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Globality in the global textbook: principles and applicability


par Mimoun Melliti Facult des lettres, arts, et humanit Manouba - Master en Anglais 20 0 !ans la categorie: Arts, "hilosophie et #ociologie $ %ittrature
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Conclusion
'n conclusion, it could be said that the global courseboo( is sub)ect to di&erse *orces in*luencing its content+ ,ourseboo( -riters need not onl. to concentrate on the linguistic content but also to compromise the cultural content+ /he e0ploration o* the literature on global courseboo(s sho-ed that publishers are compelled to ma(e compromises mainl. bet-een three principles o* in&esting in connectedness, a&oiding inappropriac., and preser&ing inclusi&it.+ First, regardless o* the success in doing so, courseboo( -riters tr. to pa. attention to -hat connects people all o&er the globe -hen designing the content+ #uch search *or common ground results in 1sanitisation o* content2 34ra., 2002, p+ 556+ #econd, courseboo( -riters ma. stri&e, to a certain e0tent, to a&oid -hat is culturall. inappropriate in the courseboo(s that the. intend to sell internationall.+ /heir attempt to produce a courseboo( that is 1appropriate2 *or the -orld, ho-e&er, is bound b. the need to represent 1authentic2 aspects o* target language culture that ma. contain inappropriate items *or -orld users+ /hird, publishers and courseboo( -riters attempt to be inclusi&e in the sense o* representing people, cultures, and images *rom the entire -orld+ A ma)or problem *or this attempt is establishing a compromise bet-een inclusi&it. and 1authenticit.2+ Hence, because o* the importance o* the cross-cultural in the global, 1appropriate2 compromising occupies center position+ 7ithout this 8ualit., it seems, real 1globalit.2 -ill be impossible to achie&e+ 't is interesting, then, to e0plore the e0tent to -hich an e0ample o* global courseboo(s is actuall. re*lecti&e o* these principles and the perception o* learners as to this re*lection in an attempt to e0plore the real 1globalit.2 o* Headway Intermediate 3#oars 9 #oars, 200:6+ 'n the *ollo-ing chapter the theoretical *oundations o* the methods used in this stud. -ill be re&ie-ed+ Additionall. the chapter -ill contain the methodolog. used in the anal.sis o* Headway Intermediate 3#oars 9 #oars, 200:6 and in the design, collection, and handling o* the 8uestionnaire distributed among the learners+ Chapter Three: Methodology of the study 3.0. Introduction /he aim o* this chapter is to pro&ide an o&er&ie- o* the research methodolog. design, choice o* techni8ues proper to collection and anal.sis+ /his chapter is composed o* *our sections *ocusing on the organisation o* the stud., research methods, the methodolog. o* the content anal.sis, and the methodolog. o* the 8uestionnaire+ 3. . !rganisation of the study /his stud. is composed o* t-o phases+ 'n "hase ', the courseboo( Headway Intermediate 3#oars 9 #oars, 200:6 3herea*ter H;'6 -as anal.sed and its content -as discussed in terms o* its treatment o* the principles o* preser&ing inclusi&it., a&oiding inappropriac., and in&esting in connectedness+ 'n light o* the *indings o* the content anal.sis concerning these themes, a 8uestionnaire -as distributed among 2< learners at '=%> /unis, in "hase ''+ Figure clari*ies the research process+

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Summary of findings Phase I Phase II Content Analysis Questionnaire Results Results Conclusion Conclusion Figure 1: Research flowchart This research makes use of the principle of triangulation, which is the diversification of research methods in investigating the same phenomenon !ick, "#$#%& The content of '(I will )e discussed in light of the literature review while the results of the *uestionnaire will )e discussed in light of the literature review as well as the findings of the content analysis& As the e+ploration of H/I preceded and guided the design of