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PREFACE

Since time immemorial, a man has tried hard to bring the world as close to himself as possible. His thirst for information is hard to quench so he has continuously tried to develop new technologies, which have helped to reach the objective. The world we see today is a result of the continuous research in the field of communication, which started with the invention of telephone by Grahm Bell to the current avtar as we see in the form INTERNET and mobile phones. All these technologies have come to existence, because man continued its endeavor towards the objective. This project report of mine, STUDY OF TRENDS TECHNOLOGIES IN COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING has been a small effort in reviewing the trends technologies prevailing. For this purpose, no organization other than BAHRAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED could have been a better choice.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I AMIT KUMAR SINGH would like to express our sincere gratitude to our lecturers for helping us in making this project a success.I do take it pleasure to express my deepest sense of gratitude and respect to our eminent and most dynamic person MR J. mandal (J.T.O) for their affectionate guidance and kind support throughout my training in the department. It was my pleasure to start my training under the expert guidance adorable supervision of the most esteemed and qualified person N.K.SINGH and J.mandal, who give me full cooperation and suggestion. So I am extremely grateful to both of them. I am greatly indebted to Mr. N.K.Singh and rest all engineering operative and employee of TTC PATNA. who gave me full cooperation providing all facilities and all sorts of help in connection with the in plant training and project work at TTC PATNA. I am indeed grateful to all my colleagues whose contribution is quite unforgettable as their assistance was extremely valuable to me. I am extremely obliged to my parents and all my family members who gave me such sorts of support like financial mental

and above all which are quite essential for the requirement of the course the great heartily inspiration helped me a lot in accomplishing the in the plant training. And especially I pay regard to N.K.Singh who sacrificed is valuable time for teaching the guiding in plant training. We would also like to thank our H.O.D Er. Poonam kampani, without his approval Summer training Report would not have been possible Thanking you

An Introduction:Today, BSNL is the No. 1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers. Apart from vast network expansions, especial emphasis has given for introducing latest technologies and new services like I-NET, INTERNET, ISDN (INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK), IN (INTELLIGENT NETWORK), GSM and WLL (WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP)services etc.

Now BSNL has also entered in mobile communication. BSNL has all the new services send technological advantages, which are available with any well, developed Telecom network anywhere else in the country. Full credit for all above achievement goes to the officers and staff of the BSNL. The administration is fully aware of the challenges lying ahead and quite committed to provide the latest and best telecom services by their continued support and active cooperation.

BSNL Services:-

When it comes connecting the four corners of the country , and much beyond , one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacleBSNL. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of the leader. It is working round the clock to take India in to the future by providing excellent telecom services for people of India. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from global leaders, it connects each inch of India to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable you to step in to tomorrow.The telecom services have been recognized the world over as an important tool for socio-economic development for a nation and hence telecom infrastructure is treated a crucial factor to realize the socio-economic objectives in India. Accordingly the

Department of Telecom has been formulating developmental policies for the accelerated growth of the telecommunication services in various cities. The department is also responsible for frequency management in the field of radio connection in close coordination with the international bodies.

TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK The telephone is a telecommunication device that is used to transmit and receive electronically or digitally encoded speech between two or more people conversing. It is one of the most common household appliances in the world today. Most telephones
operate through transmission of electric signals over a complex telephone network which allows almost any phone user to communicate with almost any other user. Telecommunication networks carry information signals among entities, which are geographically far apart. An entity may be a computer or human being, a facsimile machine, a teleprinter, a data terminal and so on. The entities are involved in the process of information transfer that may be in the form of a telephone conversation (telephony) or a file transfer between two computers or message transfer between two terminals etc.

With the rapidly growing traffic and untargeted growth of cyberspace, telecommunication becomes a fabric of our life. The future challenges are enormous as we anticipate rapid growth items of new services and number of users. What comes with the challenge is a genuine need for more advanced methodology supporting analysis and design of

telecommunication architectures. Telecommunication has evaluated and growth at an explosive rate in recent years and will undoubtedly continue to do so. The communication switching system enables the universal connectivity. The universal connectivity is realized when any entity in one part of the world can communicate with any other entity in another part of the world. In many ways telecommunication will acts as a substitute for the increasingly expensive physical transportation. The telecommunication links and switching were mainly designed for voice communication. With the appropriate attachments/equipments, they can be used to transmit data. A modern society, therefore needs new facilities including very high bandwidth switched data networks, and large communication satellites with small, cheap earth antennas.

Development of exchanges

Local and trunk Network

Trunk Lines The term Trunk Line in telecommunications refers to the high-speed connection between telephone central offices in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Trunk lines are always digital. The wiring between central offices was originally just pairs of twisted copper wire (the twists in the wiring prevented things known as crosstalk and noise). Because it is expensive to string up (or lay trenches for buried cables), the phone company researched ways in which to carry more data over the existing copper lines. This was achieved by using time-division multiplexing. Later, when fiber-optic technology became available, phone companies upgraded their trunk lines to fiber optics and used statistical time-division multiplexing, synchronous digital heirarchy, coarse or dense wave division multiplexing and optical switching to further improve transmission speeds. The signaling information exchanged between different exchanges via inter exchange trunks for the routing of calls is termed as Inter exchange Signaling. Earlier in band /out of band frequencies were used for transmitting signaling information. Later on, with the emergence of PCM systems, it was possible to segregate the signaling from the speech channel. A trunk line is a circuit connecting telephone switchboards (or other switching equipment), as distinguished from local loop circuit which extends from telephone exchange switching equipment to individual telephones or information

origination/termination equipment. When dealing with a private branch exchange (PBX), trunk lines are the phone lines coming into the PBX from the telephone provider. This differentiates these incoming lines from extension lines that connect the PBX

to (usually) individual phone sets. Trunking saves cost, because there are usually fewer trunk lines than extension lines, since it is unusual in most offices to have all extension lines in use for external calls at once. Trunk lines transmit voice and data in formats such as analog, T1, E1, ISDN or PRI. The dial tone lines for outgoing calls are called DDCO (Direct Dial Central Office) trunks. Trunk lines can contain thousands of simultaneous calls that have been combined using time-division multiplexing. These thousands of calls are carried from one central office to another where they can be connected to a de-multiplexing device and switched through digital access cross connecting switches to reach the proper exchange and local phone number.

