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Faruk Mu{tovi}

VJETROELEKTRANE

U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

WIND POWER PLANT PROJECTS

IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Faruk Mu{tovi} VJETROELEKTRANE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI WIND POWER PLANT PROJECTS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

PREFACE

Today, more than ever before, securing ample sup- ply of energy for the future, as a precondition for economic development anywhere in the world, presents a global social, political and ecological problem and challenge for the human race:

Global energy demand is growing far more rapidly than the supply of energy from cur- rently used conventional sources;

At the present rate of energy production, reserves of fossil fuels will be depleted in a few decades, a fact which influences today’s markets in the form of unpredictable price increases;

Production of energy from fossil fuels is accompanied by emission of enormous amounts of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases, which results in ecological anomalies due to perma- nent warming of the planet.

Today’s world community is faced with the obliga- tion to secure ecologically clean and economically self-sustainable future. Heading in that direction, a global consensus has already been reached, which, among other things, relies on a faster development of renewable sources of energy, with a goal of increasing their share in the total global energy production above the current levels, as soon and as much as possible.

Thanks to enormous technological advances in the production of wind energy, its ever growing par- ticipation in the production of energy around the world and the role it plays in the protection of the environment, wind energy is becoming a lead- ing renewable energy source. As one of the forms of solar energy, wind is a free and unlimitted source of energy. In locations with favorable wind potential, the production of wind energy is already able to compete with conventional production of energy from fossil fules, both in terms of invest- ments and production prices. It can even be con- sidered to be ahead in this race considering that the production price of electrical energy from wind has the advantage of long-term predictability, due to the fact that, unlike fossil fuels, wind is a free source of energy.

After receiving positive results from multi-year measurements of wind potential in the region of Mostar, and after the first foreign investor has made a committment to building the first wind power plant on Podvelez, it has become evident that the conditions for the development of wind energy in Bosnia & Herzegovina are real, both in the way of existence of favorable wind potential in the regions that are socially and economically suitable for the construction of wind power plants,

PREDGOVOR

Danas, vi{e nego ikad ranije, sigurno obezbje|enje dovoljnih koli~ina energije, kao preduvjet razvoja bilo kojeg dru{tva, predstavlja globalni dru{tveni, politi~ki i ekolo{ki problem i svojevrsni izazov ljud- skoj rasi:

Svjetske energetske potrebe rastu daleko br`e nego {to mogu biti zadovoljene iz sada{nje proizvodnje iz konvencionalnih izvora;

Sa sada{njim tempom potro{nje, rezerve fosilnih goriva }e se iscrpiti za nekoliko desetlje}a, {to ve} sada uti~e na nepredvidiv rast njihovih cijena;

Proizvodnja energije iz fosilnih goriva emitira ogromne koli~ine CO 2 i drugih stakleni~kih gasova, {to dovodi do ekolo{kih poreme}aja, zbog stalnog zatopljenja planete.

Dana{nji svijet se nalazi pred obavezom da sebi obezbijedi ekolo{ki ~istu i ekonomski samoodr`ivu budu}nost. U tom cilju je ve} uspostavljen global- ni konsenzus po kojem se, kao jedno od rje{enja, ra~una na jo{ br`i razvoj obnovljivih izvora energi- je, kako bi njihovo u~e{}e u ukupnoj svjetskoj energetskoj proizvodnji, {to je prije mogu}e, dostiglo daleko ve}i nivo od dana{njeg.

Kroz dosada{nji brzi tehnolo{ki razvoj vjetroener- getike i njenu sve ve}u participaciju u proizvodnji energije na svjetskom nivou, energija vjetra posta- je vode}a me|u obnovljivim izvorima energije, naro~ito zbog svoje uloge u za{titi okoli{a. Kao jedan od oblika sun~eve energije, vjetar je bespla- tan i neograni~eno raspolo`iv energetski izvor.

Na mjestima sa pogodnim vjetropotencijalom, proizvodnja elektri~ne energije iz vjetroelektrana je investiciono i u proizvodnoj cijeni ve} postala konkurentna konvencionalnoj proizvodnji elektri~ne energije iz fosilnih goriva.

Energija vjetra je u zna~ajnoj prednosti, jer se proizvodna cijena elektri~ne energije iz vjetra mo`e dugoro~no predvidjeti, po{to je vjetar, za razliku od fosilnih goriva, besplatan energetski izvor.

Nakon dobivanja pozitivnih rezultata o vi{egodi{njim mjerenjima vjetropotencijala na podru~ju Mostara, te nakon dovo|enja prvog inozemnog investitora koji se odlu~io na izgradnju prve vjetroelektrane na Podvele`u, postalo je izv- jesno da u BiH postoje realni uvjeti za razvoj vjetroenergetike, kako sa stanovi{ta povoljnog vjetropotencijala na podru~jima gdje postoji dru{tvena i ekonomska opravdanost izgradnje vjetroelektrana, tako i sa aspekta mogu}eg uklju~ivanja bh. privrede u njihovu izgradnju (~eli~ni ili betonski stupovi, dio ma{inske i elek- tro-opreme, gra|evinski i monta`ni radovi).

and in the way of possible participation of BH economy in their construction (steel or concrete towers, mechanical and electronic equipment, con- struction works, etc.).