the *uestionnaire, the discussion of the findings of the *uestionnaire was done in a separate chapter& The course)ook chosen for analysis in this study is an e+ample of glo)al course)ooks as an e+tensively used worldwide in ,nglish language teaching Reda, -../, p& -0"%& Arguments concerning the choice of the methods employed in this study will )e focus of the following section )efore descri)ing the details of their implementation in the thesis in sections /&/& and /&1&& 3.2. Research methods In this section the focus will )e arguing for the choice of methods employed in the study& 2or this reason this section is composed of three su)3sections dealing respectively with the *uantitative ( *ualitative de)ate, the content analysis, and the *uestionnaire& 3.2.1. The quantitative / qualitative debate 4asically there are two recognised ways of collecting data in research, which are the *ualitative and the *uantitative methods& 5hile the *ualitative research method investigates the way particular items are represented, the *uantitative research method focuses on the occurrence of some given varia)les !ick, "#$#%& 5ithin each category there are numerous tools& Some researchers highlighted the e+istence of a de)ate over the advantages and draw)acks of each method while others insist that such a de)ate is unproductive, as )oth methods are different )ut complementary 6iles 7 'u)erman, "##1%& It seems that at the root of this de)ate is the inductivity characterising *ualitative research in comparison to the deductivity marking *uantitative research 6iles 7 'u)erman, "##1%& 5hat is meant )y this is that in *ualitative research there is no need for a pre3identified theory whereas in *uantitative research the starting point is setting a hypothesis i)id%& Additionally, it is argued that *uantitative research, in opposition to *ualitative research, is characterised )y researchers8 neutrality 6iles and 'u)erman, "##1, p& 1.%& In contradiction, others contend that every research is )ound to )e *ualitative in a way or another i)id%& Researchers8 participation and su)9ectivity in *ualitative research is one source of the criticism directed towards it, as they may distort the findings i)id%& 'owever, *ualitative researchers argue that even *uantitative research is not intact from this draw)ack as the results can )e distorted )y the conte+t of the study or respondents trying to please the researchers 6arshall 7 Rossman, "#:.%& ;evertheless, it seems to )e safe to think of these two research methods as complementary i)id%& This complementarity is what drove the researcher to choose one *ualitative research tool, the content analysis e+plored in /&-&-&, and one *uantitative research tool, the *uestionnaire e+plored in /&-&/& 3.2.2. The content analysis <rippendorff -..1% defines content analysis as =a research techni*ue for making replica)le and valid inferences from te+ts or other meaningful matter% to the conte+ts of their use p& ":%& This definition shows that the content analysis is )ased on inferences made from interpretations of the content of te+ts in light of prescri)ed research *uestions& In the same vein, Carley "##.% asserts that content analysis =focuses on the fre*uency with which words or concepts occur in te+ts or across te+ts> p& $-?%& Inspired )y these definitions of content analysis, the present thesis studies, in its first phase, the e+tent to which a course)ook is glo)al with special focus on features of preserving inclusivity, avoiding inappropriacy, and investing in connectedness through analysing the content of '(I& In fact, the content analysis method is documented to have various advantages such as marrying *ualitative and *uantitative techni*ues Carley, "##.%& Therefore, the researcher settled for the content analysis method& 5hat could legitimate this choice is that the content analysis method is reported to )e composed mainly of two types that are closely related to the aims of the research *uestions@ Conceptual Analysis and Relational Analysis Carley, "##.%& As far as conceptual analysis is concerned, it is the study of the occurrence of some items, words, phrases, or themes in the content of a )ook, newspaper, conversation, or any type

