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The NC-4 transatlantic flight seaplane aloft, as seen from one of her companion flying boats

The Vickers " Vimy " bomber leaving St. John's for the non-stop transatlantic flight

.TEXTBOOK

OF

APPLIED

AERONAUTIC ENGINEERING

HY

HENRY WOODHOUSE

u IHOR OF "TEXTBOOK or KAVAI AEBONAI

n.

." "IIXTBOOK or MILITARY

AERONAUTICS," "AIRO BIXE BOOK."

MEMBER or TIM: BOARD of UOVKRNORR or AKRO nr or AMERICA. vici-l-Rrsn

AKRIAl

I

I

V

'

r. Or AMERICA, MEMBER OF NATIONAL AERIAL COAST FATROL COM-

MI-.IMS. III. Mil

VM

IIVI

MVX

ol COMMITTEE OK AERONAl'TK NATIONAL

v t

iv-HTITr OF Fill. II- Y. MEMBER OF THE gOCIKTY Ot AVTOMOTITE

ri -|UM VM> INDI-ITBIAI. DEI.EOATE

PAN-AMERICAN FEDERATION. ETC., ETC., ETC.

NEW YORK THE CENTURY CO.

1920

3

Copyright, 1920, by

THE CENTUBY Co.

Published, January, 1920

Textbook of Applied Aeronautic Engineering

INTRODUCTION

Thi- ni-nunm-nt.-il work on aeronautic

-n-in, -. mi-

i-

,-inl importance .-ind value .-it

this time In cause it

tells in a simple laminate, anil without difficult formulas.

! Imilt for arrial transporta-

drawings, ili aurains and photo-

(iroposrcl types of aeroplane-

. iltli nt engineering data, will ,-issist engineers in

Imu l.-iri." icroplancs

.TII!.

by

graph- iif

.iii,l

i

in

i:ivini: tin

existing ami

hiiildint: aeroplane- large and small, for .-irri.-il transporta-

ul other purposes.

While travelliii!: tlirouiili South and Central Am- ri.- i I was n-mimli-d daily that South and Central

\

rii-a in waiting fr aerial transportation.

In

tin

i

eoiintrii-s we have many ditlieult prolili-nis of

traiisportati ii

whieh eati

lie easily

solved liy

aircraft.

L'pon the solution of this, prohlems depends the cco- noniie wcifa'rc and eiiiiim-rei.il developmi-nt of these roun-

trie-.

lii re mountains, forests and waterways make the

of building railroads prohihitiv-

The stupendous flights of the X. ('.

"Vimy

I. the Vickers

and other large aeroplanes have aroused hopes

that i. rial transportation lines will be established in the

future.

Latin Amerieaii countries there arc

people with imagination and capital who would like to

In everv

o n.

of tin

tak.

steps

to establish air lines, but they do not quite

Soon, we hope, enterprising

experts in the I 'nit-d States will come to our assistance

and establish these lines.

While tin- I'an American aeronautic movement is youth-

ful, having IM-I-II conceived by Mr. Henry WoodhoUM in

I'll I. and -volvcd l>y him and the other energetic and

im-

portant aeronautic movements Messrs. Alan R. Hawley.

H. ar Vdmiral Hob, rt K. Peary, John Barrett, and Henry

know

how to go about it.

in- men. who are

responsible

for so many

A. \\ i- Wind

it is advancing in gigantic strides.

ins,

of roads

tin

of the broad expanse of territory, the lack

sections of the country, the excellent

ways, all kinds of aircraft will be of great value to

I'nitcd States and Canada, as well as to South and

into all

r.d America.

I u.

years ago I went with Mr. Woodhouse to visit

tin ( urtiss Aeroplane factory at Buffalo.

The pur|M>sc

of our visit was to prove to ourselves that an aeroplane

Reports

had bei n circulated that such an aeroplane was being

.etually being built that could lift a ton.

designed, but the thing was not considered possible or

practical.

