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Navigational Aids QUESTIONS: The art of detecting the movements of a craft from one point to another along a desired

path. The navigator fixes his position on a map by ANSWERS: NAVIGATION NAVIGATIONAL BY PILOTAGE CELESIAL NAVIGATION

Also called as Astronomical Navigation. It is accomplished by measuring the angular position of the celestial body. The position of craft at any instant of time is calculated fro previously determined position; the speed of its motion with respect to the earth with the direction and time elapsed. It is the most common and widely used method of navigation Uses electromagnetic waves to attain a fix.

NAVIGATION BY DEAD RECKONING

RADIO NAVIGATION

RADAR

RADAR OR RADIO DETECTING AND RANGING RADAR

Basically means gathering information about distant objects or targets by sending electromagnetic waves at them and analyzing the echoes. Determines the maximum distance to the target to be measured. Range beyond, which the objects appear as second return echoes.

PULSE REPETITION TIME MAXIMUM UNAMBIGUOUS RANGE

Band Name UHF L S C X

Frequency Range (GHz) 0.3-1.0 1.0-1.5 1.5-3.9 3.9-8.0 8.0-12.5

RADAR FREQUENCY

Ku K Ka V N A

12.5-18 18.0-26.5 26.5-40.0 40.0-80.0 80.0-170.0 ABOVE 170.0

The radar cross section or effective area of the target depends on the frequency used The target is small compared to the wavelength, its cross sectional area for radar appears much smaller than its real

TARGET FREQUENCY

RAYLEIGH REGION

QUESTIONS: The circumference of a spherical target is between 1 and 10 wavelenghts, the radar cross section oscillates about the real one For shorter wavelengths, the radar and true cross sections are equal. The RADAR Cross Section of the target depends on 1.Polarization of the incident wave. 2.Degree of surface roughness 3.Use of special coatings on the target 4.Aspect of the target Flat topped rectangular pulses. To ensure that the leading edge of the received pulse is also close to vertical for exact measurement of target range Is required for the voltage pulse applied to the magnetron anode. The efficiency of the magnetron or other amplifier drops significantly if the supply voltage is reduced Is needed for the transmitted pulse so that the duplexer can switch the receiver over to the antenna as soon as the body of the pulse has passed.

ANSWERS: RESONANCE REGION

OPTICAL REGION

PULSE CHARACTERISTICS LEADING EDGE MUST BE VERTICAL FLAT TOP

STEEP TRAILING EDGE

Use dipole or horn fed paraboloid reflectors or at least reflectors of basically paraboloid shape. Antenna Tracking

RADAR ANTENNAS

1.LOBESWITCHING TECHNIQUE 2.CONICAL SCANNING 3.MONOPLUSE TRACKING LOBE SWITCHING TECHNIQUE

Sequential Lobing The direction of the antenna beam is rapidly switched between 2 positions Logical extension of lobe switching A system using 4 horn antennas displaced about the central focus of the reflector Disadvantages A.More complex motion of the antenna B.Additional servomechanisms are required C.More than one returned pulse is required RADAR Display Method

CONICAL SCANNING MONOPULSE TRACKING

Deflection modulation in the CRT screen.

1. A SCOPE 2.PLANPOSITION INDICATOR 3.AUTOMATICTARGET DETECTION A SCOPE

QUESTIONS: Intensity modulation Sow the map of the target area The brightness at any point on the screen indicates the presence of an object there, with its position corresponding to its actual physical position and its being measured radially out from the center Direct feeding to the computer.

ANSWERS: PLAN POSITION INDICATOR

AUTOMATICTARGET DETECTION

General Task of a Radar System 1.Search for targets 2.Track them once when they are acquired Tracking Radar Systems 1.TRACKING IN ANGLE 2.TRACKING IN RANGE TRACKING IN ANGLE

A system that gives the angular position of a target accurately. Range information is continuously obtained. Transmitting and receiving antenna are located at the same point Transmitter and receiver are located separately by quite large distances.

