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1 Preparation Material

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BS EN 970 Non destructive examination of fusion welds visual examination Welding inspector should have good vision in accordance with EN 47 ! should "e chec#ed ever$ %& months 'ondition for visual examination BS EN 970 states minimum illumination shall "e (0 lux "ut recommends min (00 lux )irect inspection should ena"le the e$e to "e within *00mm from the surface "eing inspected! in a pst to give viewing angle not less than 0 +ids to visual inspection the use of mirrored "oroscope or a fi"e optic s$stem viewing s$stem, -agnif$ing lens is used to avoid visual examination, .t should "e /& to /( )uties of welding inspector "efore welding! during welding! after welding W0S is Welding 0rocedure Specifications Welding inspector should also ensure inspection aids that will "e needed are in good condition! cali"rated, Safet$ consciousness is the dut$ of all emplo$ees,

SECTION 2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS: Bra1ing2 -elting point of filler metal is a"ove 4(0 ' "ut alwa$s "elow the melting temperature of the parent metal, Welding2 +n operation in which two or more parts are united "$ means of heat or pressure or "oth! in such a wa$ that there is continuit$ in the nature of the metal "etween these parts, 'ruciform 3oint needs more pre4heating, 5or corner 3oint 5illet weld is done, 5or 6ap 3oint! fillet or resistance "utt weld is done, 7$pes of welds Butt weld 5illet weld +utogenous weld 8fusion weld without filler metal9 Slot weld 8ma#e hole and weld9 0lug weld 8#eep & parent metals in contact! appl$ current9

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+utogenous weld2 + fusion weld made without filler metal which can "e achieved "$ 7.:! plasma! electron "eam! laser or ox$4fuel gas welding, 7$pes of 3oints ;omogeneous ;eterogeneous )issimilar < 7ransition 3oint ;eat affected =one 8;+=92 7he part of the parent metal that is metallurgicall$ affected "$ the heat of welding or thermal cutting! "ut not melted, 87he wea#est > hardest part of 3oint9 5ull penetration weld2 + welded 3oint where the weld metal full$ penetrates the 3oint with complete root fusion, .n ?S it is called 'omplete @oint 0enetration weld 8'@09 0artial penetration weld2 + welded 3oint without full penetration, .n ?S 0artial @oint 0enetration weld 80@09 5usion line < 5usion "oundar$ < Weld 3unction, 7oe2 7oes are points of high stress concentration and often the$ are initiation points for different t$pes of crac#s 8eg,! fatigue crac#s! cold crac#s9 Excess weld filament reinforcement! overfill,

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+ngle of "evel2 5or --+ weld on car"on steel plate! the angle is &(4 0 for A preparation, .ncluded angle for single A preparation is around 70, Boot face effects root penetration, %4&mm for common welding processes, Boot :ap is gap "<w two plates, :enerall$ %4 4mm, Boot Badius2 .n case of --+! -.:<-+: and ox$4fuel gas welding on car"on steel plates! the root radius has a value of *mm for single and dou"le ? preparations and Cmm for single and dou"le @ preparations, 6and2 usuall$ present in weld preparations for -.: welding of aluminum allo$s, .f thic#ness is more! then single ? prep is made instead of A to avoid distortion<"end, Single A prep flame or plasma cutting! cheap and fast, Single ? prep "$ machining! slow and expensive, Single A prep with "ac#ing strip2 for full penetration welds with increased current, 0ermanent t$pes are made of same material as "eing 3oined and are tac# welded in place, )isadvantages4 poor fatigue resistance! pro"a"ilit$ of crevice corrosion "etween parent metal and "ac#ing strip! difficult to examine "$ 7emporar$ t$pes include copper strips! ceramic tiles and fluxes, BS EN .SD 9*9& weld preparations Bun 8pass92 -etal melted or deposited during one passage of an electrode! torch or "lowpipe, 6a$er2 + stratus of weld metal consisting of one or more runs,


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)esign 7hroat 7hic#ness2 )istance from root to centre of weld, )enoted "$ EaF 6eg length2 )istance from the actual or pro3ected intersection of the fusion faces and the toe of a fillet weld! measured across the fusion face, )enoted "$ E1F,