Mr. Woodhouse and mvs.l! had IM-I-II study-

ing the need of aerial transportation in South ami <

n

tral

Am. ne.i and

w.

rcali/.rd

that, if it was true that

such an aeroplane was Ix-ing built, there were prospects for

the establishing of aerial transportation lines in South

and Central America within a few years, which would We went

solve the difficult problems of transportation.

to HuH'alo with keen , \peetation. but did not expect to

actually see a large aeroplane under construction, be-

cause at

not

the time

even the highest engineers did

admit the possibility of building large aeroplanes that

would fly successfully.

They generally held that a, n.

planes with two motors were impractical, because in the

event of one motor stopping, the aeroplane, according

to their computations, would spin around and it would

They also held

be impossible for the pilot to control it.

that propellers would not stand the vibrations of high

horse power engines.

To our great satisfaction and wonderment we found

in the Curtiss factory a huge seaplane almost completed which, we know now. was a prototype of the N. C

I.

which Hew across the Atlantic.

few people believed an

very

It seemed

I clearly

recall how

when we reported to them what we had seen.

impossible !

In this valuable Textbook. Mr. \Voodhousc points out

the possibility of building aeroplanes to lift twenty tons

of

useful

load, and

he

explain*

hou- H can be done!

It is not prophecy on his part; it is knowledge of the

broadest aspects

aeronautic art

he

of aeronautic engineering and of the

as a whole, with the development of which

identified for the past

ten years.

has Ix-cn closely

Furthermore. Mr. Womlhouse urges original experi-

ments

in the distribution of the

10,000 square feet of

wing space which is required to lift twenty tons of us,

ful load.

He presents the problems

and clearly

to be solved in clear, simple

will

be

of great

defines the factors which will make

for success in developing large machines for aerial trans-

portation.

language

Then-fore, this Textbook

assistance to aeronautic engineers and to every IMTSOII

who is interested

in the development of aerial trans-

portation and the use of aeroplanes for general pur P

ALBERTO SANTOS-DI-MONT,

Honorary Prrtiilrnl l'a-.-lmrrira

.Irronaulir pntrratiii*.

r,

.;

CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER I STATI-S OF APPLIED AERONAITI. Bva

NKKUINIi

\\.ir Developed Speed Kcgardlcss of Klying Kfficicllt-y

,t Bomliini: and Antiaircraft llrnii^ht . \lMint Vnl-

lialilr DcM-lop Mil-lit-, ill AiTi>|.|.-inr Construction

.

K.ngiiiecrintr \il\antiijrcs in I Urge M i. hines

Phwoixl Coiistrm -lion Our t Most Important l>,\.|

incuts

T\p.sot

II.

.*icr Th.in

\ir Aircraft

Status .if Present l>.-i> Aeroplanes Detailed Views of NC-l Transatlantic T\ pc Seaplane

Cellini: tin- Sniiif KngiMccring liesiilts liy Diffi-rrnt

.

Distriliiiti.uis of \Vin;r \re.i

Mow Can \Vr DistriUitc tli.-

KMKI Square Feet of

Wing Surface ltri|iiiri-.l to Lift

ful l.oadr

-'

Tons of L'se-

\rca Distrih-ition. Win^s with \-pcct Uatin of 6 to 1

Kclation of Cap to Chord

Tandem Planes lti-pr.--.-nt tin- Solution

I'rolilenis of Trussing HIM! Bracing

B.xlv C. instruct ion

II

Mi I.TI

AEROPLANES

The .i-Motornl C.-riiian Biplane .

Tlir l-Motornl Voisin Triplane

Hi,- t Moton-d llaiidlcy-Pagc Biplane

III.- l-Mot.ir<-il Sikorsky Biplane

Biplane

Hi, I M,.lor,-d Zeppelin

.