Local and trunk Network

09

S L TR CID CIA CTI

: Remote line unit : Local subscriber exchange : Transit exchange : Outgoing international exchange : Incoming international exchange : International transit exchange

Trunking
In telecommunications systems, trunking is the aggregation of multiple user circuits into a single channel. The aggregation is achieved using some form of multiplexing. Trunking theory was developed by Agner Krarup Erlang, Erlang based his studies of the statistical nature of the arrival and the length of calls. The Erlang B formula allows for the calculation of the number of circuits required in a trunk based on the Grade of Service and the amount of traffic in Erlangs the trunk needs cater for. Definition In order to provide connectivity between all users on the network one solution is to build a full mesh network between all endpoints. A full mesh solution is however impractical, a far better approach is to provide a pool of resources that end points can make use of in order to connect to foreign exchanges. The diagram below illustrates the where in a telecommunication

network

trunks

are

used.

A Modern Telephone Network Indicating where trunks are used. SLC Subscriber line concentrator

DIGITAL SWITCHING PRINCIPAL


Secondary Cell ( Conventional )

The Primary requirement of any Telephone System is that service shall be available to the subscriber at all times. The electrical energy required for signaling, switching, speech transmission etc. in telephone exchange is derived either directly or indirectly from the public supply. In order to provide uninterrupted service, the exchange power supply system is designed to give continuous energy to the system. So provision is also made for alternate source of supply in the event of mains failure or public supply failure. This emergency energy is derived from 1) Batteries of Secondary Cells. 2) A Combination of battery and prime mover Generator sets. Generally the lead acid type secondary cells are used in our Dept. Secondary cells are electrolytic cells for generation of electric energy. These cells can be restored to its original condition by passing a current in opposite direction to the flow of current in the cell during the discharge.

Types of Secondary cells

There are three types of Secondary cells:1). Lead-Lead Acid type 2). Nickel Iron Alkaline type & 3). Nickel Cadmium Alkaline type.

POWER STACK - VRLA BATTERY

When a conventional flooded battery becomes fully charged, it evolves oxygen and hydrogen gases, and water is lost from the cell. In Power Stack cells, the oxygen gas generated at the positive plate, is transported in the gas phase through a highly absorbent and porous glass mat separator to the negative plate. The microporous glass separator is not completely saturated with electrolyte and the void space thus available allows an unimpeded access of oxygen to the negative plate. The oxygen gas gets reduced at the negative plate surface, thereby effectively suppressing the evolution of hydrogen. Consequently, Power Stack cells do not lose any water under normal operation and therefore, no topping-up is required. Power Stack VRLA batteries use a patented MFX alloy for the positive grid which exhibits excellent deep discharge performance. In combination with a universal acclaimed maintenance free lead-calcium alloy for the negative

grid. Power Stack cells give very long life in float service, in addition to deep discharge capability.

FRESHENING CHARGE General Batteries lose some charge during the period to

installation. A battery should be installed and given a freshening charge after receipt as soon as possible. Battery positive (+) terminal should be connected to charger positive (+) terminal and battery negative (-) terminal to charger negative (-) terminal.

In this type of operation, the battery is connected in parallel with a constant voltage . Recharge All batteries should be recharged as soon as possible following a discharge with constant voltage charge. PILOT CELL A pilot cell is selected in the series string to reflect the general condition of all cells in the battery. The cell selected should be the lowest cell voltage in the series string following the initial charge.Reading and recording pilot cell voltage monthly serves as an indicator of battery condition between scheduled overall individual cell readings.

EARTHING IN TELEPHONE EXCHANGES

EARTH ELECTRODE SYSTEMS ARE INSTALLED AT TELEPHONE EXCHANGES (a) To provide an earth connection to the battery circuit, to stabilize the potential of the lines and equipment with respect to earth, thus reducing the risk of talk. This is due to lines and equipment assuming an indefinite voltage with respect to earth, and enabling single pole switching to be used on the exchange power plant. This also reduces the number of fuses required in the circuit and avoids the need of insulating the earthed conductor i.e. positive bus bar. (b) To provide a direct to person and plant against leakage from station apparatus. (c) To provide protection to persons and plant against leakage from station power wiring to metallic apparatus, frames etc. (d) To provide means of earthing electrostatic screen on apparatus and of earthing lead sheaths of cables. (e) To complete the circuit of telephone systems employing a common path for signaling purposes.

OPTICAL FIBER CABLE


Principle of Operation - Theory
Total Internal Reflection - The Reflection that Occurs when a Ligh Ray Travelling in One Material Hits a Different Material and Reflects Back into the Original Material without any Loss of Light.

Fig. 2 Speed of light is actually the velocity of electromagnetic energy in vacuum such as space. Light travels at slower velocities in other materials such as glass. Light travelling from one material to another changes speed, which results in light changing its direction of travel. This deflection of light is called Refraction. The amount that a ray of light passing from a lower refractive index to a higher one is bent towards the normal. But light going from a higher index to a lower one refracting away from the normal, as shown in the figures.
Angle of incidence

1 n1 n2 2
Light is bent away from normal

1 n1 n2

1 n1 n2

Angle of reflection

2
Light does not enter second material

As the angle of incidence increases, the angle of refraction approaches 90o to the normal. The angle of incidence that yields an angle of refraction of 90o is the critical angle. If the angle of incidence increases amore than the critical angle, the light is totally reflected back into the first material so that it does not enter the second material. The angle of incidence and reflection are equal and it is called Total Internal Reflection. Geometry of Fiber

A hair-thin fiber consist of two concentric layers of high-purity silica glass the core and the cladding, which are enclosed by a protective sheath as shown in Fig. 5. Light rays modulated into digital pulses with a laser or a light-emitting diode moves along the core without penetrating the cladding.

Fig. 5 Geometry of fiber 8.0 FIBRE TYPES

The refractive Index profile describes the relation between the indices of the core and cladding. Two main relationship exists : (I) (II) Step Index Graded Index

The step index fibre has a core with uniform index throughout. The profile shows a sharp step at the junction of the core and cladding. In contrast, the graded index has a non-uniform core. The Index is highest at the center and gradually decreases until it matches with that of the cladding. There is no sharp break in indices between the core and the cladding. By this classification there are three types of fibres : (I) (II) Multimode Step Index fibre (Step Index fibre) Multimode graded Index fibre (Graded Index fibre)

(III)

Single- Mode Step Index fibre (Single Mode Fibre)

8.1

STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER has a large core, up to 100

microns in diameter. As a result, some of the light rays that make up the digital pulse may travel a direct route, whereas others zigzag as they bounce off the cladding. These alternative pathways cause the different groupings of light rays, referred to as modes, to arrive separately at a receiving point. The pulse, an aggregate of different modes, begins to spread out, losing its welldefined shape. The need to leave spacing between pulses to prevent overlapping limits bandwidth that is, the amount of information that can be sent. Consequently, this type of fiber is best suited for transmission over short distances, in an endoscope, for instance.

Fig. 6 STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER 8.2 GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER contains a core in

which the refractive index diminishes gradually from the center axis out toward the cladding. The higher refractive index at the center makes the light

rays moving down the axis advance more slowly than those near the cladding.