Shape of fillet welds2 -.7BE fillet weld, aG0,707 x 1 'onvex fillet weld, 'oncave fillet weld2 the formula doesnFt appl$, +s$mmetric fillet weld2 formula not valid here, 'ross section is not an isosceles triangle, )eep penetration fillet weld2 .t is produced using high input welding processes 8ie S+W or -+: with spra$ transfer9, :reater arc penetration, 'ompound of "utt and fillet welds,

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Welding positions2

3. WELDING IMPERFECTIONS AND MATERIAL INSPECTION 'lassification of imperfections according to BS EN .SD *(&04% %, 'rac#s &, 'avities , Solid .nclusions 4, 6ac# of fusion and penetration (, .mperfect shape and dimensions *, -iscellaneous imperfections Cracks: 7$pe of crac#s, a, 6ongitudinal crac#s ", 7ransverse crac#s c, Badiating 8crac#s radiating from common point9 d, 'rater 8end of weld < weld metal onl$ < star crac#9 e, Branching 'rac#s can "e situated in weld metal! ;+=! parent metal, )epending of their nature these crac#s can "e a, ;ot 8Solidification or 6iHuation crac#s9 ", 0recipitation induced c, 'old 8;$drogen induced crac#s9 d, 6amellar tearing pro"lem of parent metal onl$, a. S !"#"$"ca%" & cracks: also called 'entre 6ine 'rac#ing < ;ot shortness, .t occurs during solidification of metal, Beason high car"on! sulphur<1inc in metal, 'ar"on adds hardness to material, Sulphur comes from parent metal < oil! grease etc, -elting point of sulphur is less 4 %%( ' and car"on steel m,p, 4 %(00', )uring welding if sulphur is availa"le in parent metal! it will "e added in weld, Sulphur comes in the centre and top during welding as it will "e in the liHuid state whereas the car"on steel of parent metal solidifies, 0ossi"ilit$ of crac#s due to stress, .t also occurs if! depth4to4width ratio of the solidif$ing weld "ead is large 8deep > narrow9! )isruption of heat flow condition occurs! eg stop<start condition,

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6iHuation crac#2 see fig, also called hot crac#, +rc stri#e creates martensite grain structure, .t is done "$ welder due to immediate release of electrode from the spot it cools down and crac#s are formed due to immediate cooling, '. ()#r *+& "&#,c+# cracks: also #nown as 'old! dela$ed or under"ead<toe crac#ing, .t occurs primaril$ in the grain4coarsened region of the ;+=, 'auses2 ;$drogen level I %(ml<%00g of weld metal deposited, Stress I 0,( of the $ield stress 7emperature J 00' Suscepti"le microstructure I 400 ;A hardness,

7o avoid these crac#s! +ppl$ preheat! maintain specific interpass temp! post4heat! appl$ 0W;7! reduce weld metal h$drogen "$ proper selection of welding process<consuma"le! use multi instead of single run techniHue! use dr$ shielding gas! use aurstenitic or nic#el filler! clean rust from 3oint! reduce residual stress! "lend the weld profile,

#. La-+!!ar %+ar"&*: parent metal onl$, .t occurs onl$ in rolled steel products and its main distinguishing feature is that the crac#ing has a terraced appearance, + thermal contraction strain occurs in the through4thic#ness direction of steel plate, .t "rea#s in = direction onl$, 7o avoid lamellar tearing use =4grade steel, .t has high through thic#ness ductilit$, -ethod to determine whether metal is = grade steel or not S7B+ 8Short 7ransverse Beduction +rea 7est9

7o avoid 6amellar tearing avoid welding or ta#e solid 7 or solid 6 3oint! put clamps or restraint control! appl$ high ductilit$ material on surface of parent metal,