.

x -Curtiss No I TnuiMitlantic- SfiijtUne

The Capraol Bombing TrtpUne Type CA-4

Curtiss II li- A

l-'lyinu Boat

I

,

Tlir

I

\ ivj

I l\ini:

Uoit

.

.

.

il.in.ll.-> Page Type O-MM Bomber

Martin Cruisinjr Bomljer

Cl.-iiii 1 Martin Bomlx-r

Siiiulstitlt-lliinnrvi); Si-a]>lnnr

Bur^'--' Twin-.Motcin-il llydroai-roplani-

Thr TransatlantU- 'I'vpr VirkiTs -

\'iiny "

Uro Twin l-'.njrini-d Bonilx-r .

.

.

Ijiwson Aerial Transport .

The Krii-ilri.-li-.hafm Twin-Motoml Biplane

The Cotlia Twin-Motor.-d Biplane - Type (5O. G5 .

The

C.-rman A. K. C . ({.milling Biplane

Cnrtixs M.xlrl 1H-B Biplane

The Cnrti-s "Oriole" Biplane

C'n \PTER III SiNoi.K MOTORED AEROPLANES .

.

3

3

5

o

7

12

14

1

17

17

19

23

-'"'

-'>

-'

33

37

41

+7

*0

'

59

60

67

79

"0

81

82

The Standard K-l Single Seater

The VK-7 TraininK Biplam-

The Three-Motored White Monoplane The Standard Mo.1,-1 I. I Mail Aeroplane

.

.

.

Thomas-Morse, T\|

Thomas-Morse, T\ p.

Thomas-Morse, Type -S-ti Tandem Two-seater .

"

-

l<

II

s mv .|,- ^-ater Sront

.

Sin^le-seiiter Scout .

.

.

.

.

Thomas-Morse, T>pe S 7 Side. I.) -Side To-seater .

The Thomas-Morse Type M-B-H, :X) h.p. Ilispano

Kncine KiRhter ."

The Kren.h A.

. Biplane

The Bn-truet Biplane

The Sopwith Maehine

The Short .Miii-hine

The Martinsyde Type

Crahame-White \.-ro Limousine .

The C.TIM:, ii Gothas. th.

Aviatiks and the Ago Bi-

planes

The Nieiiport P. Planes

The S|>a.l Seoul. Type S VII

Bristol Si-out

so I.e l< hone

I

S. B.-l British Kighter

300 Hispiino-Siiizu {'. S. Army Tests

Martinsydr Seoul

IWKI I lispaiio-Suizii

The Knglish S. K. :> Single-Seiiter Kighter

S.

K. j

IKO llis]).ino-Suixa

The British Sopwith Planes

The Sopwith "Camel"

British Avro Aeroplanes

The S. V. A. Kiphtinp Seoul The I'oinilio Heeonimissanee T\ pe Traetor

The A. K. C'i. Cerman Armored Biplane

The German Api Kighling Biplane

The Allmtros Type "I V

The Kokker SinVlf Seater Biplane

Tlie Tarranl "TalMir" Triplane

The MallH-rstadl l-'ighter

The Cerman llansH-Brandenhiirg Traetor

"

1-Vt"

T> pe O-7

.

.

.

.

Details of Ihe Austrian Hansa-Brandeiihiirj: Traetor

The Wittemann-I.rwis Commereial Biplane

The Holand Chaser I). II

The I

V. C. Biplane Type C. V

The Ae.-Mot.ired Single Seater Aee Biplane .

The Hannoveraner Biplane

IlallM-rstadt-Kil) Mem-des

The PfaU Biplane

Pfalr. Seoul S.*

I

I).

Ill

I7-1WI Mer.-edes

.

.

Trails on Avialik No. G.IMJ. Dimensions and Kquipmrnt of Ihe 1918-1919 Types of

I

.