Fig.7 GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER Also, rather than zigzagging off the cladding, light in the core curves helically because of the graded index, reducing its travel distance. The shortened path and the higher speed allow light at the periphery to arrive at a receiver at about the same time as the slow but straight rays in the core axis. The result: a digital pulse suffers less dispersion. 8.3 SINGLE-MODE FIBER has a narrow core (eight microns or less),

and the index of refraction between the core and the cladding changes less than it does for multimode fibers. Light thus travels parallel to the axis, creating little pulse dispersion. Telephone and cable television networks install millions of kilometers of this fiber every year.

Fig. 8 SINGLE-MODE FIBER 9.0 OPTICAL FIBRE PARAMETERS

Optical fiber systems have the following parameters. (I) (II) (III) (IV) Wavelength. Frequency. Window. Attenuation.

(V) (VI)

Dispersion. Bandwidth.

9.1

WAVELENGTH

It is a characterstic of light that is emitted from the light source and is measures in nanometers (nm). In the visible spectrum, wavelength can be described as the colour of the light. For example, Red Light has longer wavelength than Blue Light, Typical wavelength for fibre use are 850nm, 1300nm and 1550nm all of which are invisible.

9.2

FREQUENCY

It is number of pulse per second emitted from a light source. Frequency is measured in units of hertz (Hz). In terms of optical pulse 1Hz = 1 pulse/ sec.

9.3

WINDOW A narrow window is defined as the range of wavelengths at which a

fibre best operates. Typical windows are given below :


Window 800nm - 900nm 1250nm - 1350nm 1500nm - 1600nm Operational Wavelength 850nm 1300nm 1550nm

9.4

ATTENUATION Attenuation is defined as the loss of optical power over a set distance, a

fibre with lower attenuation will allow more power to reach a receiver than fibre with higher attenuation. Attenuation may be categorized as intrinsic or extrinsic. 9.4.1 INTRINSIC ATTENUATION

It is loss due to inherent or within the fibre. Intrinsic attenuation may occur as (1) Absorption - Natural Impurities in the glass absorb light energy.

Fig. 9 Absorption of Light (2) Scattering - Light Rays Travelling in the Core Reflect from small

Imperfections into a New Pathway that may be Lost through the cladding.
Light is lost

Light Ray

Fig. 10 Scattering

9.4.2

EXTRINSIC ATTENUATION

It is loss due to external sources. Extrinsic attenuation may occur as

(I)

Macrobending - The fibre is sharply bent so that the light travelling down the fibre cannot make the turn & is lost in the cladding.

Micro

Micro bend

Micro bend

Fig. Loss and Bends


Fig. 11 Micro and Macro bending (II) Microbending - Microbending or small bends in the fibre caused by crushing contraction etc. These bends may not be visible with the naked eye.
Attenuation is measured in decibels (dB). A dB represents the comparison between the transmitted and received power in a system.

Mobile Communication

Principle of Mobile Communication Multiple Access methodology The technique of dynamically sharing the finite limited radio spectrum by multiple users is called Multiple Access Technique. Generally there are three different types of multiple access technologies. They are Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division multiple Access (CDMA)

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA): FDMA is a familiar method of allocating bandwidth, where a base station is allowed to transmit on one or more number of preassigned carrier frequencies and a mobile unit transmits on corresponding reverse channels. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) In a TDMA system each channel is split up into time segments, and a transmitter is given exclusive use of one or more channels only during a particular time period. Duplexing and Multiple Access Techniques in use:

No Name of System 1 2 GSM CDMA

Multiple Access FDMA-TDMA CDMA

Duplexing FDD FDD

FREQUENCY ALLOCATION Two frequency bands have been allocated for the GSM system:

The band 890-915 MHz and 1710-1785 MHz has been allocated for the uplink direction (transmitting from the mobile station to the base station).

The band 935-960 MHz and 1805-1880 MHz has been allocated for the downlink direction (transmitting from the base station to the mobile station).

G OMC VLR

Other MSCs

B
BSS

D C HLR F AUC

A
BSC MSC E Other MSCs Other Networks

MS Un

BTS

Abis

EIR

ARCHITECTURE OF THE GSM NETWORK The architecture of the GSM network is presented in figure Subsystems and network elements in GSM

The GSM network is called Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). It is organised in three subsystems: Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) Network Management Subsystem (NMS)

The three subsystems, different network elements, and their respective tasks are presented in the following.

1. Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) contains the network elements MSC, GMSC, VLR, HLR, AC and EIR.

The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

The main functions of NSS are:


Call control

This identifies the subscriber, establishes a call, and clears the connection after the conversation is over.
Charging

This collects the charging information about a call (the numbers of the caller and the called subscriber, the time and type of the transaction, etc.) and transfers it to the Billing Centre.

Mobility management

This maintains information about the subscriber's location.


Signalling

This applies to interfaces with the BSS and PSTN.


Subscriber data handling

This is the permanent data storage in the HLR and temporary storage of relevant data in the VLR. Overview of GPRS GPRS uses a packet-based switching technique, which will enhance GSM data services significantly, especially for bursty Internet/intranet traffic. Some application examples: Bus, train, airline real-time information Locating restaurants and other entertainment venues based on current Location Lottery E-commerce Banking E-mail Web browsing

The main advantages of GPRS for users: Instant access to data as if connected to an office LAN

Charging based on amount of data transferred (not the time connected) Higher transmission speeds

In circuit switching, each time a connection is required between two points, a link between the two points is established and the needed resources are reserved for the use of that single call for the complete duration of the call. In packet switching, the data to be transferred is divided up into packets, which are then sent through the network and re-assembled at the receiving end.

The GPRS network acts in parallel with the GSM network, providing packet switched connections to the external networks. The requirements of a GPRS network are the following:

Figure shows the architecture of a GPRS network. The GPRS system brings some new network elements to an existing GSM network. These elements are: Packet Control Unit (PCU) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN): the MSC of the GPRS network Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN): gateway to external networks

Packet Control Unit (PCU) The PCU separates the circuit switched and packet switched traffic from the user and sends them to the GSM and GPRS networks respectively. It also performs most of the radio resource management functions of the GPRS network. Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) The SGSN is the most important element of the GPRS network. The SGSN of the GPRS network is equivalent to the MSC of the GSM network. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) The GGSN is the gateway to external networks. Routing mobiledestined packets coming from external networks to the relevant SGSN Routing packets originating from a mobile to the correct external network Collects charging data and traffic statistics

Evolution from GSM to 3G

BROAD BAND

Definition of Broad Band Broadband is often called high-speed Internet, because it usually has a high rate of data transmission. In general, any connection to the customer of 256 kbit/s or more is considered broadband. HOW IS BROADBAND DIFFERENT FROM DIAL-UP SERVICE?