It is the purpose of this publication, which is pre-

sented in parallel, bilingual design, to serve as a reference guide to all interested parties from B&H and abroad, who might participate as future

investors, finance experts, engineers, manufacturers or as public officials from all governmental levels

in the actualization of this project.

The Author has designed this publication with the help from numerous colleagues, business partners and friends from B&H and abroad (who he would like to thank on this ocassion) in a way that makes it clear to the reader that wind energy is based on modern technological solutions, which are technically simple, less complicated in the way of construction and exploitation than the classical thermal, nuclear and hydroelectric power plants, easily built, environmentally friendly and econom- ically self-sufficient.

The Author hopes that this publication will make

a contribution to the construction of first wind

power plants in B&H, which will be accepted by their surroundings as benevolent, tens-of-meters tall giants, able to harness the magnificent power of wind and produce electrical energy, constantly reminding us that our environment is not some- thing we inherit from our ancestors, but a loan we take from our descendants.

The Author hopes that this publication will be his humble contribution to the establishment of self- sustaining B&H in the forseeable future with the goal of its reintegration in the modern world, to which it once belonged.

U

tom smislu je ova publikacija i koncipirana da

u

paralelnom, dvojezi~nom tekstu pru`i osnovne

informacije svim subjektima iz zemlje i inozemst- va koji }e kao budu}i finansijeri, investitori, pro- jektanti, proizvo|a~i opreme ili kao uposlenici dr`avnih institucija svih nivoa u~estvovati u kreiranju i realizaciji projekata ovog izuzetno va`nog obnovljivog energetskog izvora, kojeg nam

je, pored obilja hidropotencijala, priroda tako nese-

bi~no podarila.

Autor je ovu publikaciju pripremio uz pomo} bro- jnih suradnika, poslovnih partnera i prijatelja iz zemlje i inozemstva (kojima se i ovom prilikom iskreno zahvaljuje), na taj na~in da ~italac shvati da se vjetroenergetika zasniva na suvremenim tehnolo{kim rje{enjima koja su tehni~ki jednos- tavna, manje komplicirana u izgradnji i eksploat- aciji od klasi~nih termo ili nuklearnih elektrana ili velikih hidrocentrala, da se vjetroelektrane mogu brzo izgraditi, te da se njihovom izgradnjom fizi~ki ne uni{tava na{ okoli{, a obezbje|uje samoodr`iva ekonomija.

Autorova `elja je da ova publikacija na svoj na~in doprinese izgradnji prvih vjetroelektrana u BiH, koje }e njihovo okru`enje prihvatiti kao dobro}udne desetine metara visoke divove koji svo- jim mo}nim kracima ukro}uju vjetar i proizvode elektri~nu energiju, stalno nas podsje}aju}i da `ivotnu okolinu nismo naslijedili od predaka, nego posudili od nasljednika.

Autor `eli da ova publikacija bude njegov skrom-

ni doprinos i {to br`em uspostavljanju samoodr`ive

BiH, u cilju njenog ponovnog priklju~enja suvre- menom svijetu, kojem je i ranije pripadala.

CONTENTS

SADR@AJ

SECTION 1

SECTION 1 SEKCIJA 1

SEKCIJA 1

Wind Energy Basic Facts

Osnovne ~injenice o vjetroenergetici

SECTION 2

 

SEKCIJA 2

Wind Energy in Electricity Production

Proizvodnja elektri~ne energije iz vjetra

SECTION 3

SECTION 3 SEKCIJA 3

SEKCIJA 3

Global Experience in Wind Power

Svjetska iskustva u vjetroenergetici

SECTION 4

SECTION 4 SEKCIJA 4

SEKCIJA 4

Wind Energy and Environment

Energija vjetra u za{titi okoli{a

SECTION 5

 

SEKCIJA 5

Wind Power Generation Technology Aspects

Tehnolo{ki aspekti proizvodnje elektri~ne energije iz vjetra

SECTION 6

 

SEKCIJA 6

Wind Power Plant Projects in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Projekti vjetroelektrana u Bosni i Hercegovini