TRACKING IN RANGE MONOSTATIC RADAR

BISTATIC RADAR

The apparent freq. of electromagnetic or sound waves depend on the relative radial motion of the source and the observer. Postulated by Christian Doppler in 1842 Was given a firm mathematical basis by Armand Fizeau Small radar sets consisting of a receiver a separate transmitter and an antenna, which is often omnidirectional. When another radar transmits a coded set of pulses at the beacon; i.e. interrogates it, the beacon responds by sending back its specific pulse code, thereby earning its name Transponder. Application of RADAR Beacons 1.Identification friend or foe.(IFF) 2.Calculation of position like in lighthouse Uses localizer glide and marker beacon transmitter to provide a slopping glide path for instrument (blind) landing approach of an aircraft.

DOPPLER EFFECT

RADAR BEACONS

ILS (INSTRUMENT LANDING SERVICE)

ILS Consists of a.A VHF radio transmitter and antenna system using the same general range as VOR (very high omnidirectional range) transmitters. (between 108.10 MHz abd 111.95 MHz) b.Which provides vertical guidance is produced by ground base UHF transmitter and antenna system, operating at the range 329.30 MHz to 335.0 MHz, with a 150 KHz spacing between each channel. The transmitter is located 750 to 1250ft. down the runway from the threshold offset 400 to 600 ft. from the runway centerline. QUESTIONS: c.Provides information on distance from the runway to identifying predetermined point along the approach track. These beacons are low-power transmitters that operates at a frequency of 75 MHz with 3 watts or less rated power output. They radiate an elliptical beam upward from the ground. At altitude of 1,000 ft., wide. At higher altitudes the dimensions increase significantly Marker Code Distance to Modulated Beacon Light Threshold Frequency Outer Blue 4 to 7 nm 400Hz Middle Amber 3,500 ft 1,300Hz Inner White 1,000Ft 3,000 Hz d.Provides guidance to the pilot on an approaching aircraft to the runway. LOCALIZER WHICH PROVIDES LATERAL GUIDANCE GLIDE SLOPE EQUIPMENT WHICH PROVIDES VERTICAL GUIDANCE

ANSWERS: ILS MARKER BEACON

MARKER BEACON CHARACTERISTICS

RUNWAY LIGHTS APPROACH LIGHTS (WHITE) SEQUENCE LIGHTS s e q u e n c e . I

A part of an approach light it flashes twice in second in

t distinguishes aeronautical ground lights in an aero dome to the lights in the area Provide sufficient guidance to the pilot during landing and take off especially at night or zero visibility. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS (YELLOW)

Provides information on the extremely runway when a landing aircraft is intended to land. Signifies the end of the runway and is placed on a line at right angle to the runway access. Provides the indicating on the aircraft position relative to the optimal slope during final approach to the runway.

THRESHOLD LIGHTS (GREEN) RUNWAY END LIGHTS (RED) PAPI LIGHTS (PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR)

-An airplane is talk down to a blind landing by means ground GROUND CONTROLLED based search precision radars APPROACH (GCA) -This is an instrument approach system consisting of extremely high precision microwave radar equipment that gives the position of an aircraft in range, azimuth and elevation. It is primary designed to bring the pilot through low overcast of low horizontal visibility so that he can make a normal landing by visual contact. Skilled operations of this system in the aircraft and on the ground permits emergency landing under conditions of nearly zero visibility. -Basically the ground equipment at the airport consists of two microwave radar sets, which are usually installed in a single trainer placed adjacent to the runway. One of the radars know as the search system, locates all aircraft within 30 miles or so of the airport and thus provides a radar map of the miles or so of the airport and thus provides a radar map of the vicinity. It is the initial phase of the GCA and is accomplished with medium range radar called plan position indicator. -The other radar, called the precision system, provides continuous information regarding the position of the incoming aircraft with respect to the runway. The plane may thus be safety talked down along the sloping glide path. -On the final approach leg, the controller, using precision