Broadband service provides higher speed of data transmissionAllows more content to be carried through the transmission pipeline.

Broadband provides access to the highest quality Internet services streaming media, VoIP (Internet phone), gaming and interactive services.

Many of these current and newly developing services require the transfer of large amounts of data which may not be technically feasible with dial-up service. Therefore, broadband service may be increasingly necessary to access the full range of services and opportunities that the Internet can offer.

Broadband is always ondoes not block phone lines and no need to reconnect to network after logging off.

Less delay in transmission of content when using broadband.

TYPES OF BROADBAND CONNECTIONS Broadband includes several high-speed transmission technologies such as:

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cable Modem Fiber Wireless Satellite Broadband over Power lines (BPL)

Broadband Service
Broadband refers to a connection that has capacity to transmit large amount of data at high speed. Presently a connection having download speeds of 256 kbps or more is classified as broadband. When connected to the Internet broadband connection allows surfing or downloading much faster than a dial-up or any other narrowband connections. BSNL offers 2 Mbps minimum download speed for its Broadband connections.

Requirement for providing Broad Band connection 1. Personal Computer 2. ADSL Modem 3. Land Line Connection 4. Splitter for separating telephone from Personal computer.

Services available through Broadband

High speed Internet Access: This is the always-on Internet access service with speed ranging from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps. Bandwidth on Demand: This will facilitate customer to change bandwidth as per his / her requirement. For example a customer with 256 kbps can change to 1 Mbps during the video Conferencing session.

Multicasting: This is to provide video multicast services, videoon-demand etc. for application in distance education,

telemedicine etc. Dial VPN Service: This service allows remote users to access their private network securely over the NIB-II infrastructure. Video and Audio Conferencing: Content based Services: Like Video on Demand, Interactive Gaming, Live and time shifted TV Video on Demand: Customers can view any movie of their choice from a pool of movies stored in a central server. The movies can be viewed either on a TV or a PC.

Audio on Demand: It is a similar service where person can listen to any music of his choice. TV channels through broadband connection: The TV

channels may be available in the broadband connection. In fact, there may be other new channels, particularly the educational and scientific channels, depending on demand. Additional equipments required in the customer's premises are
Set Top Box (STB) - The STB converts the digital IP based signal to a form compatible with the TV set. PC and TV

The TV services envisaged are: i. S-VoD : Subscription based Video Content, as in Pay Channels. ii. iii. Video-On-Demand N-VoD : Near Video-On-Demand. NVOD provides playouts on fixed time bands which people can watch against payment. iv. T-VOD : Transaction or Pay-Per-View service.

The video content will have Hindi, international and regional movies, music, soaps and serials, sports, news, interactive gaming, e-learning and niche channels. "The driver in entertainment will be on-demand movies, interactive gaming, broadband Internet connectivity and e-learning,"

Billing: To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or volume-based billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services

IP Telephony Messaging: plain and feature rich, Multi-site MPLS VPN with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. Wi-Fi Web hosting & web co-location. Lease line service. Multiplay services and features

BSNL has started new Multiplay services which will provide following services from one ADSL/VDSL connection 1. Basic Broadband 2. IPTV 3. Video On Demand 4. Bandwidth on Demand 5. Gaming On Demand 6. Audio on Demand 7. Tele educations 8. VPN over Broadband 9. Video Conferencing 10. Video telephony 11. VoIP 12. Internet Policy Servers for URL Filtering 13. Multiplay The bundle is killer application

Entertainment Streaming Music, Radio, Concerts Info Services Sports, Games, Hobbies

Productivity/Reference Security Anti-Virus Firewall SPAM URL Filtering

Communications Voice (VoIP)

VoD PVR nPVR Replay TV

Back-up and recovery

Tiered VPN Personal Video

Home Monitoring Info Services Financial, News, Travel

Email Fax Service

IPTV (Broadcast)

Personal Storage Images, Video Data

Instant Messaging WiFi Enabled Cellphone service

Gaming Downloads

Distributed Printing

Photos, Etc. Real-Time Gaming Dynamic Bandwidth Upgrades Multiplayer Hosting Online Collaboration Video-Telephony

CDMA Technology
Access Network: Access network, the network between local exchange and subscriber, in the Telecom Network accounts for a major portion of resources both in terms of capital and manpower. So far, the subscriber loop has remained in the domain of the copper cable providing cost effective solution in past. Quick deployment of subscriber loop, coverage of inaccessible and remote locations coupled with modern technology have led to the emergence of new Access Technologies. The various technological options available are as follows : 1. 2. 3. Multi Access Radio Relay Wireless In Local Loop Fibre In the Local Loop

Wireless in Local Loop (WILL) Fixed Wireless telephony in the subscriber access network also known as Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) is one of the hottest emerging market segments in global telecommunications today. WLL is generally used as the last mile solution to deliver basic phone service expeditiously where none has existed before. Flexibility and expediency are becoming the key driving factors behind the deployment of WILL. WLL shall facilitate cordless telephony for residential as well as commercial complexes where people are highly mobile. It is also used in remote areas where it is uneconomical to lay cables and for rapid development of telephone services. The technology employed shall depend upon various radio access techniques, like FDMA, TDMA and CDMA. Different technologies have been developed by the different countries like CT2 from France, PHS from Japan, DECT from Europe and DAMPS & CDMA from USA. Let us discuss CDMA technology in WLL application as it has a potential ability to tolerate a fair amount of interference as compared to other conventional radios. This leads to a considerable advantage from a system point of view. SPREAD SPECTRUM PRINCIPLE Originally Spread spectrum radio technology was developed for military use to counter the interference by hostile jamming. The broad spectrum of the transmitted signal gives rise to Spread Spectrum. A Spread Spectrum signal is generated by modulating the radio frequency (RF) signal with a code consisting of different pseudo random binary sequences, which is inherently resistant to noisy signal environment.

A number of Spread spectrum RF signals thus generated share the same frequency spectrum and thus the entire bandwidth available in the band is used by each of the users using same frequency at the same time.

Fig-1 CDMA ACCESS A CONCEPT On the receive side only the signal energy with the selected binary sequence code is accepted and original information content (data) is recovered. The other users signals, whose codes do not match contribute only to the noise and are not despread back in bandwidth (Ref Fig-1) This transmission and reception of signals differentiated by codes using the same frequency simultaneously by a number of users is known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Technique as opposed to conventional method of Frequency Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access. In the above figure, it has been tried to explain that how the base band signal of 9.6 Kbps is spread using a Pseudo-random Noise (PN) source to occupy entire bandwidth of 1.25 Mhz. At the receiving end this signal will have interference from signals of other users of the same cell, users of different cells and interference from other noise sources. All these signals get

combined with the desired signal but using a correct PN code the original data can be reproduced back. CDMA channel in the trans and receive direction is a FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) channel. The salient features of a typical CDMA system are as follows: Frequency of operation: Duplexing Mehtod: 824-849Mhz and 869-894 Mhz Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)

Access Channel per carrier: Maximum 61 Channels RF Spacing: Coverage: 1.25 Mhz 5 Km with hand held telephones and approx. 20 Km with fixed units.