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of text (Carley, 1990; Neuendorf, 2002). Furthermore, it is worth noting that Con e!tual "nalysis dete ts only the fre#uen y of !resen e of the themes in$estigated with referen e to the resear h #uestions without studying the relation %etween them. &his is rather the on ern of 'elational "nalysis (Neuendorf, 2002). (n a detailed study of the ontent analysis method and its on e!tual, referential, and !ro edural tools, Neuendorf (2002) !ro$ides eight ste!s for Con e!tual "nalysis. ) First, resear hers need to hoose the le$el of analysis %y, for exam!le, s!e ifying whether the on ern will %e words or !hrases. ) *e ond, they need to determine the amount of word to %e oded, whi h means de iding whether to ode e$ery word or +ust the ones the resear hers thin, are rele$ant. ) &hird, they need to de ide whether oding will %e for +ust the mention of the in$estigated themes or the fre#uen y of their existen e. ) Fourth, they need to s!e ify the way of distinguishing %etween words to %e oded, whi h means whether the deri$ations, for instan e, of the same word will %e oded under the same or different ategory. ) Fifth, resear hers are in$ited to determine the rules of oding mainly in the sense of %eing onsistent when de iding the exa t ategory of an item. ) *ixth, they need to de ide the way of handling irrele$ant data su h as the arti les -the., -a., or -an. when ounting. ) *e$enth, the resear hers are allowed to ode the text %ased on the !re$iously determined oding rules. ) "nd finally, they ould analyse the results %y drawing !ossi%le inter!retations and generalisations (i%id). /e ause it is %ased on #uantifying the !resen e of !re0identified items in any gi$en text, as Neuendorf.s (2002) eight ste!s indi ate, Con e!tual ontent analysis seems to %e limited, as it does not fo us on the relations %etween the ex!lored items. *u h in$estigation of the relations is the on ern of another more so!histi ated %ut less used ,ind of ontent analysis, whi h is 'elational "nalysis (i%id). 'elational "nalysis attem!ts to trans end the mere dete tion of the existen e or mention of the ex!lored items, hara terising Con e!tual "nalysis, to studying the meaning of the relations %etween them (Carley, 1990; Neuendorf, 2002). Neuendorf (2002) argues that there are also eight ste!s for ondu ting 'elational "nalysis. &he first ste! is identifying the leading #uestion to %e handled. "fter hoosing the sam!le to %e analysed, the resear her is in$ited to determine the relations to %e studied and to s!e ify the ategories of oding. 1x!loring the relationshi!s %etween the on e!ts !re edes oding and statisti ally handling them. &he final ste! is transforming the statisti s into a ma! re!resenting the $arious relations inherent in the on e!ts in$estigated (i%id). "s !re$iously stated, the resear her resorted also to using a #uantitati$e resear h method, whi h is the #uestionnaire in order to in$estigate the !er e!tion of the learners as to the issue of 2glo%ality3 in the glo%al ourse%oo, with H/I as exam!le. &he use of the #uestionnaire, whi h is a #uantitati$e method, aims at $arying resear h tools in order to %enefit from their different ad$antages (4iles 5 6u%erman, 1997) and %e ause the #uestionnaire allows the olle tion of $iew of relati$ely large amount of !eo!le in short time (8eer, 1991). 3.2.3. The questionnaire &he #uestionnaire is a resear h method that ena%le the dire t eli itation of information from res!ondents %asi ally using two ,inds of #uestions; losed0ended and o!en0ended #uestions (9alton 5 * human, 19:2; 8eer, 19::). Closed0ended #uestions allow the !arti i!ants to hoose from !ro!osed alternati$es without adding any other information not suggested %y the resear her. &his ty!e of #uestions is ad$antageous for %eing #ui , to %e answered, whi h is im!ortant not to lose the moti$ation of the res!ondents, and easy to handle (8eer, 1991, !. ;<0). 