FAOE

117

ll

119

1-'"

1.'-'

1-'-'

I-"-'

I .'.

l-'l

IM

1JH

130

ISO

l:JI

1:1-'

l:

135

I.! 1 '

11:1

1**

144

147

151

154

15fi

156

157

159

161

163

165

I 70

186

191

'"-'

195

l'i;

198

-'IX)

iK)4

207

JOB

-M"

JU

214

The Ai-riniiiiriiK- Tniininp Tractor

The Hellnnea Biplane

Cnrtiss M.Hlrl .IN-tl) Tra.-tor

The IV Havillan.l t Trai-tor Biplane

*

Cerman Aeroplanes The C. IV Kiimpler Biplane

87

The Curtiss Model IH-T Triplane

*

The Sopwith Triplane .

93

94

96

101

.

-'I*

216

The I).

Perspective Sketches of the Cerman Kokker Triplane J.'t

The Kokker Triplane

II.

'. I'ursiiit

Biplanr

No. 5

The I).- llavillanil

I'hr T-l MesM-np-r

K.-l.

The C.allnnilet

The ().

C

The Aeromarine Training Seaplane

The Aeromarine " T-.VI

"

The Berekman-. Speeil Si-out

The Christinas Stnitlrss Biplane

The I,nws,m M. T. -' Traetor Biplane

Oallnudrt

Three Seater Flying Boat .

Boeing Seaplane Type C-I-K The Burgess Speed Scout Seaplane

The Curtiss II- \

Curtiss

Curtiss M.nlel MK Klying Boal

Hydro

M.Kl.-l

IIS- .'-I. Klying Boat

V, v i

M .' Bahy Seaplane

.

The'K. B. A. Klying Boat

**

23M

235

241

243

.

.

.

.' Mononl.inr

K.-l.

TM

-S

.' " Chiiiiimy KlynlK.nt " Monoplane 1M

1"

SO Ix-Rhftne

B ami C Single Sealer .

.

.

.

.

1O9

11*

The I.e Pere Kijihter

Onlnanre Knaineerlne Srout

The Gallaudet D- l.iirht Bomlx-r S-apliine

Thomas-Morse T\ pe -S-.'. Single-seater Seaplane .

.

The Martin K-III Single Sealer

The Parltanl Aeroplane

CONTEXTS

Au*triiin Apo Flyinsr Boat

The Lohner Flying Boat

CHAPTER IV AEROPLANE AND SEAPLANE ENGI-

NEERING

CHAPTER V NAVY DEPARTMENT AEROPLANE SPE-

CIFICATIONS

CHAPTER VI METHOD OF SELECTION OF AN AERO-

PLANE WING AS TO AREA AND SECTION .

CHAPTER VII NOMOGHAPHIC

AERIAL PROPELLER

CHARTS FOR

.

.

THE

CHAPTER VIII METHODS USED IN FINDING FUSEL-

AGE STRESSES

2*8

2*9

PAGE

28 1

CHAPTER IX THEORY OF FLIGHT

CHAPTER X SHIPPING, UNLOADING AND ASSEMBLING 29-1

251

CHAPTER XI RIGGING

296

CHAPTER XII ALIGNMENT

303

263

CHAPTER XIII CARE AND INSPECTION

308

271

CHAPTER XIV MINOR REPAIRS CHAPTER XV VALUE OF PLYWOOD IN AEROPLANE

310

FUSELAGE CONSTRUCTION

312

276

Properties of Various Woods

315

CHAPTER XVI NOMENCLATURE FOR AERONAUTICS 316

280

The Metric System

.324

TEXTBOOK

OF

APPLIED

AERONAUTIC ENGINEERING

Hear view of the 1903 Wright 1 lyrr

The first aeroplane to fly.

CHAPTER I

STATUS OF APPLIED AERONAUTIC ENGINEERING

Aeronautic Kngineering as an applied art is

only ;i few years old.