Architecture of CDMA MSC Based WLL system

MS

M SC

PSTN Ai B

Um Abis
BSS

E B SC A

BT S

M S C/SSP

VLR

D H

MC

MC

HLR
MSS

AUC

RGMTTC Presentation

Call Processing in CDMA Call processing refers to all the necessary functions that the system needs to carry out in order to set up, maintain, and tear down a call between a mobile and another party. Two types of connections are possible: Mobile-to-Land call or Mobile-to-mobile call. Call can be either mobile originated or mobile terminated. Since mobile station is the common element in both cases the IS-95 standard specifies the call states from the perspective of the CDMA.

States of mobile: During normal operation, the mobile can occupy any one of the following states Mobile station initialization state; Mobile station idle state; System access state; Mobile station control on the traffic channel state. After power-up, the mobile first enters the mobile station initialization state, where the mobile selects and acquires a system. Upon exiting the initialization state, the mobile has fully acquired the system and its timing. Then the mobile enters the mobile station idle state where the mobile monitors messages on the paging channel . Any one of the following three events will cause the mobile to transition from the idle state to the system access state 1) The mobile receives a paging channel message requiring an acknowledgment or response, 2) The mobile originates a call, or 3) The mobile performs a registration. In the access state, the mobile sends messages to the base station on the access channel. When the mobile is directed to a traffic channel, it enters the mobile station control on the traffic channel state where the mobile communicates with the base station using the forward and reverse

traffic channels. When the call is terminated, the mobile returns to the initialization state. Initialization State After power-up, the mobile enters the initialization state. This state contains four sub states, which the mobile sequentially goes through: 1. System determination sub state; 2. Pilot channel acquisition sub state; 3. Sync channel acquisition sub state; 4. Timing change sub state Idle State: Paging Channel Monitoring In the idle state, the mobile monitors the paging channel on the forward link. In order to receive messages and receive an incoming call, the mobile needs to monitor the paging channel for messages. The paging channel transmission is divided into slots that are 80 ms in length. There are two ways that the mobile can monitor the paging channel: Nonslotted mode Slotted mode. In non-slotted mode, the mobile monitors the paging channel at all times. In slotted mode, the mobile monitors the paging channel only during assigned paging channel slots. Because the mobile doesnt have to monitor all the slots all the time, the mobile operating in the slotted mode can conserve battery power. Access State

In the access state, the mobile transmits messages to the base station using the access channel. In addition, the mobile also receives messages from the base station on the paging channel. There are six sub states that the mobile can occupy within the access state. Update overhead information sub state; Page response sub state; Mobile station origination attempt sub state; Registration access sub state; Mobile station order/message response sub state; Mobile station message transmission sub state.

Hand Offs in CDMA As the phone moves through a network the system controller transfers the call from one cell to another, this process is called handoff. Handoffs maybe done with the assistance of the mobile or the system controller will control the process by itself. Handoffs are necessary to continue the call as the phone travels. Handoffs may also occur in idle state due to mobility. Types of Handoffs in CDMA: There are primarily three types of Handoffs in CDMA. They are Soft Hard and Idle.

The type of handoff depends on the handoff situation. To understand this we should know the cellular concept used in CDMA. CDMA frequency- reuse planning (cellular concept): Each BTS in a CDMA network can use all available frequencies. Adjacent cells can transmit at the same frequency because users are separated by code channels, not frequency channels. BTSs are separated by offsets in the short PN code This feature of CDMA, called "frequency reuse of one," eliminates the need for frequency planning

LEASED LINE & MLLN


1.0 Leased Lines A leased line is a permanent fiber optic or telephone connection between two points set up by a telecommunications carrier. A leased line is also sometimes referred to as a dedicated line. They can be used for telephone, data, or Internet services. Oftentimes businesses will use a leased line to connect to geographically distant offices because it guarantees bandwidth for network traffic. For example, a bank may use a leased line in order to easily transfer financial information from one office to another. A leased line can span long or short distances and customers generally pay a flat monthly rate for the service depending on the distance between the two points. Leased lines do not have telephone numbers because each side of the line is always connected to one another, as opposed to telephone lines which reuse the same lines for numerous conversations through a process called "switching." The information sent through the leased line travels along dedicated secure channels, eliminating the congestion that occurs in shared networks.

2.0

MLLN MANAGED LEASED LINE NETWORK The MLLN service is specially designed mainly for having effective

control and monitoring on the leased line so that the down time is minimized and the circuit efficiency is increased. This mainly deals with data circuits ranging from 64 Kbps to 2048 Kbps. 3.0 1. DRAWBACK OF TRADITIONAL LEASED LINE CIRCUITS Limited range of services - Only Plain Leased Line Service, Data cards support only up to 64 kbps, no support for N x 64 Kbps. 2. From Operator pointt of view in case of Leased Line Circuit different boxes from different vendors so difficult to manage & control. 3. No Centralized Monitoring or alarm or performance monitering. Therefore we should have a control to all this, we are able to identify before the customer know which circuit has gone faulty The solution to this is MLLN

4.0

MLLN ADVANTAGES: 1. 24 hrs Performance Monitering of the circuit. (how much time circuit time up & down and the reason for down time e.g MODEM switch off or other reason) 2. Circuit fault reports generated proactively.(Before customer know we should detect the fault & rectify it) 3. On Demand the Bandwidth can be increased. (without changing the MODEM recreate the circuit with the same MODEM)

4. Low lead time for new circuit provisioning. (Create & debug if any fault) 5. Protection against the failure of the circuit (through recovery Management process either automatic or manually) 6. Long drive on single copper pair.( for 64 kbps 7 kms & for 2mbps 3.5 kms) 7. Centrally managed from ROT connected to the NMS 5.0 APPLICATION OF MLLN: 1. Corporate high speed internet access through Broadband. 2. LAN interconnection. 3. Hotline connectivity for voice. 4. Point to point connection for data circuit. 5. point to multipoint connection. 6. EPABX Interconnection. 7. VPN on MLLN Network. 8. Extension of VPN (MPLS) to Customer.