APPENDICES

APPENDICES PRILOZI

PRILOZI

Refferences

Literatura / Dokumentacija

Definitions

Definicije

Glossary

Rje~nik

Units, Symbols and Conversion Factors

Mjerne jedinice, simboli i koeficijenti konverzije

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Akronimi i skra}enice

Credits and Acknowledgements

Odobrenja za kori{tenje dokumentacije i izrazi zahvalnosti

The Author

Bilje{ka o Autoru

O AUTORU

WIND ENERGY BASIC FACTS

OSNOVNE ^INJENICE O VJETROENERGETICI

CONTENTS

SADR@AJ SEKCIJA 1

VJETROELEKTRANE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

HISTORY

ISTORIJA

15

WIND POWER ELECTRICITY GENERATION BOOM

NAGLI NAPREDAK PROIZVODNJE ELEKTRI^NE ENERGIJE IZ VJETRA

15

WIND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

TEHNOLOGIJA VJETROENERGETIKE

17

RENEWABLE, CLEAN AND FREE ENERGY SOURCE

OBNOVLJIV, ^IST I BESPLATAN ENERGETSKI IZVOR

18

ENORMOUS WIND POWER RESOURCES

OGROMNI IZVORI ENERGIJE VJETRA

19

THE IMPROVING OF TECHNOLOGY

TEHNOLO[KI NAPREDAK

19

THROUGH CREATION OF NEW JOBS WIND ENERGY CONTRIBUTES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH

VJETROENERGETIKA POMA@E EKONOMSKOM PROGRESU KROZ OBEZBJE\ENJE NOVIH RADNIH MJESTA

20

WIND GENERATED ELECTRICITY REQUIRES LESS LAND AREA

VJETROENERGETIKA ZAHTIJEVA MANJE POVR[INE ZEMLJI[TA

20

A MODERN WIND TURBINE GENERATES COMMERCIALLY COMPETITIVE ELECTRICITY

SUVREMENA VJETROELEKTRANA PROIZVODI KOMERCIJALNO KONKURENTNU ELEKTRI^NU ENERGIJU

21

WIND ENERGY AND GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

VJETROENERGETIKA U GLOBALNOJ ZA[TITI OKOLI[A

21

OSNOVNE ^INJENICE O VJETROENERGETICI

SEKCIJA 1

VJETROELEKTRANE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

HISTORY

From the earliest recorded history (5000 B.C.), there is evidence that wind energy has been in use - to propel boats along the Nile River and to pump water and grind grain in China.

ISTORIJA

Postoje dokazi da se od najranije zabilje`ene isto- rije (5.000 god. Prije Krista) energija vjetra kori- stila za pogon ~amaca na rijeci Nil, kao i za crpljenje vode i mljevenje `itarica u Kini.

In North America and Europe, hundreds of thousands of windmills were used to pump water
In
North America and Europe, hundreds of thousands of
windmills were used to pump water for farms and ranches
during
the
19 th century.
In
the
US,
the
first small
electricity
wind
systems were
developed
to
generate
elec-
tricity
in
the
early
1900s.
Most
of
these
windmills
fell
into
disuse,
however,
when
inexpensive
grid
power
elec-
tricity
was
extended
to
rural
areas
during
1930s.
Tokom 19. stolje}a je u Sjevernoj
Americi
i
Evropi
bilo
instalirano na stotine hiljada vjetrenja~a,
koje
su
uglavnom
kori{tene za pumpanje vode na farmama
i
planta`ama.
Po~etkom 20. stolje}a u SAD-u su masovno
kori{tene
prve
male vjetrenja~e za proizvodnju elektri~ne energije,
ali
su
mnoge od njih prestale sa radom tokom tridesetih
godina,
zbog intenzivnog pro{irenja elektrodistributivnog sistema
i
do
najudaljenijih nenaseljenih podru~ja.

WIND POWER ELECTRICITY GENERATION BOOM

Electricity produced from wind power experienced

a boom during the oil crisis in the 1970s, but it

was in the 1980s that, thanks to enormous scien- tific and technological developments, wind energy industry become an important economical, social and political factor.

Since 1980s, wind turbine technology has devel- oped rapidly in size and power output.

A typical Danish wind turbine of 1980 vintage had

a 25 (kW) generator and rotor diameter of 15

meters. A few years ago, the 500 (kW) wind tur- bine was a sensation. Today, 1,0-2,5 (MW) wind turbines with 50-90 meter rotor diameters are the standard.

The most recent offshore wind farm “Horns Rev”

(the coast of Denmark), con-

sisting of 80 windmills of 2 (MW) rated power

in the North Sea

NAGLI NAPREDAK PROIZVODNJE ELEKTRI^NE ENERGIJE IZ VJETRA

Proizvodnja elektri~ne energije iz vjetra je do`ivje- la nagli porast tokom naftne krize po~etkom 1970- -ih, ali je tek 1980-ih do`ivjela izuzetan rast prim- jenom novih tehnolo{kih dostignu}a, ~ime je ta industrijska oblast postala va`an ekonomski, dru{tveni i politi~ki faktor u svijetu.

Od 1980-ih vjetroenergetika je sna`no napredovala, kako u instaliranoj snazi tako i u obimu proizvodnje.

Tipi~na „Danska” vjetroturbina 1980-ih imala je insta- liranu snagu od 25 (kW), sa rotorom pre~nika 15 metara. ^ak prije nekoliko godina vjetroturbina od 500 (kW) bila je svojevrsna senzacija. Danas vjetro- turbine od 1,0 do 2,5 (MW), sa pre~nikom rotora od 50-90 metara, ve} predstavljaju standardna rje{enja.

Skoro izgra|en „offshore” park vjetroelektrana „Horns Rev” na Sjevernom moru u priobalju Danske, ukupne instalirane snage od 160 (MW),

1.1

15

SECTION 1

WIND ENERGY BACIS FACTS

WIND POWER PLANT PROJECTS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

1.2

each, with total installed power of 160 (MW), pro- vides an annual energy output of 600 million (kWh) (600 GWh). This is equivalent to the year- ly electricity consumption of 200.000 European households.

(80 vjetroturbina od po 2 MW), obezbje|uje godi{nju proizvodnju elektri~ne energije od 600 miliona (kWh) (600 GWh), {to je ekvivalentno godi{njoj potro{nji elektri~ne energije u 200.000 evropskih doma}instava.