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Ca."%"+s: :as cavit$ essentiall$ spherical shape trapped within the weld metal, present in various forms2 - isolated 4 uniforml$ distri"uted - clustered 8"unch of pores together9 4 linear porosit$ 8in straight line! usuall$ occur along the side wall result in lac# of fusion9 4 elongated cavit$ 8ovule shape9 4 surface pore 8visi"le at surface9 'auses2 )amp fluxes or corroded electrode 8--+9! grease<h$drocar"on<water contamination of prepared surface! air entrapment in gas shield 8-.:<-+:! 7.:9! incorrect<insufficient deoxidant in electrode! filler or parent metal! too high an arc voltage or length! gas evolution from priming paints<surface treatment! too high a shielding gas flow rate which results in tur"ulence 8-.:<-+:! 7.:9, W r- / !+s: causes due to "ad surface! laminated wor# surface! crevices in wor# surface due to 3oint geometr$, S,r$ac+ 0 r s"%): Aisi"le on the surface, 'auses2 damp or contaminated surface or electrode! low fluxing activit$ 8-.:<-+:9! excess sulphur! loss of shielding gas due to long arc or high "ree1es 8-.:<-+:9! too high a shielding gas flow rate which results in tur"ulence 8-.:<-+:! 7.:9, Cra%+r 0"0+: Shrin#age cavit$ at the end of weld run, -ain cause shrin#age during solidification, 6ac# of welder s#ill, Slope out 87.:9 decreases the current flow and welding can "e done slowl$, ?se it when the welding is a"out to finish, S !"# "&c!,s" &s

Slag inclusions2 )ue to flux coating of an electrode, Slag should "e removed "$ the welder, Slag causes lac# of internal fusion, 0articularl$ in --+ process,

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5lux inclusions2 5lux trapped during welding, --+! S+W! 5'+W, 7o avoid4 use good electrode and proper current,

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Dxide inclusions2 Dxide trapped during welding, .rregular shape! thus differs in appearance from the gas pore, Dccurs speciall$ in case of +luminum allo$s, 7ungsten inclusion2 )uring 7.: welding, 7$pical wor#ing voltage for 7.: is %04 %& volts, ;5 start voltage is &0!000 volts, .t ma$ damage electronic eHuipment, .nsulation should "e provided, .t "ecomes expensive, 'auses2 'ontact of electrode with weld pool! inadeHuate shielding gas! inadeHuate tightening of collet! extension of electrode "e$ond normal distance, Lack $ $,s" &: lac# of side wall fusion! lac# of fusion! lac# of inter run fusion! lac# of root fusion


$ 0+&+%ra%" &: .ncomplete penetration! incomplete root penetration,

?ndercut2 causes4 melting of top edge due to high welding current or high travel speed! attempting a fillet weld in hori1ontal vertical 0B position with leg length I9mm! excessive or incorrect weaving! incorrect electrode angle! incorrect shielding gas selection %00K co&, Excess weld metal2 causes4 excess arc energ$! shallow edge preparation! incorrect electrode si1e! too slow travel speed! wrong polarit$ used 8)' ve --+! S+W9 .t will "ecome a pr" as the angle of weld toe can "e sharp leads to fatigue crac#ing, Excess penetration2 causes4 weld heat input too high! incorrect weld preparation ie,! excessive root gap! thin edge preparation! lac# of "ac#ing! use of electrode unsuited to weld pst! lac# of welder s#ill, Dverlap2 +n imperfection a the toe of the weld caused "$ metal flowing on to the surface of the parent metal without fusing to it, 'auses4 poor electrode manipulation 8--+9! ;igh heat input<low travel speed causing surface flow of fillet weld! incorrect pst of weld, .n fillet weld undercut at top and overlap at "ase is called sagging,

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6inear misalignment2 welder and inspector "oth responsi"le, .t is structural preparation pro"lem, .t increases linear shear stresses at 3oint and induce "ending stress, +ngular distortion2 same as linear .ncompletel$ filled grove2 welder is responsi"le, 'auses4 insufficient weld metal! irregular weld "ead surface, .rregular width2 'auses4 welder e$e sight pr"! severe arc "low, Boot concavit$2 causes4 excessive "ac#ing gas pressure! incorrect prep<fit up! lac# of welder s#ill, Burn through2 insufficient travel speed! excessive welding current! lac# of welder s#ill! excessive grinding of root face! excessive root gap, Stra$ arc2 arc stri#e can produce hard ;+=! which ma$ contain crac#s martensite, Spatter2 high arc current! long arc length! magnetic arc "low! damp electrodes! wrong selection of shielding gas, 7orn surface < grinding mar# < chipping mar# < underflushing < misalignment of opposite runs < temper colour 8visi"le oxide film9