8.0

NETWORK ARCHITECTURE:

Main DXC 256 Ports

Fig. 1 Network Architecture of MLLN

8.1

DXC

Capacity DXC (64 ports upgradeable to 128 ports) DXC (96 ports upgradeable to 128 ports) DXC (128 ports upgradeable to 256 ports) DXC (256 ports)

1/0 cross-connect capability Non-Blocking Architecture Redundancy Power Supply

Switching Matrix Cross-connect Memory

Expansion to be made possible by addition of cards only. Fully Managed from Centralized NMS 8.2 VMUX Type - I, Type - II, Type - III with the configurations given below 64 kbps VMUX Type I VMUX Type II VMUX Type III 32 16 8 N*64 kbps 8 4 4 E1 Links 12 4 4

8.0

NETWORK PLAN : Network Plan of Training centers

MPLS
Introduction The exponential growth of the Internet over the past several years has placed a tremendous strain on the service provider networks. Not only has there been an increase in the number of users but there has been a multifold increase in connection speeds, backbone traffic and newer applications. Initially ordinary data applications required only store and forward capability in a best effort manner. The newer applications like voice, multimedia traffic and real-time e-commerce applications are pushing towards higher bandwidth and better guarantees, irrespective of the dynamic changes or interruptions in the network. To honour the service level guarantees, the service providers not only have to provide large data pipes (which are also costlier), but also look for

architectures which can provide & guarantee QoS guarantees and optimal performance with minimal increase in the cost of network resources. MPLS technology enables Service Providers to offer additional services for their customers, scale their current offerings, and exercise more control over their growing networks by using its traffic engineering capabilities.
IP routing and MPLS In conventional IP forwarding, a particular router will typically consider two packets to be in the same FEC( Forwarding Equivalence Class) if there is some address prefix X in that router's routing tables such that X is the "longest match" for each packet's destination address. As the packet traverses the network, each hop in turn reexamines the packet and assigns it to a FEC. On the other hand, in MPLS, the assignment of a particular packet to a particular FEC is done just once, as the packet enters the network. The FEC to which the packet is assigned is encoded as a label. When a packet is forwarded to its next hop, the label is sent along with it. At subsequent hops, there is no further analysis of the packet's network layer header. Rather, the label is used as an index into a table which specifies the next hop, and a new label. The old label is replaced with the new label, and the packet is forwarded to its next hop.

2.MPLS terminology IP-based networks typically lack the quality-of-service features available in circuit-based networks, such as Frame Relay and ATM. MPLS brings the sophistication of a connection-oriented protocol to the connectionless IP world. Based on simple improvements in basic IP routing, MPLS brings performance enhancements and service creation capabilities to the network.

MPLS stands for Multiprotocol Label Switching; multiprotocol because its techniques are applicable to ANY network layer protocol, of which IP is the most popular. Before explaining MPLS, here are some of the terms which are used extensively in MPLS jargon:
1. Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC): a group of IP packets which are forwarded in the same manner (e.g., over the same path, with the same forwarding treatment). 2. MPLS header: The 32-bit MPLS header contains the following fields: i. The label field (20-bits) carries the actual value of the MPLS label. ii. The Class of Service (CoS) field (3-bits) can affect the queuing and discard algorithms applied to the packet as it is transmitted through the network. Since the CoS field has 3 bits, therefore 8 distinct service classes can be maintained. iii. The Stack (S) field (1-bit) supports a hierarchical label stack. Although MPLS supports a stack, the processing of a labeled packet is always based on the top label, without regard for the possibility that some of other labels may have been above it in the past, or that some number of other labels may be below it at present. Value 1 refers to the label of bottom layer. iv. The TTL (time-to-live) field (8-bits) provides conventional IP TTL functionality.

Fig. MPLS Header

3. The MPLS label is encapsulated in a standardized MPLS header that is inserted between the Layer 2 and IP headers.

Fig. L2, MPLS, L3 headers 3.MPLS Network Structure


As shown in Fig, the basic composing unit of MPLS network is LSR, and the network consisting of LSRs is called MPLS domain. The LSR that is located at the edge of the domain and connected with other customer network is called Label Edge Router (LER). The LSR located inside the domain is called core LSR. The labeled packets are transmitted along the LSP composed of a series of LSRs. Among them, the import LSR is called Ingress, and the export LSR is called Egress.

LSP Ingress

Egress MPLS core LSR MPLS LER

Fig. MPLS architecture

4. MPLS operations Label push , label swap and label pop PUSH:

A new label is pushed on top of the packet, effectively "encapsulating" the original IP packet in a layer of MPLS.
SWAP:

Every incoming label is replaced by a new outgoing label (As per the path to be followed) and the packet is forwarded along the path associated with the new label.
POP: The label is removed from the packet effectively "de-encapsulating". If the popped label was the last on the label stack, the packet "leaves" the MPLS tunnel

Fig. MPLS operations

Fig. Above shows the LSP,the path from source to destination for a data packet through an MPLS-enabled network. LSPs are unidirectional in nature. The LSP is usually derived from IGP routing information but can diverge from the IGP's preferred path to the destination. Fig. Shows the LSP for network 172.16.10.0/24 from R4 is R4-R3-R2-R1. As shown in fig., the following process takes place in the data forwarding path from R4 to R1:
1.

R4 receives a data packet for network 172.16.10.0 and identifies that the path to the destination is MPLS enabled. Therefore, R4 forwards the packet to next-hop Router R3 after applying a label L3 (from downstream Router R3) on the packet and forwards the labeled packet to R3.

2. R3 receives the labeled packet with label L3 and swaps the label L3 with L2 and forwards the packet to R2. 3. R2 receives the labeled packet with label L2 and swaps the label L2 with L1 and forwards the packet to R1. 4. R1 is the border router between the IP and MPLS domains; therefore, R1 removes the labels on the data packet and forwards the IP packet to destination network 172.16.10.0. 5. MPLS Applications MPLS-Based VPN For traditional VPN, the transmission of the data flow between private networks on the public packet switched network is usually realized via such tunneling protocols as GRE, L2TP and PPTP, and LSP itself is the tunnel on the public network. The realization of VPN using MPLS is of natural advantages. The MPLS-based VPN connects the geographically different branches of the private network by using LSP, forming a united network.

CE3

Branch 3 of private network

PE3

Branch 1 of private network

CE1

PE1

CE2 Backbone network PE2 Branch 2 of private network

Fig .MPLS-based VPN The basic structure of MPLS-based VPN is shown in Fig. CE is the customer edge device, and it may either be a router or a switch, or perhaps a host. PE is a service provider edge router, which is located on the edge of the backbone network. PE is responsible for managing VPN customers, establishing LSP connection between various PEs and route allocation among different branches of the same VPN. MPLS-Based Traffic Engineering Network congestion is the main problem affecting the backbone network performance. Usually the network is congested due to insufficient network resources or unbalanced network resources, which causes partial congestion. Traffic engineering is used to solve the congestion due to unbalanced load. Through monitoring network traffic and load on network element dynamically, then adjusting traffic management parameters and routing parameters as well as resource constraining parameters in real time, traffic engineering optimizes the network resources and prevents the network congestion accordingly.