Average
Average
Rotor (m) Unit Rating (kW)
Rotor (m)
Unit Rating (kW)
Annual Production (MWh)
Annual Production (MWh)
1980
1980
1985
1985
1990
1990
1995
1995
Unit Rating (kW) Annual Production (MWh) 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2002 10 17 27 40
2000
2000
Rating (kW) Annual Production (MWh) 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2002 10 17 27 40 71

2002Rating (kW) Annual Production (MWh) 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 10 17 27 40 71 85

10

17

27

40

71

85

25

100

225

550

1000

1.650

40

190

460

1.200

1.900

4.400

A prototype of a wind turbine with Prototip vjetroturbine od 4,5 4,5 (MW) rated power,
A
prototype of a wind turbine with
Prototip vjetroturbine od
4,5
4,5
(MW)
rated
power, installed by
(MW), instaliran od
strane
Enercon
2003 in
Egeln
near
Enercona
2003.
u mjestu
Egeln
Magdeburg
(Germany),
is
already in
pored
Magdeburga,
u
Njema~koj,
operation.
ve}
je
u
probnom
pogonu.
T echnic
al
character
isti
cs:
Tehnnii~ke
karakteriistiike:
- Rotor
diameter
114
(m),
- Pre~nik
rotora
114
(m)
- In
situ
concrete
tower,
- visine
Betonski
toranj
124
(m)
- Hub
height
124
(m),
- Promjenljiva
brzina
rotora
- rotor
Variable
speed
8-13 (rpm),
8-13 (obrtaja/min.)
- level
Sound
107 dB (A)
- Nivo buke 107
dB
(A)

WORLDWIDE LAST 10 YEARS WIND POWER ELECTRICITY GENERATION BOOM FACTS (1992-2002)

1992 2002
1992
2002
INSTALLED WIND POWER (MW)
INSTALLED WIND POWER (MW)
(Increase)
(Increase)
WIND POWER ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION (TWh)
WIND POWER ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION (TWh)
(Increase)
(Increase)
TOTAL WORLDWIDE ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
TOTAL WORLDWIDE ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION (TWh)
WIND POWER SHARE (%)
WIND POWER SHARE (%)
AVERAGE WIND GENERATOR UNIT (kW)
AVERAGE WIND GENERATOR UNIT (kW)
(Increase)
(Increase)
WIND ENERGY GENERATED ELECTRICITY AVERAGE PRODUCTION PRICE (US $ cents/kWh)
WIND ENERGY GENERATED ELECTRICITY AVERAGE PRODUCTION PRICE
(US $ cents/kWh)

16

1.120

33.400

(30

x)

1,45 73,1

73,1

(50

x)

7.800

16.014

0,02

0,46

540

1.650

(3 x)

12,5-13,5

4,5-5,0

OSNOVNE ^INJENICE O VJETROENERGETICI

SEKCIJA 1

VJETROELEKTRANE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

“K ing M ountain“, „King Moountain“, Texa s, US A - the sec- Texas, SAD
“K
ing
M ountain“,
„King Moountain“,
Texa
s,
US
A - the sec-
Texas,
SAD
-
krajem
ond
largest
wind
2001.
druga
najve}a
power
farm
in
the
vjetroelektrana
na
svi-
world
(2001),
with
jetu,
ukupne
instalira-
total
installed
capacity
ne
snage
278,2
(MW)
of
278,2
(MW)
(214
(214
„Bonus“
vjetroge-
“Bonus“
units
of 1,3
neratora,
svaki
po
1,3
MW
each).
MW
instalirane
snage)

Global wind power generating capacity has quadru- pled over the past six years, growing from 7.600 (MW) at the end of 1997 to an estimated 39.294 (MW) at the end of 2003 – an increase of over 31.700 (MW).

The new equipment and investment worth 7 bil- lion $ US was brought on line mainly in Europe, which is now in the possession of 2/3 of the worlds wind power generating capacity.

WIND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

The terms “wind energy” or “wind power” describe the process by which the wind is used to gener- ate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical power, which is then converted into electricity by generators. Modern wind turbines capture the wind’s energy with three propeller-like blades, which are mounted on the rotor. The tur-

Za posljednjih {est godina, globalni kapacitet vjet- rogeneratora porastao je 4 puta, sa 7.600 (MW) instalirane snage krajem 1997. na 39.294 (MW) krajem 2003, {to predstavlja rast od 31.700 (MW).

Nova vjetroenergetska postrojenja, u koja je ulo`eno preko 7 milijardi US $, uglavnom su izgra|ena u Evropi, tako da je Evropa danas u posjedu 2/3 svjetskih vjetroenergetskih kapaciteta.

TEHNOLOGIJA VJETROENERGETIKE

Nazivi „energija vjetra” ili „snaga vjetra” opisuju proces u kojem se koristi vjetar za proizvodnju mehani~ke snage ili elektri~ne energije. Vjetroturbine pretvaraju kineti~ku energiju vjetra u mehani~ku snagu koju generator pretvara u elek- tri~nu energiju. Suvremeni vjetrogeneratori zahvata- ju vjetar sa tri elise (sli~ne avioelisama) koje su montirane na rotoru vjetroturbine, a koja je