1. DESTRUCTI2E TESTING )estructive 7esting Luantitative 7ests > Lualitative 7ests, Luantitative 7ests -easure a mechanical propert$ such as 7ensile strength! hardness or impact toughness, 'arried out for welding procedure Hualification, a, 7ransverse 7ensile 7est ", +ll weld tensile test c, .mpact toughness test 8charp$ v4notch test! unit @oules9 d, ;ardness testing e, 'rac# 7ip Dpening )isplacement 7est 8'D7)9 Lualitative 7ests to verif$ the 3oint is free from defects! the$ are of sound Hualit$, a, Bend 7est ", 5racture 7est c, -acroscopic examination

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Tra&s.+rs+ T+&s"!+ T+s%s: Welding procedure Hualification alwa$s reHuires this test to show that the strength of the 3oint satisfies the design criteria, 7ensile strength of entire 3oint is measured, 'omponent is to "e cooled for "oth sides, 7ensile Strength or ?ltimate tensile strength G .f load is in MN then! load G MN x %000 G N 7he test is intended to measure the tensile strength of the 3oint and there"$ shows the "asis of the design! the "ase metal properties! remains the valid criterion, +cceptance 'riteria2 .f the test piece "rea#s in the weld metal! it is accepta"le provided the calculated strength is not less than the minimum tensile strength specified! which is usuall$ the minimum specified for the "ase metal material grade, Eg2 .f parent metal tensile strength is %000 N<mm& and metal "rea#s from the weld at 9*0 N<mm& it is re3ect, Should "e more than or eHual to %000, +s per +S-E ./ code if parent metal "rea#s at 9(K ie 9(0 N<mm& it is accepta"le, A!! 3+!# %+&s"!+ %+s%s: Specimens are su"3ected to a continuall$ increasing force in the same wa$ that transverse tensile specimens are tested, Nield or proof stress are measure "$ means of extensometer that is attached to the parallel length of the specimen and is a"le to accuratel$ measure the extension of the gauge length as the load is increased, )uctilit$2 +"ilit$ of the material to stretch "efore getting fractured or "rea#, 7ensile ductilit$ in two wa$s! K elongation G change in length x %00 < original length K reduction in area G change in area x %00 < original area

I-0ac% % ,*/&+ss T+s%: 'harp$ A notch test pieces have "ecome the internationall$ accepted method for assessing resistance to "rittle fracture "$ measuring the energ$ to initiate and propagate! a crac# from a sharp notch in a standard si1ed specimen su"3ected to an impact load, 7here are standard dimenstions for smaller si1ed specimens! for example %0 x 7,(mm and %0 x (mm! angle 4( Specimens are machined from welded test plates, Notch pst located in different pst according to testing reHuirements "ut t$picall$ in centre of the weld metal and at pst across ;+=,

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?nit of impact toughness test is E@oules,F 5t4l"s in ?S specification, 7oughness decreases at high temp > low temp, .mpact specimens are tested at a temperature that is related to the design temperature for the fa"ricated component, '4-n and low allo$ steels undergo sharp change in their resistance to "rittle fracture, SS grade %*6 is used to provide good toughness at low temp, 'S has high car"on, )irect "rea#s! high strength, 7ransition2 'hange in state of material, Brittle material fracture 5lat and rough! cr$stalline surface! featureless or smooth! chevron mar#s, )uctile material fracture Bough and torn! shear lips! fi"rous surface! plastic or permanent deformation ta#es place! reduction in area! lateral expansion, +cceptance criteria2 7hree samples are tested and the average value is ta#en, Aalues are compared with those specified "$ application standard or client, +fter this test additional info a"out toughness is provided which can "e added in test report,

(ar#&+ss T+s%"&*: :enerall$ #nown as resistance to scratch, +"ilit$ of material to resist indentation, ;ardness of metal is resistance to plastic deformation, 7his is determined "$ measuring the resistance to indentation "$ a particular t$pe of indenter, 7$pes of methods! i, Aic#ers hardness test sHuare "ased diamond p$ramid indenter ii, Boc#well hardness test )iamond cone indenter or steel "all iii, Brinell hardness test Ball indenter 8mainl$ used to measure hardness of "ase metal! tungsten "all usuall$ used,9

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readings in ;A! ;B! ;BA specimen used for macroscopic examination can "e used for hardness testing, ;E= will give maximum hardness,