Wi-MAX
Broadband wireless sits at the confluence of two of the most remarkable growth stories of the telecommunications industry in recent years. Both wireless and broadband have on their own enjoyed rapid massmarket adoption. The staggering growth of the Internet is driving demand for higher-speed Internet-access services, leading to a parallel growth in broadband adoption . So what is broadband wireless? Broadband wireless is about bringing the broadband experience to a wireless context, which offers users certain unique benefits and convenience. There are two fundamentally different types of broadband wireless services. The first type attempts to provide a set of services similar to that of the traditional fixed-line broadband but using wireless as the medium of transmission. This type, called fixed wireless broadband, can be thought of as a competitive alternative to DSL or cable modem. The second type of broadband wireless, called mobile broadband, offers the additional functionality of portability, nomadicity and mobility. Mobile broadband attempts to bring broadband applications to new user experience scenarios and hence can offer the end user a very different value proposition. Wi-MAX is an acronym that stands for World-wide

Interoperability for Microwave Access and this technology is designed to accommodate both fixed and mobile broadband applications. WiMAX NETWORK ARCHITECTURE The WiMAX NWG has developed a network reference model to serve as an architecture framework for WiMAX deployments and to ensure

interoperability among various WiMAX equipment and operators. The network reference model envisions a unified network architecture for supporting fixed, nomadic, and mobile deployments and is based on an IP service model. Below is simplified illustration of an IP-based WiMAX network architecture. The overall network may be logically divided into three parts: 1. Mobile Stations (MS) used by the end user to access the network. 2. The access service network (ASN), which comprises one or more base stations and one or more ASN gateways that form the radio access network at the edge. 3. Connectivity service network (CSN), which provides IP connectivity and all the IP core network functions. The network reference model developed by the WiMAX Forum NWG defines a number of functional entities and interfaces between those entities. Fig below shows the logical representation of the network architecture.

R2

NAP

NSP

Mobile Subscriber Station


R1

BS

ASN GW (FA)
R6

HA
R3

AA

BS
ASN

CSN

R5 R4

Another ASN

Another Operators CSN

ASN-ACCESS SERVICES NETWORK NAP-NETWORK ACCESS PROVIDER CSN- CORE SERVICES NETWORK NSP- NETWORK SERVICES PROVIDER BS- BAS STATION HA-HOME AGENT FA-FOREGN AGENT AAA-AUTHENTICATION AUTHONZATION & ACCOUNTING

Fig. WiMAX Network Reference Model BASE STATION (BS): The BS is responsible for providing the air interface to the MS. Additional functions that may be part of the BS are micromobility management functions, such as handoff triggering and tunnel establishment, radio resource management, QoS policy

enforcement, traffic classification, DHCP (Dynamic Host Control

Protocol) proxy, key management, session management, and multicast group management. ACCESS SERVICE NETWORK GATEWAY (ASN-GW): The ASN gateway typically acts as a layer 2 traffic aggregation point within an ASN. Additional functions that may be part of the ASN gateway include intra-ASN location management and paging, radio resource management and admission control, caching of subscriber profiles and encryption keys, AAA client functionality, establishment and management of mobility tunnel with base stations, QoS and policy enforcement, foreign agent functionality for mobile IP, and routing to the selected CSN. CONNECTIVITY SERVICE NETWORK (CSN): The CSN provides connectivity to the Internet, ASP, other public networks, and corporate networks. The CSN is owned by the NSP and includes AAA servers that support authentication for the devices, users, and specific services. The CSN also provides per user policy management of QoS and security. The CSN is also responsible for IP address management, support for roaming between different NSPs, location management between ASNs, and mobility and roaming between ASNs, subscriber billing and inter operator settlement, inter-CSN tunneling to support roaming between different NSPs. REFERENCE POINTS: The WiMAX NWG defines a reference point as a conceptual link that connects two groups of functions that reside in different functional entities of the ASN , CSN or MS. Reference points may not be a physical interface except when the functional entities on either side of it are implemented on different physical devices.

Reference point R1

End points

Description

MS and CSN

Implements the air interface ( IEEE 802.16e ) specifications.

R2

MS and CSN

For authentication, authorization, IP host configuration management and mobility management, only a logical interface between MS and CSN

R3

ASN CSN

and Supports

AAA,

policy

enforcement,and mobility mgmt. capabilities

R4

ASN ASN

and A

set

of

protocols

originating/terminating in various entities within the ASN. In Release I , R4 is the only interoperable interface between different ASNs or heterogenous ASNs.

R5

CSN

and A set of protocols for interworking

CSN R6

between home and visited network.

BS and ASN- A set of control and bearer plane GW protocols for communication

between BS and ASN-GW. It may serve as a conduit for exchange of different MAC states information between neighboring BSs. R7 ASN-GW-DP and GW-EP An optional set of control plane for co-ordination

ASN- protocols

between two group of functions identified in R6.

R8

BS and BS

A set of control plane message flows and bearer plane data flows between BSs to ensure fast and seamless handover.

WIRELESS-FIDELITY (WI-FI)

Wi-Fi is a registered trademark by the Wi-Fi Alliance. The products tested and approved as "Wi-Fi Certified" are interoperable with each other, even if they are from different manufacturer. It is Short form for WirelessFidelity and is meant to generically refer to any type of 802.11 network, whether 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, etc.

General description of Wi-Fi Network: A Wi-Fi network provides the features and benefits of traditional LAN technologies such as Ethernet and Token Ring without the limitations of wires or cables. It provides the final few metres of connectivity between a wired network and the mobile user thereby providing mobility, scalability of networks and the speed of installation. WIFI is a wireless LAN Technology to deliver wireless broad band speeds up to 54 Mbps to Laptops, PCs, PDAs , dual mode wifi enabled phones etc.

In a typical Wi-Fi configuration, a transmitter/receiver (transceiver) device, called the Access Point (AP), connects to the wired network from a fixed location using standard cabling. A wireless Access Point combines router and bridging functions, it bridges network traffic, usually from Ethernet to the airwaves, where it routes to computers with wireless adapters. The AP can reside at any node of the wired network and acts as a gateway for wireless data to be routed onto the wired network as shown in Figure-1. It supports only 10 to 30 mobile devices per Access Point (AP) depending on the network traffic. Like a cellular system, the Wi-Fi is capable of roaming from the AP and re-connecting to the network through another AP. The Access Point (or the antenna attached to the Access Point) is usually mounted high but may be mounted essentially anywhere that is practical as long as the desired radio coverage is obtained.