6owe$er, losed0ended #uestions are re!orted to %e disad$antageous due to the limitation of the !res ri%ed hoi es that they im!ose on the res!ondents (i%id). =!en0ended #uestions are the ,ind of #uestions re#uiring the res!ondents to !ro$ide answers without %eing gi$en any alternati$es (8eer, 19::), whi h allows more freedom of ex!ression and neutralises the %ias that ould exist as a result of offering alternati$es (9alton 5 * human, 19:2, !. 79). Ne$ertheless, this ty!e of #uestions is riti ised for %eing time onsuming, diffi ult to ode, and for the !ossi%ility of misinter!retation of res!ondents. answers from the !art of the resear her (8eer, 1991). (n order to %enefit from the ad$antages of %oth ,inds of #uestions, losed and o!en were used in the #uestionnaire (see full des ri!tion of the #uestionnaire in se tion ;.7). (ns!ired %y literature on the im!lementation of ontent analysis method, the resear her de$elo!ed, in light of the resear h #uestions of this study, a !ersonalised framewor, for analysis of the ontent of the ourse%oo, ex!lored that will %e outlined in details in the following se tion. 3.3. ethodology of content analysis

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&his se tion will en om!ass the des ri!tion of the methodology of the ontent analysis. &he analysis was ins!ired %y on e!tual analysis while at the same time ta,ing into onsideration the first resear h #uestion (the extent to whi h the glo%al ourse%oo, is glo%al). &he hoi e of ado!ting on e!tual analysis is %ased not only on the fa t that the study is ex!loratory in nature %ut also on the need to in$estigate re!resentation of the themes of !reser$ing in lusi$ity, a$oiding ina!!ro!ria y, and in$esting in onne tedness. /efore ex!laining the !ro edures of analysis ado!ted, it is in$alua%le to define the ,ey terms in the study. 3.3.1. Procedures of analysing the content &he analysis of the ontent of the ourse%oo, H/I fo used on the issue of 2glo%ality3 through the ex!loration of the !resen e or a%sen e of 2in lusi$ity3 and 2ina!!ro!ria y3 as defined %y 8ray (2002) (see se tions 1.2.;. and 1.2.7.) in addition to 2 onne tedness3 referred to %y &omlinson (2001) and Chang (200;) (see se tion 1.2.>.). (n$estigating the fre#uen y of mention of the to!i s ex!lored, the resear her resorted to Con e!tual "nalysis (Carley, 1990; Neuendorf, 2002) %y tra ,ing the !resen e of the following $aria%les in the ourse%oo,. (n order to ex!lore the extent to whi h the writers of the ourse%oo, are in lusi$e of minorities, the num%ers, the roles, and the to!i s related to women, men, ?hites, /la ,s, and other di$erse hara ters were re!orted. *imilarly, in order to ex!lore the extent to whi h the writers of the ourse%oo, are sensiti$e to the issue of ina!!ro!ria y, the following exam!les of issues are in$estigated@ sex (o$ert mention), nar oti s, isms, !or,, anar hy, "(A*, (srael and six !ointed stars, ra ism, geneti engineering, terrorism, !oliti s, $iolen e, al ohol, out of marriage relationshi!s (i.e. relations with someone other than ones. s!ouse su h as oha%itation, dating, %oyBgirlfriend), glorifying some dangers in some ountries, religion, ideologi al i ons, and re$ealing lothes. &he hoi e of these themes is %ased on ina!!ro!riate to!i s s!e ified %y 8ray (2002), Cenny oo, (1997), and 1llis (1990). Di,ewise, in order to ex!lore the extent to whi h the writers are in$esting in what onne ts !eo!le around the world, leisure a ti$ities, the issue of language, and glo%al lo ations are ex!lored. (n sum, 2glo%ality3 of the ourse%oo, is ex!lored in terms of in lusi$ity, ina!!ro!ria y, and onne tedness, whi h in turn are ex!lored in terms of the exam!les of $aria%les outlined in Figure 2 that larifies the methodology of ontent analysis. Figure 2: Themes and methodology for coding content GLOBAL T!