1.3

World Leaders in Wind Capacity In 2003, world wind capacity Prema najnovijim podacima, December 2003
World Leaders in Wind Capacity
In
2003,
world wind capacity
Prema najnovijim podacima,
December 2003
reached
39.294 (MW). From
(AWEA) ukupni instalirani
1990-2002,
wind
has been the
svjetski kapaciteti
vjetroelektra-
Country
Capacity (MW)
fastest-growing
power
source
na su
decembra
2003.
dostigli
worldwide
on
a percentage
Germany
14.609
nivo
od
39.294
(MW).
Od
basis,
with
an
annual
average
United States
6.374
1990. do
2002.,
upore|uju}i
sa
growth
rate
exceeding
30
per-
drugim
energetskim
izvorima,
Spain
6.202
cent.
Wind
power
plants
are
vjetroenergetika
je
sa
30 (%)
Denmark
3.110
heavily
concentrated
in
Europe
imala
na
svijetu
najbr`i
and
the
United
States,
with
India
2.110
godi{nji
rast.
Najve}a
koncen-
the
exception
of
India.
The
tracija
vjetroelektrana
je
u
Netherlands
912
“top
10”
nations
below
Evropi,
zatim
dolazi
SAD,
te
Italy
904
accounted
for
over
95
percent
Azija
sa
Indijom
kao
najve}im
Japan
686
of
the
total
wind
energy pro-
korisnikom
vjetropotencijala,
a
duced
in
2003.
United Kingdom
649
{to je prikazano u
tabeli
sa
podacima za kraj 2003.
godine.
China
568

17

SECTION 1

WIND ENERGY BACIS FACTS

1.4

bines are placed high atop towers, taking advan- tage of the stronger wind at 50 meters or more aboveground.

Wind turbines are available in a variety of sizes, from small home-sized machines for the power needs of an all-electric home, or small business, to “giant” size machines of 1,0 (MW) and more.

postavljena na vrh stupa vjetrogeneratora da bi mogla zahvatiti ja~e vjetrove koji pu{u na 50 ili vi{e metara iznad tla.

Vjetroturbine se proizvode u raznim veli~inama, od malih „ku}nih” ma{ina koje obezbje|uju potrebe u elektri~noj energiji za doma}instva ili mali biznis, do ogromnih „industrijskih”, instalirane snage od jednog (MW) i vi{e.

All electric-generating windmills, no Svi vjetrogeneratori koji proizvode matter what size, consist of few basic
All electric-generating windmills, no
Svi vjetrogeneratori koji proizvode
matter what
size, consist of few basic
elektri~nu energiju, bez obzira
na
components:
a tower and a nacelle
snagu, sastoje se od
nekoliko
with
rotor and
blades,
an electricity
osnovnih elemenata:
stup (toranj),
generator,
a
transformer and
a speed
gondola
sa
rotorom
i elisama,
elek-
control
system.
tri~ni
generator,
transformator
i sis-
tem
kontrole
brzine.
Wind
turbines
are
grouped
together
into
a
single
wind
power
plant,
also
Vi{e
vjetrogeneratora
se grupira
u
known
as
a
“wind
park”
or
“wind
jedno
vjetrogeneratorsko
postrojenje,
farm,”
and
generate
bulk
electrical
poznato
kao
„vjetropark”
ili
power.
Electricity
from
these
turbines
vjetroelektrana,
za
proizvodnju
ve}ih
is
fed
into
the
nearest
electrical
utili-
koli~ina
elektri~ne
energije.
Elektri~na
ty
grid
and
distributed
to
customers,
energija
iz
tih
postrojenja
uklju~uje
just
as with
conventional power
se u najbli`u
elektrodistributivnu
plants.
mre`u i isporu~uje
potro{a~ima
na
isti na~in kao i iz ostalih
izvora
elektri~ne energije.

RENEWABLE, CLEAN AND FREE ENERGY SOURCE

Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by unequal heating of the atmosphere by the sun, irregularities of the earth’s surface and its rotation.

OBNOVLJIV, ^IST I BESPLATAN ENERGETSKI IZVOR

Vjetar je jedan od oblika sun~eve energije. Vjetrovi nastaju zbog nejednakog zagrijavanja atmosfere sun~evom toplotom, nehomogenosti zemljine povr{ine i njene rotacije.

A modern 1 (MW) windmill in an average wind Suvremena vjetrenja~a snage 1 (MW), postavljena
A
modern 1 (MW) windmill in an average wind
Suvremena vjetrenja~a snage 1 (MW), postavljena
power
density location (class 3, average wind
na lokaciji sa prosje~nom snagom vjetra
(klasa
3,
speed
20-30
km/h) annually displaces 2000 tones
prosje~na brzina vjetra 20-30 km/h),
svojim
radom
of
carbon
dioxide - CO 2 (the leading greenhouse
mo`e godi{nje da za 2000 tona
smanji
emisiju
ug-
gas
associated
with
global
warming) from other
lji~nog dioksida - CO 2 (glavna
komponenta
stakleni-
electricity
sources,
i.e.
usually
coal fired power
~kih gasova koji uti~u
na
globalno
zatopljenje
zem-
plants.
lje), koju bi ina~e
proizvele
termoelektrane
na
ugalj.
European
wind
power
Vjetroelektrane
instalirane
u
plants
in
2002
reduced
Evropi
u
2002.
god.
the
emission
of
more
then
omogu}ile
su
smanjenje
emisi-
46
millions
tones
of
car-
je
CO 2
za
vi{e
od
46
miliona
bon
dioxide
and
thousand
tona,
kao
i
smanjenje
emisije
of
tones
of
other
pollu-
od
nekoliko
hiljada
tona
tants,
which
is
equivalent
drugih
zaga|iva~a
zraka,
{to
to
that
produced
with
20
je
ekvivalentno
zaga|enju
koje
million
tons
of
coal
bi proizvelo
sagorijevanje
20
burned
annually
in a con-
miliona tona
uglja
u
konven-
ventional
power plant.
cionalnim termoelektranama.
WIND POWER PLANT
PROJECTS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

18

OSNOVNE ^INJENICE O VJETROENERGETICI

SEKCIJA 1

VJETROELEKTRANE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

Wind is a renewable, clean and free energy source, which will always be available, just like other renewable energies (waterpower, solar energy), so no matter how much is used today, there will still be the same supply in the future.