scopes, takes control. He also broadcasts verbal instructions, principally concerning attitude and lateral deviation from the desired glide path, and guides the pilot virtually to the end of the runway -On the final approach the GCA operator uses precision approach radar (PAR), short-range precision radar that indicates the proper glide path for descent. QUESTIONS: -Are low frequency transmitters operating into an omni directional vertically polarized antenna. Usually place at the ILS outer and middle marker beacon sites where it is known as compass locator. -Are beacons sending its signal equally well in all directions. It a low-frequency beacon with a frequency range of 200kHz to 415kHz. The reception range of the radio beacon is at least 15 nautical miles and it transmits 2 to 3 letters of identification signal from the Morse code 8 times per minute. NDB provides a radio station for use by aircraft. The equipment in the aircraft consists of an ADF or radio compass, which gives the pilot information in the form of a pointer indicating the bearing of the NDB transmitter. The pilot can thus fly courses to or from the NDB. If dual ADF equipment is provided on an aircraft, it is possible to fix position by combining the informations provided by two NDBs An equipment that provides information of the distance between an aircraft and the VOR station. Together with VOR, they provide the information necessary for enroute naviugation. DME Components Sends out signals to ground station. Built within the transceiver that measures time interval that elapsed until the response. Use for both transmission and reception. It is very small mounted on the underside of the aircraft. Incorporate digital readouts of frequency, DME and ground speed information ANSWERS: NON DIRECTIONAL BEACONS (NDB)

DME (DISTANCE MEASURING SYSTEM)

TRANSCEIVER INTERNAL COMPUTER

ANTENNA

DME CONTROLS

DME displays information in the form of -Expressed in nautical miles -Expressed in knots

DISTANCE TO THE STATION AIRCRAFTS GROUND SPEED TIME TO STATION VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI RANGE (VOR)

-Expressed in minutes -A radio facility providing bearing information to and from such facility at all azimuth within its service area. It provides an unlimited number of visual course legs through the phase comparison of a cardiodshaped rotating radiation pattern with a fixed 30-cps reference signal. VOR components 1. The VOR signals are received on the antenna normally located on the vertical stabilizer or on top of the fuselage. This antenna resembles a V lying in a horizontal plane. The VOR receiver converts signals from the antenna to the readings displayed on the navigation indicator. QUESTIONS: 2. The VOR navigation indicator gives the pilot aircraft position information by means of three components, A. The track selector sometimes called the ________________ or _____. Used to rotate the azimuth ring, which displays the VOR track. B. Indicates whether the track will take the pilot to or from the station

VOR RECEIVER

ANSWERS: NAVIGATION INDICATOR OMNIBEARING SELECTOR (OBS)

TO-FROM/OFF FLAG

C. Shows the pilot the position relative to the track TRACK DEVIATION selected and indicates whether the radial is to the BAR(TB) right or left when the aircraft heading agrees generally with the track selector. 3. A needle that you could think of as a line that runs through the station and points in the direction of the selected track that divides the area around the VOR station into halves TRACK ARROW

4. Is a line perpendicular to the track arrow and intersecting it at the station. It also divides the VOR reception area to additional sectors -A microwave pulse system that provides highly accurate bearing and range information from a shipboard or ground radio. -Like the VOR-DME system, the TACAN system provides an aircraft with continuous distance (range) and bearing (azimuth) information from a ground beacon station, located within a line-of-sight range up to 195 nautical miles. 1. TACAN operates completely in the UHF band from 962 to 1213 megacycles 2. The system has a total of 126 channels in the UHF band, each being capable of providing full service for over 100 aircraft. 3. It provides compass direction with less than one degree error and is capable of indicating true distance from the ground station within about 600 feet 4. TACAN can use a very small ground station antenna which permits its installation on Air Force Mobile units and Navy carriers TACAN Components 1) The airborne set is a radio set that could be turned to 126 channels and has a special range and azimuth circuit. It is generally provided with two indicators, one for showing the range in nautical miles, the other for indicating the bearing (azimuth) of the aircraft on the station. 2) This is a beacon that could be triggered by distance interrogation pulse coming from an airborne radio set. When trigged, it will respond by sending out synchronized reply pulses and also identifies itself aurally in International Morse Code characters QUESTIONS: -Is a facility consisting of two components or is referred to as