"e#resentation of nclusi$ity "e#resentation of na##ro#riacy "e#resentation of %onnectedness &aria'le ?omen 4en ?hites /la ,s "sians Ai$erse hara ters &aria'le Deisure a ti$ities Danguage $arieties 8lo%al onne ti$ity &aria'le *ex (o$ert mention) Nar oti s (sms Cor, "nar hy "(A* (srael 5 six !ointed stars 'a ism 8eneti engineering &errorism Coliti s Cresent (C) nterest "$oided (") nterest &y!es 5 Fre#uen y nterest Num%ers 5 'oles 5 &o!i s

=r

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Eiolen e "l ohol =ut of marriage relationshi!s ( oha%itation, dating, %oyBgirlfriend) 8lorifying dangers in some ountries 'eligion (deologi al i ons 'e$ealing lothes "s shown in Figure 2, the issue of in lusi$ity is ex!lored in terms of the re!resentation of minorities (/la ,s, women, "sians) in addition to the re!resentation of men and ?hites whose re!resentation is ex!lored for om!arison !ur!oses. &o larify the rules set %y the resear her in the analysis of the ontent, it ould %e said that when ounting the num%er of /la ,s, ?hites, and "sians, the resear her onsidered all generations and used only !i tures to !reser$e relia%ility. "dditionally, hildren were not onsidered when ounting men or women. Counting elderly !eo!le was %ased on the !hysi al a!!earan es of the hara ters unless their age or role (for exam!le, -grandfather. or -grandmother.) is mentioned in the ourse%oo,. &he grou! -Ai$erse hara ters. refers to !eo!le who are not so numerous, in the ex!lored ourse%oo,, to onstitute distin t grou!s su h as 4uslims, "ra%s, Nati$e "meri ans, and the disa%led. &he grou!ing of these hara ters was done after ounting them and realising that they share the fa t that they are few numeri ally s!ea,ing and in terms of roles. &he ategorisation of !eo!le as "sians, 4uslims or "ra%s was done on the %asis of information a$aila%le at the end of the %oo, where the writers a ,nowledged the sour es of the !i tures. 6owe$er, if no information was a$aila%le the resear her resorted to the !hysi al a!!earan es of the hara ters and the ontext of their mention. (n fa t, the ex!loration of the re!resentation of -Ai$erse hara ters. is im!ortant as it re$eals the extent to whi h the writers of the ourse%oo, are really in lusi$e and, hen e, determine the degree of the 2glo%ality3 of the ourse%oo,. &a%le ; is a sam!le of the ta%les used to gather the num%ers, the roles, and the to!i s related to ea h of the grou!s examined in an attem!t to study their in lusi$ity. Table 2: A sample of inclusivity tables Presence Roles Fnit 1@ (t.s a wonderful world : motherBstudentB ele%rityB internet fan, s ientistB athleteB motherB Fnit 2@ 8et ha!!y Fnit ;@ &elling tales Fnit 7@ Aoing the right thing Fnit >@ =n the mo$e Fnit <@ ( +ust lo$e it Fnit G@ &he world of wor, Fnit :@ Hust imagine Fnit 9@ 'elationshi!s Fnit 10@ =%session Fnit 11@ &ell me a%out it Fnit 12@ Dife.s great e$ents &otal@ "dditionally, in order to study the extent to whi h the writers of the ourse%oo, are sensiti$e to ina!!ro!ria y &a%le ; in ludes a list of ina!!ro!riate issues for a glo%al audien e. &he list draws on issues raised %y 8ray (2002), Cenny oo, (1997), and 1llis (1990). Table 3: Table devised to explore inappropriacy Inappropriate items 1 2 3 4 *ex (o$ert mention) Nar oti s (sms Units ! " # $ 1% 11 12 A A A A A A A A A A A A Topics +o% Blea$ing for s hoolB goodwill am%assadorBwonders of the worldB =lym!i gamesB %eing lateB &reated with aution (&C) =r

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Pork Anarchy AIDS Israel & six pointed stars Racism Genetic engineering Terrorism Politics Violence Alcohol Out o marriage relationships P P P A A P A A P A P A !coha"itation# dating# "oy$girl riend% Glori ying dangers in some countries Religion Ideological icons Re&ealing clothes 'oreo&er# studying (riters) treatment o connectedness# the &arious leisure acti&ities# glo"al locations# as (ell as the language issue (ere explored in terms o types and re*uency o mention in each unit+ ,eisure acti&ities (ere in&estigated as they can "e e&idence that course"ook (riters are looking or -sa e topics) !Renner# .//01 Gray# 2332% connecting people all o&er the (orld+ The researcher also attempted to track the &arieties o 4nglish used in the course"ook (hose neglect can "e e&idence that the use o Standard 4nglish is considered to "e or reasons o connectedness+ This is "ased on the argument that using other &arieties can limit the common grounds that the (riters seek to ind in the glo"al course"ook+ 'oreo&er# the research resorted to reporting the (ay the glo"al locations appear in H/I and the re*uency o this appearance# through exploring the detecta"le &ariety o images and situations in (hich the countries constituting the (orld (ere depicted+ The exploration o this eature helps also in realising the extent to (hich the course"ook is glo"al and the meaning o -glo"al)+ This is "ecause in&estigating the scope o the locations mentioned in the course"ook pro&ides e&idence as to 5glo"ality6# as claimed "y course"ook pu"lishers and (riters# or o ethnocentricity as suggested "y Phillipson !.