Unlike oil or coal, wind energy is renewable, year after year, forever.

Also, wind energy, as a domestic source, is not subject to embargoes or “price shocks” caused by international conflicts.

ENORMOUS WIND POWER RESOURCES

According to recent AWEA documents, wind ener- gy with today’s technology could provide 20 per- cent of US electricity in the next 10-15 years, with turbines installed on less than 1 percent of its land area. And within that area, less than 5 percent of the land would be occupied by wind equipment – the remaining 95 percent could con- tinue to be used for farming or ranching pur- poses.

Vjetar je obnovljiv, ~ist i besplatan energetski izvor, koji }e uvijek biti raspolo`iv, kao i drugi obnovljivi energetski izvori (vodena snaga, sun~eva energija), tako da nije bitno koliko se koristi danas, jer }e ga biti i u budu}nosti.

Za razliku od uglja ili nafte, energija vjetra je obnovljiva, godinu za godinom, zauvijek.

Isto tako, energija vjetra, kao doma}i energetski izvor, ne mo`e biti predmet raznih embarga ili promjena cijena uzrokovanih me|unarodnim spo- rovima.

OGROMNI IZVORI ENERGIJE VJETRA

Prema skora{njim dokumentima publiciranim od strane AWEA, sa dana{njom tehnologijom energija vjetra mo`e obezbijediti 20 (%) ukupnih potreba SAD-a u elektri~noj energiji za 10 do 15 godina, instaliraju}i vjetroelektrane na samo 1 (%) njene ukupne povr{ine. Samo 5 (%) od te povr{ine treba za neposredno postavljanje vjetrogeneratora, dok se preostalih 95 (%) tla mo`e i dalje koristiti za potrebe farmi ili planta`a.

In Denmark, 20 percent of Danish electricity con- Danas u Danskoj vjetroelektrane obezbje|uju 20 sumption
In
Denmark, 20 percent of Danish electricity con-
Danas u Danskoj vjetroelektrane obezbje|uju
20
sumption
currently is supplied from wind energy,
(%) ukupnih potreba u elektri~noj energiji,
sa
with
government
plans to
dr`avnim planovima
da
se
ve}
increase that
share
to
50
2030. godine
obezbijedi
~ak
50
percent by
the
year
2030.
(%)
ukupnih
potreba
iz
energije
vjetra.
This plan
is
contingent
on increasing
the
number
Taj
plan
}e
biti
realiziran
of offshore
sites,
like
the
uglavnom
zahvaljuju}i
ve}oj
izgrad-
one presented
on
the
nji
„offshore”
vjetroelektrana
u pri-
photo below:
obalju
Sjevernog
mora,
kao
{to
je
“Middelgrunden” offshore
na
fotografiji
prikazana
jedna
„off-
wind park
(20
units
of
shore”
vjetroelektrana
izgra|ena
“Bonus” wind
generators
2000.
u
Danskoj:
„Middelgrunden”
of 2,0
MW
installed
(20 „Bonus” vjetrogeneratora,
svaki
power, each).
po 2,0 MW instalirane snage).

1.5

TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS TEHNOLO[KI NAPREDAK Technological advances in aerodynamics, structural Tehnolo{ki napredak
TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS
TEHNOLO[KI NAPREDAK
Technological
advances in aerodynamics, structural
Tehnolo{ki napredak u aeorodinamici,
strukturalnoj
dynamics
and
micrometeorology have contributed to
dinamici i mikrometeorologiji
uticao
je
da
se
a
5
percent
annual
increase
godi{nje
pove}ava
energetski
in
the
energy
yield
per
u~inak
za
5
(%)
po
kvadrat-
square
meter
of
wind
turbine
nom
metru
rotora
vjetrotur-
rotor
area.
The
specific
bine.
U
zadnjih
5
godina
weight
of
modern
type
wind
suvremena
vjetroturbina
je
turbines
has
halved
in
5
te`inski
duplo
manja,
nivo
years,
the
sound
level
has
buke
je
za
3
godine
duplo
halved
in
3
years
and
the
smanjen,
a
prosje~na
annual
energy
output
per tur-
proizvodnja
vjetroturbine
je
bine
has
increased more then
u
posljednjih
15
godina
20
fold
in 15 years.
porasla za vi{e od
20
puta.

19

SECTION 1

WIND ENERGY BACIS FACTS

WIND POWER PLANT PROJECTS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

1.6

20

THROUGH CREATION OF NEW JOBS WIND ENERGY CONTRIBUTES TO ECONOMIC GROWTH

Wind industry across the globe currently employs hundreds of thousands people. It contributes directly too many economies around the world with power plants and manufacturing facilities that produce wind turbines, blades, electronic compo- nents, gearboxes, generators and other equipment.

