAW (surface acoustic wave) filters are electromechanical devices commonly used in radio frequency applications. Electrical signals are converted to a mechanical wave in a piezoelectric crystal; this wave is delayed as it propagates across the crystal, before being converted back to an electrical signal by further electrodes. The delayed outputs are recombined to produce a direct analog implementation of a finite impulse response filter. This hybrid filtering technique is also found in an analog sampled filter. Passive filters :The simplest electronic linear filters are based on combinations of resistors, inductors and capacitors. These filters exist in so-called RC,LC,RL, and RLC varieties. All these types are collectively known as passive filters, because they do not depend upon an external power supply. Inductors block high-frequency signals and conduct low-frequency signals, while capacitors do the reverse. A filter in which the signal passes through an inductor, or in which a capacitor provides a path to earth, therefore presents less attenuation to low-frequency signals than high-frequency signals and is a low-pass filter. If the signal passes through a capacitor, or has a path to ground through an inductor, then the filter presents less attenuation to high-frequency signals than low-frequency signals and is a high-pass filter. Resistors on their own have no frequency-selective properties, but are added to inductors and capacitors to determine the time-constants of the circuit, and therefore the frequencies to which it responds. At very high frequencies (above about 100 megahertz or megacycles.), sometimes the inductors consist of single loops or strips of sheet metal, and the capacitors consist of adjacent strips of metal. These are called stubs. Active filters: Active filters are made up by using a combination of passive and active (amplifying) components. Amplifiers are frequently used in active filter designs. These can have high selectivity, and achieve the desired selectivity without the use of inductors. However, their upper frequency limit is limited by the bandwidth of the amplifiers used. Generally, each family of filters can be assigned a particular order. The higher the order, the more the filter will approach the "perfect" filter of complete transmission in

the pass band, and complete attenuation in the stop band. Each family can be used to specify a particular pass band in which frequencies are transmitted, while frequencies outside the pass band are more or less attenuated. Low-pass filter - Low frequencies are passed, high frequencies are attenuated. High-pass filter - High frequencies are passed, Low frequencies are attenuated. Band-pass filter- Only frequencies in a frequency band are passed. Band-stop filter - Only frequencies in a frequency band are attenuated. All-pass filter - All frequencies are passed, but the phase of the output is modified. An analogue filter handles analogue signals or continuous-time signals, whether electric potential, sound waves, or mechanical motion directly. This is opposed to a digital filter that operates on discrete-time signals. Older analog filters (newer filters are digital filters) work entirely in the analog realm and must rely on physical networks of electronic components (such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, etc.) to achieve a desired filtering effect. Passive filter: A passive component is an electronic component that does not require a source of energy to perform its intended function. Examples of passive components include resistors, capacitors, and inductors. A passive filter is an electronic filter made entirely from passive components. Active filter: An Active filter is the one which involves active component that make use of a semi-conductor device like a transistor, an electronic device that requires a source of energy to perform its intended function. A active component is one that can be used to provide gain or an amolification of the signal in an electronic circuit. It contains mainly semiconductor devices like diodes and transistors. Digital filter : A digital filter is any electronic filter that works by performing digital math operations on an intermediate form of a signal. Digital filters can easily achieve performance metrics far beyond what is (even theoretically) possible with analog filters. It is not particularly difficult, for example, to create a 1000Hz low-pass filter which can achieve near-perfect transmission of a 999Hz input while entirely blocking a 1001Hz signal. Analog filters cannot split apart such closely spaced signals. Also, for complex multi-stage filtering operations, digital filters have the potential to attain much better signal to noise ratios (more of desired signal in comparision to unwanted signals) than analog filters. This is

because whereas at each intermediate stage the analog filter adds more noise to the signal, the digital filter performs noiseless math operations at each intermediate step in the transform. The primary source of noise in a digital filter is found in the initial analog to digital conversion step, where in addition to any circuit noise introduced, the signal is subject to an unavoidable selectivity error due to the finite resolution of the digital representation of the signal. Digital filters can achieve virtually any filtering effect that can be expressed as a mathematical algorithm. The two primary limitations of digital filters are their speed (the filter can't operate any faster than the computer at the heart of the filter), and their cost. However as the cost of integrated circuits have continued to drop over time, digital filters have become increasingly commonplace and are now an essential element of many everyday objects such as radios, cellphones, and stereo receivers. Digital filters can easily achieve performance levels far more than what is (even theoretically) possible with analog filters. It is not particularly difficult, for example, to create a 1KHz low-pass filter which can achieve near-perfect transmission of a 0.999KHz input while entirely blocking a 1.001KHz signal. Analog filters cannot split apart such closely spaced signals. Mobile Phones make use of Filters called Dual Band-pass filters because they need to allow two frequencies of signals most commonly 900MHz and 1800MHz in the dual band mobile phones. Also Antenna Switches are used in Mobile Phones expensively at the very first stage of the point of entry of the signal (called the received signal Rx) into the mobile phone which also eventually becomes the point of exit for the outgoing signal or the transmitted signal Tx. The newer models of the Mobile Phones like a Nokia 6600 makes use of an active Antenna Switch which also has a built-in amplifier circuit inside it to immediately boost the Rx signal.