REFERENCE LINE

TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION (TACAN)

AIRBORNE INTERROGATORRESPONSOR

GROUND OR SHIPBOARD SURFACE BEACON

ANSWERS: VORTAC

a combination of a VOR (VHF Omnidirectional Range) and a TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation) therefore deriving its name VORTAC. This system is an ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) Rho-Thela system implemented by co-locating VOR and TACAN stations. VORTAC provides three individual services, VOR azimuth, TACAN azimuth and TACAN distance measuring capability at one sight. -Range station that provide four aircraft course legs (the LFR (Low Frequency overlapping of two figure 8 pattern) Range) -The low frequency radio range depends on the superposition of two figure-8 directional antenna patterns at right angle with each other. These patterns provide ON-Course signals. Which interlock with those of surrounding station to form easily followed airways. When two vertical antenna towers are properly fed with radio frequency energy they produce two figure-8-radiation patterns. This makes production of on course signals simpler and easier. Radio range stations operate on frequency between 200 kHz and 400 kHz -Four sector are does created by this towers, between which are four regions that overlap each other. In these regions, both signals from tower are present. Signal in this overlapping zones are heard as continuous tones called on course signals. This is accomplished by keying, making signal blend rather than be heard individually. As long as an aircraft files over this zone where on course signals are present, pilot would hear continuous signals. -If two pairs of vertical tower are placed in a square patterns at right angles to each other. The fifth center tower is used for transmitting weather reports. With two figure-8 patterns available the production of on course signals become a simpler matter. The code signal A is transmitted over one pair of diagonally opposite towers and the code signal N is transmitted over the pair of tower. In this way four signal zones, called sectors, are produced two of which carry the A signal, while other two carry the N signal. Between the four sectors there are regions of overlapping -Directly above a radio range there exist an area where practically no signal is heard. This area has the shape of inverted cone, and is known as the Cone of Silence. A pilot passing through the cone of silence would know that he was directly over the range station. Whose signal he had been receiving CONE OF SILENCE

Long Distance Navigation System A. Station Reference 1. Navigational aids installed in therapira. 2. Fix determined by measurement of the angle of arrival of the emission from the ground by employing interferometric techniques in the satellite Self Contained: CNS; INS GROUND REFERENCE SATELLITE REFERENCED

B.

Operates on the principle of hyperbola.

HYPERBOLIC SYSTEM

QUESTIONS: ANSWERS: Provides hyperbolic lines of position through the HYPERBOLIC measurement on the difference in times of transmission of NAVIGATION SYSTEM radio signals from two or more synchronized transmitters at fixed point. When synchronized signals are received from two transmitting stations, the difference in the times of arrival is constant on a hyperbola having the two transmitting stations as foci. The measured time difference locates the receiver on the hyperbolic line of position for that time difference. Another pair of transmitters provides another hyperbolic line of position. The intersection of the lines of position provides a navigational fix -An electronic method of determining ship position by the reception of signals from transmitting stations of known location -Radio signals consisting of short pulses are continually transmitted from a pair of shore-based stations. These signals are received abroad the ship by means of a specially designed receiver. The difference in time of arrival of the two signals is measured by means of an indicator associated with the receiver. The measured by means of an indicator associated with the receiver. The measured time difference is used together with special tables or charts to determine lint of position on the surface on the earths surface. Two line of position obtained from two pairs of transmitting stations intersects at a given Loran fix. The ground waves of a Loran A transmitter with a peak power of 100 kW can be received over sea at a distance of 500 to LONG RANGE NAVIGATION (LORAN)