VJETROENERGETIKA POMA@E EKONOMSKOM PROGRESU KROZ OBEZBJE\ENJE NOVIH RADNIH MJESTA

U svijetu je trenutno u industriji vjetroelektrana

zaposleno stotine tisu}a ljudi. Ta industrija direkt- no uti~e na ekonomski razvoj mnogih zemalja {irom svijeta izgradnjom vjetroenergetskih postroje- nja i proizvodnih kapaciteta za proizvodnju turbina, elisa, elektronske opreme, mjenja~kih sklopova, ge- neratora i ~itavog niza druge opreme i materijala.

Directly or indirectly wind ener- Direktno ili indirektno, energija gy is also a key potential
Directly
or
indirectly wind ener-
Direktno ili indirektno,
energija
gy
is
also
a
key
potential
vjetra predstavlja
klju~ni
poten-
source
of
sustainable
jobs,
cijal samoodr`ivih
aktivnosti
which
are
created
without
koje
nastaju
bez
stvaranja
adding
to
air
polluting
green-
aerozaga|enja
i
stakleni~kih
house
gases
or
other
types
of
gasova,
kao
{to
to
~ine
pollution
and
environmental
rudni~ki
otvoreni
kopovi
ili
damage,
such
as
strip
mining
zaga|enja
nastala
od
nekon-
or
oil
spills.
troliranog
isticanja
sirove
nafte
i njenih
proizvoda.

Communities in rural parts of many countries are finding today that wind can be a good neighbor, providing a source of jobs and income and help- ing to revitalize economically depressed areas, without polluting the air and water.

Wind power would be the ideal complement to hydropower since 2/3 of it is available in the win- ter months when waterpower is usually at a min- imum level.

WIND GENERATED ELECTRICITY REQUIRES LESS LAND AREA

Whereas a wind turbine uses app. 100 (m 2 ), to produce 1,5-2,0 millions (kWh) per year, a typical biofuel plant would require (directly and indirect- ly) 154 hectares of land area to produce the same quantity of (kWh) per year.

Solar cells would require an area of 1,4 hectares to produce the same amount of electricity per year.

Hydropower (on average) requires flooding of 200 hectares of land (50 thousand times more than wind power plant with the same output) to pro- duce 1,5-2,0 million (kWh) per year.

Stanovni{tvo u ruralnim dijelovima zemlje danas mo`e smatrati da je vjetar dobar energent, koji kroz njegovo iskori{tenje za proizvodnju elektri~ne energije obezbje|uje nova radna mjesta i prihode, poma`u}i revitalizaciji ekonomski zaostalih ruralnih sredina i bez zaga|enja vode i zraka, {tite}i zdravlje i okoli{.

Energija vjetra predstavlja idealnu kombinaciju sa

hidroenergijom jer je 2/3 iskoristivosti snage vje- tra raspolo`ivo u zimskom periodu, kada je uobi~ajeno da je koli~ina vode u hidroelektranama

na minimalnom energetskom nivou.

VJETROENERGETIKA ZAHTIJEVA MANJE POVR[INE ZEMLJI[TA

Dok za vjetrogenerator koji godi{nje proizvodi 1,5

do 2,0 miliona (kWh) elektri~ne energije treba cca

100 (m 2 ) tla, tipi~no elektroenergetsko postroje- nje, koje koristi biolo{ko gorivo, za istu koli~inu proizvedene elektri~ne energije treba (direktno i indirektno) 154 hektara tla.

Da bi sun~eve }elije (sa sada{njom tehnologijom) proizvele istu godi{nju koli~inu elektri~ne energije treba im tlo povr{ine 1,4 hektara.

Hidroelektrana (u prosjeku) treba 200 hektara vodom potopljenog tla da bi proizvela istu koli~inu elektri~ne energije (1,5 do 2,0 miliona kWh godi{nje), {to je 50.000 puta vi{e od povr{ine koju treba vjetroelektrana identi~ne proizvodnje.

OSNOVNE ^INJENICE O VJETROENERGETICI

SEKCIJA 1

VJETROELEKTRANE U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

A MODERN WIND TURBINE GENERATES COMMERCIALLY COMPETITIVE ELECTRICITY

The cost of wind-generated electricity has dropped 80 percent since the early 1980s, and today has become the least expensive renewable technology.

Today, according European electrical power compa- nies, a modern wind turbine can generate electric- ity for 4-5 Eur cents per (kWh), which is the same as for a new coal-fired power station fitted with smoke scrubbing installation.

R/D studies worldwide point to a further fall in costs of energy from wind of some 10-20 percent in the next two or three years.

WIND ENERGY AND GLOBAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

PROTECTION

Wind energy is a particularly appealing way to generate electricity considering that it is essential- ly pollution-free. More than half of all the elec- tricity that is used in the U.S. is generated from burning coal, and in the process, large amounts of

SUVREMENA VJETROELEKTRANA PROIZVODI KOMERCIJALNO KONKURENTNU ELEKTRI^NU ENERGIJU

Proizvodna cijena elektri~ne energije iz vjetroelek- trana je za 80 (%) ni`a od one koja se proizvodi- la po~etkom 1980-ih i danas je postala najjeftinijom me|u tehnologijama obnovljivih energetskih izvora.