From December 17. 1903. when the Wrights

made their first flight, to 1916, tin- world's aero-

nautic engineers were so few that they could be

counted mi one's finger tips. In 1 !!_>. there were no schools of aeronautic

cn-rim-cring and Mr. Henry A. Wise Wood, the

editor ,,f "Flying Maga/ine," and the writer

urged tlie leading Universities to establish a

course ill aeronautic engineering. Only one

University responded. The others stated that the need for such a course was not sufficiently

evident to justify the step. In 1917-1918 courses in aeronautic engineer-

ing were established at a mimlrcr of Universities,

but the purpose was mainly to give cadets an

elementary course on the theory of flight; to

teach them the most elementary principles in

the slim-test time possible.

The text of the most complete course of its

Index, entitled

kind

is

reproduced

in

the

"Theory of Flight."

The greatest work in aeronautic engineering

in the United States was done at the U. S.

Army Aeroplane Engineering Department at Dayton in 1918-1919 and at the largest aero-

plane factories. Their work was. however, lim-

ited to some extent by the exigencies of war,

which confined them to the analysis and con-

struction of only the types of aircraft which

were being considered for production.

It did not, to any extent, bring about the combining of the best characteristics of different

machines of different countries, as might have

been expected; nor did it bring about to any extent, the adoption of best engineering prac-

tice in aircraft construction.

This was due to

the fact that the problems of aeronautic en-

gineering were too complex to be mastered

within a year, even by the best engineers, and

the necessity for lightness in construction did

not permit the adoption of automobile or naval

engineering practice.

War Developed Speed Regardles* of Flying

Efficiency

While collectively the developments in aero-

plane construction brought about by the war

N-C-1 F-LYING BOAT

H-S 2-L FLYING 5OAT

P-5-L PLYING 50AT

SUNDSTtDT-HANNEVIG

McCaughlin

STATUS OF . \1MM.IKI) A KHONAt TU K\<;i\ KKKINt;

I In-

1 1 .inillrj -I'ajti-

iMimlirr

ri|iii|i|>nl

with

I

Hull- Itny r

motor-

Our of the

first

l-inotiirrd planes In !

It w.i- luiilt in Great Britain.

]>r,>,lu.vcl.

represent :i stupendous achiex cment. we- find

tliat as :i whole tl;c \\;ir rcmiircmciits resulted

in sacrificing Hying efficiency for high speed

Machines \\cre greatly

overpowered and Mich important factors for

and fa-t climbing.

peace Hying as slow landing speed and high

gliding angle were overshadowed by the vital

importance of fast climbing and speed.

Night Bombing and Antiaircraft Brought

About Valuable Developments in

Aeroplane Construction

The increasing range of the antiaircraft guns

jWeed high flying and was responsible for the

developing of high ceiling aeroplanes of light

'construction and remarkable efficiency.

The

extension of night bombing operations brought ahout the construction of larger aeroplanes

such as the C'aproni, Hand ley- Page, Vickers,

A\ ro. etc. 1

Tin- same thing was true in the construction of seaplanes. The need of Ion if distance air

cruisers and torpedoplanes brought ahout the

construction of large seaplanes, of which the

\arious I'nrtiss types constructed in the I'nit- 1

States and England are representative ex: m-

pl-

The war also brought about the construction

of seaplanes capable of starting from and land-

Kvolutinn of the Military \eroplnnc in thr " Textbook

of Military

\.-ron uitirs." published h\ tlie ('ntim ('

r ntii>n

of

Marine

Flying, " TcxtlvKik of

\. Y.

Naval

\T,,n.nti, s." publish) by the Ontury Co X. Y., for detailed

lii-tory of thf evolution of seaplane construction.

ing on fairly rough seas. This development is

of great importance for Hying for sport, pleas-

ure and commerce.

Engineering Advantages in Large Machines

Large machines permit refinements in con-

struction, such as tic use of hollow struts and

hollow members, which is not possible in small

aeroplanes.

This has made it possible to increase the

ratio of useful load by over ten per cent, and

to get nearer the goal of economic aerial trans-

portation.