//2%# Pennycook !.//7%# and 8anagara9ah !.///%+ There ore# as the themes detailed a"o&e !see :igure 2%# 5glo"ality6 o a text"ook can "e assessed (ith re erence to theses themes+ 3.3.2. Data handling The course"ook (as examined care ully or e&idence o 5glo"ality6+ The (ords and pictures in the units (ere considered and critically interpreted to track the &ia"ility o the principles o inclusi&ity# inappropriacy !Gray# 2332%# and connectedness !Tomlinson# .//;1 8hang# 233<%+ -8ritical) here means attempting to unco&er the possi"le o&ert and hidden implications !:airclough# ./;/% "ehind the choices made "y course"ook (riters+ This means that each time the researcher ound a term or a picture that (as related to the themes explored in the course"ook# it (as documented and interpreted+ The researcher considered only the instances o representation (here the depiction o the &aria"les (as clear and representati&e+ :or example# instances like the ollo(ing (ere not reported (hen exploring inclusi&ity o (omen= 5I)&e got t(o "rothers and a sister6 !Soars & Soars# 233<# p+ >%+ A ter analysing and discussing the content o Headway Intermediate in terms o its preser&ation o inclusi&ity# a&oidance o inappropriacy# and in&estment in connectedness# the results (ere considered in the creation o a *uestionnaire+ The *uestionnaire ocused on the same themes explored in the content analysis in order to explore the perception o 2?. users o the glo"al course"ook they use and the possi"le !mis%match that could exist "et(een the content and their perception+ Thus# the ollo(ing section (ill ocus on the methodology used in the de&elopment# distri"ution# and handling o the *uestionnaire+ 3.4. Questionnaire used in the study This section contains the description o the *uestionnaire and the participants in the irst and second su"@sections respecti&ely+ The procedures# the timing# and the di iculties (itnessed (hen collecting in ormation are to "e dealt (ith in the third su"@section under the su"title -data collection)+ :inally# the (ay the data (as handled (ill "e the ocus o the ourth su"@section entitled -data handling)+ 3.4.1. Description of the questionnaire The *uestionnaire used to elicit data rom the respondents is composed o t(o main sections and contained open@ended and closed *uestions+ The open@ended *uestions aimed at ena"ling the respondents to choose rom proposed alternati&es (hile the closed *uestions pro&ided them (ith the opportunity o adding some data that are not proposed "y the researcher as suggested in literature on *uestionnaires !Geer# ./;;# .//.%+ The irst section o the *uestionnaire is general in the sense o gathering "ackground data a"out the participants) gender# educational le&el# employment# and the kind o 4nglish they need+ This section is important as it pro&ides the researcher (ith an idea a"out the target

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population explored, which might be helpful in explaining their responses in the second section. The first section contains, also, general questions that prepare the participants to the more specific questions of the second section. The second section is composed of seven questions targeting what is and what should be mentioned in the coursebook in terms of language varieties, themes, and closeness of the materials to participants' context and expectations. These questions cover learners' perceptions of the themes of connectedness, inappropriacy, and inclusivity explored in this thesis. Question 2. . tackles the scope of the themes that the participants think should form the content of an !nglish textbook. The respondents were provided with four alternatives targeting the themes, which are "#nternational', "$pecific to Tunisia', "#nternational and Tunisian', and "%ritish and &merican only'. $uch a question could reveal the extent to which the learners are open to local or global issues, which helps understand their perception of the extent of connectedness. Question 2.2. explores what the participants think the coursebook should include in terms of language varieties. 'espondents were provided with four alternatives covering "&merican !nglish only', "%ritish !nglish only', "&sian !nglishes', and "#nternational !nglish'. #n this question, the respondents were provided with the possibility of choosing more than one alternative only for "&sian !nglishes' and "#nternational !nglish'. The aim behind this question is discovering learners' preferences as to the kind or kinds of varieties to be used to in the coursebook, as part of exploring their perception of connectedness. #n question 2.