Prema podacima evropskih elektroenergetskih firmi, suvremene vjetroelektrane danas mogu proizvesti elektri~nu energiju po cijeni od oko 4-5 Euro centi po (kWh), koja odgovara prosje~noj cijeni elektri~ne energije proizvedene iz novih termoelektrana na ugalj koje moraju imati ugra|ene ure|aje za pro~i{}avanje dimnih gasova nastalih u procesu sagorijevanja uglja.

Mnoge studije ukazuju na mogu}nost daljeg pada proizvodne cijene elektri~ne energije iz vjetroelek- trana za 10 - 20 (%) u slijede}e dvije do tri godine.

VJETROENERGETIKA U GLOBALNOJ ZA[TITI OKOLI[A

Vjetar je posebno pogodan za proizvodnju elek- tri~ne energije jer takva proizvodnja ne zaga|uje okoli{. Vi{e od polovine kori{tene elektri~ne energi- je u SAD-u se proizvodi sagorijevanjem uglja, ~ime se u atmosferi emitiraju ogromne koli~ine toksi~nih

NO SOUND BEZ EMITIRANJA PO LLUTION OF BUKE U OKOLI[ ENVI RONMENT Suvremeni vjetrogenera- Modern
NO
SOUND
BEZ EMITIRANJA
PO
LLUTION OF
BUKE U OKOLI[
ENVI
RONMENT
Suvremeni
vjetrogenera-
Modern
large
size
tori ve}e
instalirane
wind
turbines
have
snage
dostigli
su
takav
become
very
quiet.
stupanj
razvoja
da
rade
At
a
distance
of
500
skoro
bez
stvaranja
(m)
or
more,
the
buke.
Na
udaljenosti
swishing
sound
of
500
(m)
(ili
vi{e)
od
rotor
blades
is
usual-
vjetrogeneratora,
ranije
ly
masked
completely
prisutan
„zvi`de}i
zvuk”,
by
wind
noise
in
the
nastao
od
obrtanja
elisa
leaves
of
trees
or
rotora,
potpuno
je
elimi-
shrubs,
to
a
level
of
niran,
te
~ak
i
ako
ga
app.
40-50
dB
(A).
ima,
on
se
pokriva
{umom
vjetra
u
drve}u
Mechanical
noise
ili
okolnoj
vegetaciji
i
from
the
gearbox
or
iznosi
40-50
dB
(A).
generator
has
virtual-
ly
disappeared
from
modern wind turbines thanks
Mehani~ki zvuk nastao radom
mjenja~kog
sklopa
to
technical
improvements focused on elimination
vjetrogeneratora je skoro potpuno
i{~ezao
kod
of
vibrations.
Aerodynamic noise from the rotor
novih tipova ma{ina. Aerodinami~ki
zvuk
nastao
blades
has
been cut drastically during the past ten
obrtanjem elisa rotora je drasti~no smanjen
u
years
due to better design of rotor blades.
posljednih 10 godina zahvaljuju}i boljim tehni~kim
rje{enjima geometrije elise rotora.

1.7

21

SECTION 1

WIND ENERGY BACIS FACTS

WIND POWER PLANT PROJECTS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

1.8

22

WIND POWER PLANT PROJECTS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 1.8 22 toxic metals, air pollutants, and greenhouse

toxic metals, air pollutants, and greenhouse gases are emitted into the atmosphere. Development of 10 percent of the wind potential in the 10 windi- est U.S. states could provide more than enough energy to displace emission from the nation’s coal- fried power plants, thus eliminating the nation’s major source of acid rain. This would reduce the total emissions of carbon dioxide (the most signif- icant greenhouse gas) in the U.S. by almost a third, and world emissions of CO 2 by four per- cent. It would also help contain the spread of asthma and other respiratory diseases aggravated or caused by air pollution. If wind energy were to provide 20 percent of the nation’s electricity - a very realistic and achievable goal given the cur- rent technology - it could displace more than a third of the emissions from coal-fried power plants, or all of the radioactive waste and water pollution from nuclear power plants.

materija, zaga|iva~a zraka i stakleni~kih gasova. Ako bi se u 10 saveznih dr`ava u SAD-u iskoris- tilo samo 10 (%) raspolo`ivog vjetropotencijala, dobilo bi se vi{e nego dovoljno energije koja bi smanjila nacionalnu emisiju polutanata iz ter- moelektrana na ugalj i eliminirala glavni izvor „kiselih ki{a”. Time bi se smanjila ukupna emisija CO 2 (najva`nijeg stakleni~kog gasa) skoro za tre}inu, a svjetska emisija CO 2 za 4 (%). To bi pomoglo smanjenju obima {irenja astme i drugih bolesti respiratornih organa uzrokovanih zaga|e- no{}u zraka u dr`avi. Ako bi se iz vjetra obezbi- jedila proizvodnja 20 (%) nacionalnih potreba u elektri~noj energiji - {to je realan i dosti`an cilj sa napretkom tehnologije vjetroenergetike - to bi moglo smanjiti jednu tre}inu {tetnih emisija iz ter- moelektrana na ugalj, ili ~ak sve radioaktivne otpatke i zaga|enja voda iz nuklearnih elektrana.

{tetnih emisija iz ter- moelektrana na ugalj, ili ~ak sve radioaktivne otpatke i zaga|enja voda iz