Figure -1: A typical Wi-Fi Network. Like a cellular phone system, the wireless LAN is capable of roaming from the AP and re-connecting to the network through other APs residing at other points on the wired network. This can allow the wired LAN to be extended to cover a much larger area than the existing coverage by the use of multiple APs such as in a campus environment as shown in Figure 2.

Figure -2: Extending Wi-Fi coverage with multiple APs.

An important feature of the wireless LAN is that it can be used independent of a wired network. It may be used as a stand alone network anywhere to link multiple computers together without having to build or extend a wired network. Then a peer to peer workgroup can be established for transfer or access of data. A member of the workgroup may be established as the server or the network can act in a peer to peer mode as Shown in Figure-3.

Figure-3: Wireless LAN workgroup.

End users access the Wi-Fi network through Wi-Fi adapters, which are implemented as cards in desktop computers, or integrated within hand-held computers. Wi-Fi wireless LAN adapters provide an interface between the client Network Operating System (NOS) and the airwaves via an antenna. The nature of the wireless connection is transparent to the NOS. Wi-Fi deals with fixed, portable and mobile stations and of course, the physical layers used here are fundamentally different from wired media Wi-Fi Network Configuration: A Wireless Peer-To-Peer Network: This mode is also known as ADHOC mode. Wi-Fi networks can be simple or complex. At its most basic, two PCs equipped with wireless adapter cards can set up an independent network whenever they are within range of one another. This is called a peer-to-peer

network. It requires no administration or pre-configuration. In this case, each client would only have access to the resources of the other client and not to a central server as shown in Figure-4. Figure-4: A Wi-Fi Peer-To-Peer Network. 3.2 Client and Access Point: This is known as INFRASTUCTURE mode and is normally employed. However, wireless gateway can be configured to enable peer to peer communication in this mode as well. In this mode, one Access Point is connected to the wired network and each client would have access to server resources as well as to other clients. The specific number client depends on the number and nature of the transmissions involved. Many real-world applications exist where a single Access Point services from 15 to 50 client devices as shown in Figure-5.

Figure-5: A Server and Clint Wi-Fi Network.

3.3 Multiple Access Points and Roaming: Access points can be connected to each other through UTP cable or they can be connected to each other over radio through wireless bridging. There is an option to connect access points in a mesh architecture where in event of a fault in an access point the network heals itself and connectivity is ensured through other access point. This changeover takes place dynamically. Access Points have a finite range, of the order of 500 feet indoor and 1000 feet outdoors. In a very large facility such as a warehouse, or on a college campus, it will probably be necessary to install more than one Access Point. Access Point positioning is done by a site survey. The goal is to blanket the coverage area with overlapping coverage cells so that clients might range throughout the area without ever losing network contact. The ability of clients to move seamlessly among a cluster of Access Points is called roaming. Access Points hand the client off from one to another in a way that is invisible to the client, ensuring unbroken connectivity as shown in Fig-6.

Figure-6: Multiple Access Points and Roaming. 3.4 Use of an Extension Point: To solve particular problems of topology, the network designer some times uses Extension Points (EPs) to augment the network of Access Points (APs). Extension Points look and function like Access Points, but they are not tethered to the wired network as are APs. EPs

function just as their name implies: they extend the range of the network by relaying signals from a client to an AP or another EP. EPs may be strung together in order to pass along messaging from an AP to far-flung clients as shown in Figure-7.

Figure -7: Wi-Fi network with Extension Point (EP).

3.5 The Use of Directional Antennae: One last item of wireless LAN equipment to consider is the directional antenna. Lets suppose you had a Wi-Fi network in your building-A and wanted to extend it to a leased building-B, one mile away. One solution might be to install a directional antenna on each building, each antenna targeting the other. The antenna on A is connected to your wired network via an Access Point. The antenna on B is similarly connected to an Access Point in that building, which enables Wi-Fi network connectivity in that facility as shown in Figure-8.

Figure-8: A Wi-Fi network using Directional Antennae.

4.0 Benefits of Wi-Fi: In a Wi-Fi users can access shared information without looking for a place to plug in, and network managers can set up or augment networks without installing or moving wires. Wi-Fi offers the following productivity, conveniences, and cost advantages over traditional wired networks: Mobility: Wi-Fi systems can provide LAN users with access to realtime information anywhere in their organization. This mobility supports productivity and service opportunities not possible with wired networks. Installation Speed and Simplicity: Installing a Wi-Fi system can be fast and easy and can eliminate the need to pull cable through walls and ceilings. Installation Flexibility: Wireless technology allows the network to go where wire cannot go.

Reduced Cost-of-Ownership: While the initial investment required for Wi-Fi hardware can be higher than the cost of wired LAN

hardware, overall installation expenses and life-cycle costs can be significantly lower. Long-term cost benefits are greatest in dynamic environments requiring frequent moves, adds, and changes. Scalability: Wi-Fi systems can be configured in a variety of topologies to meet the needs of specific applications and installations. Configurations are easily changed and range from peer-to-peer networks suitable for a small number of users to full infrastructure networks of thousands of users that allows roaming over a broad area. It offers much high speed upto 54 Mbps which is very much greater than other wireless access technologies like CORDECT, GSM and CDMA. Limitation of Wi-Fi networks: The key areas of limitation of Wi-Fi are: Coverage: A single Access Point can cover, at best, a radius of only about 60 metres. Hundreds of Access Points are necessary to provide seamless coverage in small area. For 10 square kms area roughly 650 Access Points are required, where as CDMA 2000 1xEV-DO requires just 09 sites. Roaming: It lacks roaming between different networks hence wide spread coverage by one service provider is not possible, which is the key to success of wireless technology. Backhaul: Backhaul directly affects data rate service provider used Cable or DSL for backhaul. Wi-Fi real world data rates are at least half of the their

theoretical peak rates due to factors such as signal strength, interference and radio overhead .Backhaul reduces the remaining throughput further. Interference: Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum, which mean no regulator recourse against interference. The most popular type of Wi-Fi, 802.11b uses the crowded 2.4 GHz band which is already used in Bluetooth, cordless phones and microwave ovens. Security: Wi-Fi Access Points and modems use the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Standards, which is very susceptible to hacking and eavesdropping. Security: WEP( Wired Equivalent Privacy) is not very secure. WPA (WIFI Protected Access) offers much better security with the help of dynamic key encryption and mutual authentication. Authentication, Authorization and Accounting: In a server based configuration whenever a laptop enters into a wifi zone, a welcome page is sent to it. User enters username and password. It is connected through the wireless gateway(router) to AAA, LDAP servers. Once authenticated ,user can access sites of his choice. Prepaid and postpaid customers can be billed.