It is hardly necessary to point out that the

old theories to the effect that large aeroplanes

could not be constructed have been exploded.

There can still be found misinformed people

who hold that as the thickness of the wings must

i'-crease in proportion to the span of the win

there comes a point where the weight of the

wings is so great that their lifting capacity is

not sufficient to lift the machine from the

ground.

We have heard such foolish arguments, which

for the past fifteen years, and up to the Sum-

r-er of 11*17, were actually responsible for de-

laying the construction of larger aeroplanes in

the I'nited States just as the fallacious theory

that if one of the motors of a twin-motored plane stopped the plane would spin around, delayed

the advent of twin motored planes. They are.

at present, to a smaller extent, delaying con-

As a mat-

struction of very large aeroplanes.

STANDARD 'E -4

VOUGHT V.E.7

THOMAS-MORSE 54- 1

1

5E V

McC&ughiin

STATIS OF APPLIKl) AKKONAITK r.N(.INKI.HIM.

t<T .it' t';ict. through tin- development <!' more

efficient aerofoils, and perfecting (lit- const ruc-

tinii of uings, it IN no\\ po-.sihlc to (il)tain wings

capable of lifting oxer ten pounds per square

foot while xveighing less than one pound per

square foot !

Plywood Construction One of Most Impor-

tant Developments

Plywood construction ha* liecii one- of the

most important developments of the past two

years.

Plywood permits, for instance, the making of

the fuselage of an aeroplane in one piece, on a mold, eliminating the tedious, heavy, cxpen-

si\c construction of former days, xxith its scores

of wires and tiirnhnckles.

Plyuoo.l ciiv.stniction of dilVi n nt parts of

aero]. lanes \\iil

I cromc ,',,!ier:d as soon as

vain

of | lywood is understood. 1

the

Types of Heavier Than Air Aircraft

The main txp.'s of lieav ier-than-air craft an

(1 ) The aeroplane

C.'i The helieopt.-r

(8) The ornitlK.pt. r.

The I'. S. Army Technical Department's

definitions of these types can l>e found in the

Index, with other aeronautic nomenclature.

The helicopter and the ornithopter were con-

ceived earlier than the aeroplane. Leonardo

Da Vinci designed an ornithopter or Happing

wing machine in the fifteenth century.

Prac-

S*e Appendix for Chapter on I'lywoods and Veneers In Ano-

plane t'on-l ruction.

ami

The Navy-Curtlss NC-1, the prototype of the Xavy-Curtlss transntlnntir seaplnnrs.

in

the .l.>ipn

in this machine.

\ n,.,,,lH-r of Interesting engineering features are incoVporat.-.!

,1^,

the hull.

The tail unit is supported by outriggers,

T,e pilot

is l,K-ate,l outs

instead of being carried on the rear of the 1 ull, a.

n in n flying txmt.

LAW5ON MT-2

HANDLEY PAGE O-400

"

"A.C.E

sT.vrrs or AIMM.IJ.D AKUONAITH ENGINEERING

tic-ally every ^rcat inventor including Thomas Kdison. OrvilK- Wright. Louis HIcriot, IVter

Cooper Hewitt, Kniil licrlincr has. during the

J);l.st tit'tci-ll \cars xiveil serious consideration tti

the problem of building a helicopter. And v\c may t\|)cct oood results in tin- near future.

Now

that tfo<nl

engines arc a\ailal.lc it

is

possible tn (mild machines capable of rising

from and descending to tin- ground vertically.

As I have stated in tin- "Textbook of Naval

\ ronaiitics." the Danish pioneer aeronautic

experimenter Kllahamcr baa shown me the photograph of such a c-raft in lii^ht.

Status of Present Day Aeroplanes

./(7y;////-.v ha\(

reached speeds as jrrent

as HiO miles an hour, have carried loads ranjr-

inu' up to six tons and have