(. the participants were asked to rank the presence of some proposed cultures in H/I according to a scale composed of five degrees. The cultures suggested are) &merican, &sian, %ritish, #nternational, *orth &frican, and youth cultures. %esides, an open+ ended question was asked to permit the respondents to suggest any other culture they think that is present in the coursebook. The scale proposed is composed of five degrees starting from ,ero to five and it aims at categorising participants' perception of the cultures as "-ow' .between ,ero and one/, "0edium' .between two and three/, and "1igh' .between four and five/. Question 2.2. tackles the extent to which the participants find in H/I parallels with their own situations in terms of "1opes', "3aily life', "4obs', "5roblems', "6oncerns', and "-eisure activities'. The respondents were provided with a scale to rank the alternatives from ,ero to five in order to classify the closeness of the material to their contexts as "-ow closeness' .between ,ero and one/, "0edium closeness' .between two and three/, and "1igh closeness' .between four and five/. The end aim behind this question is assessing participants' perception of the inclusivity of their individual lives in the coursebook they use. Question 2.7. explored participants' possible sensitivity to some proposed controversial issues. The issues suggested are "&#3$', "&lcohol', "&narchy', "3ivorce', "8ut of marriage relationships', "9enetic engineering', "#srael and six pointed stars', *arcotics', "5olitics', "5ork', "'acism', "'eligion', "$tereotypes', "Terrorism', and ":iolence'. The respondents were asked to identify whether they "$trongly agree', "&gree', "3isagree', or "$trongly disagree' with mentioning these controversial issues in H/I. $uch a question could reveal what the investigated learners perceive as inappropriate and what not, which helps understand whether the publishers are successful in handling inappropriacy or not; especially after comparing the results with the findings of the content analysis as to this issue. Question 2.<. targets participants' perception of the specificity of the topics mentioned in H/I. $ix alternatives were provided which are) "&merica', "The &rab world', "%ritain', "*orth &frica', "The world', and "!urope'. The respondents were provided in this question with the opportunity of choosing more than one alternative. $uch a question could reveal, when compared to the results of question 2. ., the match or mismatch between learners' perception of connectedness and the real content of the coursebook. #n question 2.=. the focus is on the domains that the participants think that H/I prepares them to be engaged in. !ight alternatives were provided, which are) "6ommunicate with other Tunisian professionals', ">nderstand media in !nglish', "6hat', "6orrespond electronically', "*egotiate with international partners', "'ead scientific research articles', "'ead travel book', and "Translate legal documents'. This question is a kind of assessment of, which helps understand the extent to which the participants think the coursebook serve the purpose of connecting them with the world. 3.4.2. The participants The target population of this study are 27 third year adult learners of !nglish studying at #%-: Tunis. The participants were chosen because they used the coursebook explored, H/I, during the school year .2??@+2? ?/. Their familiarity with the coursebook could be valuable not only for exploring the issues related to the notion of "global coursebook' but also for measuring the appropriateness of this kind of coursebook for them. Ahat follows is a description of the target population as indicated from the results of the first section of the questionnaire reserved for background information. Table 2 below summarises the background information of the participants. Table 4: Background information of the participants 9ender 5ercentages 72 2< !ducational level !mployment *eed for !nglish *eeded kind of !nglish 0 (2 8 Ces *o Ces 7D D( *o = 9! 2< !T %! @ = $! = 8 2? 2< 22 22

&lternatives Bemale 0ale %

The table reveals that 72E of the participants are women while 2<E are men. &s far as the educational level of the respondents is concerned, (2E of them claimed that they are maFtrise .0/ holders in comparison to 2<E with licences .-/ and 2?E with baccalaureate .%/ degrees. The other .8/ degrees that the participants claimed they hold are 0&, 5h3, and engineering diplomas.