LORAN A SYSTEM

700 nautical miles, and at a distance of Up to 1100 nautical miles with ground and sky waves. Over land these distance are considerably shorter Operates at lower frequencies of 100 kHz. At this frequency, ground waves of a 300 kW transmitter can be received up to 1200 nautical miles. The advantage of Loran D over Loran A is that ground stations LORAN C SYSTEM

LORAN D a n d

transportable and can therefore be quickly deployed. This mobility is gaine d atthe expense of the substantially reduced radiated power (30 kW inher ent in the somewhat smaller transmitter and lower antenna lowers (400ft. or 120m) to partially compensate for this reduction in radiated power. Loran D is configured to use 16-phasecoded pulses 500s part in each group. Loran D phase code is different but compatible with Loran C. pulse sampling is carried out near the signal peak because sky-wave delays are greater at short range. -Continuous wave hyperbolic system operating in the 70 to 130 kHz band. -A hyperbolic navigation system, which establishes a line of position from measurement of the phase difference between two continuous-wave signals -A navigation system developed by US navy in 1957. it is a Hyperbolic system which works in the very low frequency region and has a very long base line of the order of 7,000 km. -A global radio navigation system developed by the U.S. Navy. It provides position information by measuring the phase difference between signals radiated by a network of transmitting stations Operates from 20 to 85 Mhz

DECCA

OMEGA

GROUND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING (GEE)

QUESTIONS: A system used abroad navy ships for sonic and ultra sonic under water detection, ranging, sounding, and communications. Alerts the flight crew of possible conflicts with other airplanes in the same area. TCAS tracks these other airplanes or intruders, if equipped with a Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) or a Mode S ATC transponder

ANSWERS: SOUND NAVIGATION & RANGING (SONAR

TRAFFIC ALERT & COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS)

TCAS Provides 2 Types of Collision Avoidance Alerts they are

TRAFFIC ADVISORY (TA) RESOLUTION ADVISORY (RA) TA RA

Shows the relative position of any intruder airplanes. Shows a vertical maneuver to avoid a possible airplane collision

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM Is a worldwide navigation radio aid which uses satellite signals NAVIGATION SYSTEMS to provide accurate navigation information. TIME & RANGING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM The architecture of the system is composed of 3 parts called segments: Composed of 24 satellites, arranged in six orbital planes of four satellites each on a circular orbit. -55 inclination to the equator -An attitude of approximately 20200km with an orbital period of 12 sideral hours These satellites give -Provides satellite position -Provides constellation data -Provides atmospheric correction Composed of four monitor stations and one master control station which tracks the satellite, compute the ephemeris, clock corrections and control the navigation parameters and SEGMENTS

SPACE SEGMENT

CONTROL SEGMENT

transmit them to the GPS users. The four monitor stations are located at -Kwajalein -Hawaii -Ascension Island -Diego Garcia -The master control station is located at Colorado Springs -GPS is funded by and controlled by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). While there are many thousands of civil users of GPS world-wide, the system was designed for and is operated by the U.S. military -GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time. -Four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver dock -Navigation in three dimensions is the primary function of GPS QUESTIONS: -GPS Global Positioning System -Instantaneous position -Velocity -Time information -NAVSTAR- Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging -Nominal altitude of 20,200 Kms -55o inclination -24 satellites with 4 SVs in each plane -6 orbital planes -GPS is based on a system of coordinates -World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) -Anytime, anywhere, and in any weather -Highly accurate measurement -GPS has almost endless application

GPS IS A SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEM

ANSWERS: WHAT IS GPS

MAIN ADVANTAGE OF GPS

DISADVANTAGE OF GPS -Measurement becomes less accurate when affected by SA and AS -GPS A NEW CONSTELLATION -GPS Nominal Orbit Planes -GPS Constellation

-24 satellite with min. of 21 operating 98% of time -6 orbital planes -55 inclination -20,200 km above the earth surface -11 hrs. 58 min. orbital period -Visible approximately 5 hrs. above the Horizon. -Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System -Global Navigation Satellite System -21 satellite in 3 orbital plane -3 on orbit system -L-band GLONASS