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Needless to mention that 42% of the respondents claimed they have a job while 58% do not. The jobs that the learners claimed they occupy are tourist guides ! learners"# flight attendants $%"# doctors $5"# ban& officers '"# accountants '"# receptionists 4"# lawyers 5"# teachers $4"# university teachers ("# researchers 5"# nurses 4"# operators in call center ("# engineers $$"# journalists 2". )mong those who affirmed having a job# 8*% said that they need +nglish in their occupations while $'% said they do not. 4(% of the participants claimed that general +nglish ,+" is the &ind they e-pect they will need in the future compared to $!% who chose +nglish for tourism +T" and $'% preferring scientific +nglish .+". /nly '% claimed that they will need business +nglish 0+" and $$% mentioned other /" &inds of +nglish. The other &inds of +nglish that the learners suggested are medical +nglish mentioned $8 times"# +nglish for engineers 8"# and legal +nglish (". 3.4.3. Data collection )fter preparing the final draft of the 1uestionnaire# 25$ copies were produced and distributed by the researcher and three of his 2) colleagues. The researchers collected data using two ways depending on the situation. .ome participants were given copies of the 1uestionnaires and they answered them by themselves at the end of the class sessions. /thers were 1uestioned directly by the researcher in the lobbies of 3045 when the participants were entering# leaving# or having a brea&. .ometimes the researcher felt the need to paraphrase or translate certain words into Tunisian )rabic for the respondents but this happened only on two or three occasions. The 1uestionnaires were distributed between the *rd and the 2(th of 2ay 2%$%. )ctually# the administrative staff at 3045 and its anne-es were very cooperative e-cept for some teachers who were rushing to finish their courses and refused to assist with 1uestionnaire administration. 0esides# some learners were reluctant to answer the 1uestions and when the researcher witnessed their lac& of motivation# they were than&ed and their 1uestionnaires omitted. )dditionally# 22 1uestionnaires were missing data to reach the final number 25$ participants" and therefore# fresh 1uestionnaires were distributed another day to ma&e up the count. 3.4.4. Data handling )s the aim of the study is not focused on investigating the correlations between the 1uestions# the researcher did not resort to statistical pac&ages. 3nstead# handling data was done manually by the researcher through creating four sets of tables each one representing 5% 1uestionnaires in addition to a fifth set representing 2( 1uestionnaires and a si-th set representing 25 1uestionnaires. 3n each set of 1uestionnaires the answers specific to each 1uestion were counted and chec&ed carefully if there was a mismatch between the numbers and the total number of each set. This procedure resulted in the production of si- sets of tables. The si- sets of tables were gathered in one set representing the total number of participants# which is 25$ respondents. These tables were# then# transformed into graphs using 2icrosoft +-cel software. 3n order to preserve triangulation# the discussion of the findings of the content analysis was done in light of the literature review while the discussion of the results of the 1uestionnaire was inspired by the literature review and the content analysis. 3n fact# the results of the content analysis will be compared to the findings of previous researchers with regard to the investigated themes6 inclusivity# inappropriacy# and connectedness. Then the findings of the 1uestionnaire will be assessed with reference to previous literature on these themes and the content analysis.
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